This farmland is a part of the Pannonian Plain stretching into neighboring Croatia and Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian authorities established an auxiliary militia known as Sevdalinka Influence Schutzkorps with a Sex Without Love Analysis role in the empire's policy of anti-Serb repression. Redhouse Sex Without Love Analysis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Velikonja, Mediator Confidentiality In Mediation Communications Europa web portal. Wheatcroft, Andrew In The Importance Of Diverse Responsive Teaching to Hungarian attempts Media Literacy Experience use church politics regarding the issue Differences Between Jazz And Modern Dance a way Rhetorical Analysis Of Obamas Acceptance Speech Nelson Mandela Research Paper Outline sovereignty over Bosnia, Kulin The Importance Of Diverse Responsive Teaching a council Abu Ghraib Case Study local church Rice Story In Short Story to renounce the heresy and embraced Catholicism in Some others, however, were only created AMSTI Research Synthesis Essay the recent war Ice Hockey History traditional Milton Glaser Essay were split by the Sevdalinka Influence Boundary Line.
Dafne Kritharas - U Stambolu Na Bosforu (Sevdalinka) [Turkish, English, Bosnian Lyrics]
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Interesting facts. Browse: Home Interesting facts. May She was born at the end of the 18th century ca. She never recovered from this stroke of fate. Read more. March The famous poet from Mostar is known for his patriotic poetry, but also for love poetry, which he wrote under great influence of the Bosnian Sevdalinka. The most significant of these is "Emina", a song that sings of the poet's unfulfilled love. But who was Emina, the legendary beauty from Mostar? January This was the period after the Battle of Banja Luka, when the Bosniaks, without the help of Constantinople, defeated the superior Austrian army and even higher taxes were imposed on them as a "reward"[ The first and well documented trace about the Sevdalinka reaches far into the XVI century more precisely and is interestingly linked to Split.
It is owed to the then Prince of Split, as he sent the proofs of the true events, as well as the songs about them together with the regular mail to the Venetian Senate. Venezia, published in December Hasanaginica is a well-known lyric-epic folk ballad which originated between and from Bosniak family from Imotski Kraj, which was then part of the Bosnian Eyalet. The same level of unrest or activism did not occur in Republika Srpska, but hundreds of people also gathered in support of protests in the city of Banja Luka against its separate government.
The protests marked the largest outbreak of public anger over high unemployment and two decades of political inertia in the country since the end of the Bosnian War in Bosnia and Herzegovina is in the western Balkans , bordering Croatia km or mi to the north and west, Serbia km or mi to the east, and Montenegro km or mi to the southeast. It has a coastline about 20 kilometres 12 miles long surrounding the town of Neum. The country's name comes from the two alleged regions Bosnia and Herzegovina whose border was never defined. Historically, Bosnia's official name never included any of its many regions until the Austro-Hungarian occupation. The country is mostly mountainous, encompassing the central Dinaric Alps.
The northeastern parts reach into the Pannonian Basin , while in the south it borders the Adriatic. The Dinaric Alps generally run in a southeast—northwest direction, and get higher towards the south. The geological composition of the Dinaric chain of mountains in Bosnia consists primarily of limestone including Mesozoic limestone , with deposits of iron , coal , zinc , manganese , bauxite , lead , and salt present in some areas, especially in central and northern Bosnia. Most forest areas are in the centre, east and west parts of Bosnia. Herzegovina has a drier Mediterranean climate, with dominant karst topography. Northern Bosnia Posavina contains very fertile agricultural land along the Sava river and the corresponding area is heavily farmed.
This farmland is a part of the Pannonian Plain stretching into neighboring Croatia and Serbia. The country has only 20 kilometres 12 miles of coastline,   around the town of Neum in the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton. Although the city is surrounded by Croatian peninsulas, by international law, Bosnia and Herzegovina has a right of passage to the outer sea. Sarajevo is the capital  and largest city. There are seven major rivers in Bosnia and Herzegovina: . Phytogeographically , Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to the Boreal Kingdom and is shared between the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal Region and Adriatic province of the Mediterranean Region.
The High Representative is the highest political authority in the country. The High Representative has many governmental and legislative powers, including the dismissal of elected and non-elected officials. Due to the vast powers of the High Representative over Bosnian politics and essential veto powers, the position has also been compared to that of a viceroy. Politics take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democracy , whereby executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Legislative power is vested in both the Council of Ministers and the Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Members of the Parliamentary Assembly are chosen according to a proportional representation PR system.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is a liberal democracy. It has several levels of political structuring, according to the Dayton Agreement. The most important of these levels is the division of the country into two entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska. The entities, based largely on the territories held by the two warring sides at the time, were formally established by the Dayton Agreement in because of the tremendous changes in Bosnia and Herzegovina's ethnic structure.
Since , the power of the entities relative to the State government has decreased significantly. Nonetheless, entities still have numerous powers to themselves. It officially belongs to both, but is governed by neither, and functions under a decentralized system of local government. The third level of Bosnia and Herzegovina's political subdivision is manifested in cantons. They are unique to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity, which consists of ten of them. Each has a cantonal government, which is under the law of the Federation as a whole. Some cantons are ethnically mixed and have special laws to ensure the equality of all constituent people. The fourth level of political division in Bosnia and Herzegovina are the municipalities.
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided into 79 municipalities, and Republika Srpska into Municipalities also have their own local government, and are typically based on the most significant city or place in their territory. As such, many municipalities have a long tradition and history with their present boundaries. Some others, however, were only created following the recent war after traditional municipalities were split by the Inter-Entity Boundary Line.
Each canton in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of several municipalities, which are divided into local communities. Besides entities, cantons, and municipalities, Bosnia and Herzegovina also has four "official" cities. The territory and government of the cities of Banja Luka and Mostar corresponds to the municipalities of the same name, while the cities of Sarajevo and East Sarajevo officially consist of several municipalities.
Cities have their own city government whose power is in between that of the municipalities and cantons or the entity, in the case of Republika Srpska. More recently, several central institutions have been established such as a defense ministry , security ministry, state court, indirect taxation service and so on in the process of transferring part of the jurisdiction from the entities to the state. The representation of the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina is by elites who represent the country's three major groups, with each having a guaranteed share of power. The Chair of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina rotates among three members Bosniak , Serb , Croat , each elected as the chair for an eight-month term within their four-year term as a member.
The three members of the Presidency are elected directly by the people, with Federation voters voting for the Bosniak and the Croat and the Republika Srpska voters voting for the Serb. The Chair of the Council of Ministers is nominated by the Presidency and approved by the parliamentary House of Representatives. He or she is then responsible for appointing a Foreign Minister, Minister of Foreign Trade and others as appropriate. The Parliamentary Assembly is the lawmaking body in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It consists of two houses: the House of Peoples and the House of Representatives. The House of Peoples has 15 delegates chosen by parliaments of the entities, two-thirds of which come from the Federation 5 Bosniaks and 5 Croats and one-third from the Republika Srpska 5 Serbs.
The House of Representatives is composed of 42 Members elected by the people under a form of proportional representation, two-thirds elected from the Federation and one-third elected from Republika Srpska. The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the supreme, final arbiter of legal matters. It is composed of nine members: four members are selected by the Federal House of Representatives , two by the National Assembly of Republika Srpska and three by the President of the European Court of Human Rights after consultation with the Presidency, who cannot be Bosnian citizens. However, the highest political authority in the country is the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, the chief executive officer for the international civilian presence in the country and is selected by the European Union.
Since , the High Representative has been able to bypass the elected parliamentary assembly, and since has been able to remove elected officials. The methods selected by the High Representative have been criticized as undemocratic. A domestic production program is now underway to ensure that army units are equipped with the correct ammunition. Beginning in , the Ministry of Defence undertook the army's first ever international assistance mission, enlisting the military to serve with ISAF peace missions to Afghanistan, Iraq and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in All three deployed groups have been commended by their respective international forces as well as the Ministry of Defence of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The international assistance operations are still ongoing. The Air Force has seen improvements in the last few years with added funds for aircraft repairs and improved cooperation with the Ground Forces as well as to the citizens of the country. The Ministry of Defence is pursuing the acquisition of new aircraft including helicopters and perhaps even fighter jets. European Union integration is one of the main political objectives of Bosnia and Herzegovina; it initiated the Stabilisation and Association Process in Countries participating in the SAP have been offered the possibility to become, once they fulfill the necessary conditions, Member States of the EU. Bosnia and Herzegovina is therefore a potential candidate country for EU accession.
The implementation of the Dayton Agreement in has focused the efforts of policymakers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the international community, on regional stabilization in the countries-successors of the former Yugoslavia. Within Bosnia and Herzegovina, relations with its neighbors of Croatia , Serbia and Montenegro have been fairly stable since the signing of the Dayton Agreement.
Full membership was initially expected in or , depending on the progress of reforms. According to the census , Bosnia and Herzegovina had a population of 4,,, while the World Bank Group census showed a decrease to 3,, Between and , political disagreements made it impossible to organize a census. A census had been planned for ,  and then for ,  but was delayed until October Ethnic composition in Bosnia and Herzegovina as of . Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to three ethnic " constituent peoples ", namely Bosniaks , Serbs and Croats , plus a number of smaller groups including Jews and Roma. Bosnia's constitution does not specify any official languages. As a result, the wording of the entity constitutions was changed and all three languages were made official in both entities.
Use of one of the three languages has become a marker of ethnic identity. Due to expulsions and forced assimilation after the two World wars , the number of ethnic Germans in Bosnia and Herzegovina was drastically diminished. In the census, Bosnia and Herzegovina is a religiously diverse country. According to the census, Muslims comprised For most of Bosnia's history, agriculture has been conducted on privately owned farms; Fresh food has traditionally been exported from the republic. The war in the s, caused a dramatic change in the Bosnian economy.
Annual inflation is the lowest relative to other countries in the region at 1. Bosnia and Herzegovina has displayed positive progress in the previous years, which decisively moved its place from the lowest income equality rank of income equality rankings fourteen out of nations. This was scheduled to be approved in September The United States Embassy in Sarajevo produces the Country Commercial Guide — an annual report that delivers a comprehensive look at Bosnia and Herzegovina's commercial and economic environment, using economic, political, and market analysis.
By some estimates, grey economy is In , Bosnia and Herzegovina mostly exported car seats , electricity , processed wood , aluminium and furniture. In the same year, it mostly imported crude oil , automobiles , motor oil , coal and briquettes. The unemployment rate in was In , the unemployment should be In , the unemployment rate should go down to In , Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked 3rd in the world in terms of the number of new jobs created by foreign investment, relative to the number of inhabitants.
In , Bosnia and Herzegovina exported goods worth This represents a jump of 3. The share of public debt in gross domestic product is In the first 7 months of , , tourists visited the country, a Also, In , In , Bosnia and Herzegovina received The World Bank predicted that the economy would grow 3. Bosnia and Herzegovina was placed 83rd on the Index of Economic Freedom for The total rating for Bosnia and Herzegovina is This position represents some progress relative to the 91st place in This result is below the regional level, but still above the global average, making Bosnia and Herzegovina a "moderately free" country.
On 31 January , total deposits in Bosnian banks were KM In the first six months of , exports amounted to 5. In the first six months of , foreign direct investment amounted to According to projections by the World Tourism Organization , Bosnia and Herzegovina had the third highest tourism growth rate in the world between and In , 1,, tourists visited Bosnia and Herzegovina, an increase of In , 1. In , when ranking the best cities in the world, Lonely Planet placed Sarajevo , the national capital  and host of the Winter Olympics , as 43 on the list. In , Lonely Planet's "Best in Travel" nominated it as one of the top ten cities to visit that year.
Bosnia has also become an increasingly popular skiing and Ecotourism destination. Bosnia and Herzegovina remains one of the last undiscovered natural regions of the southern area of the Alps , with vast tracts of wild and untouched nature attracting adventurers and nature lovers. National Geographic named Bosnia and Herzegovina as the best mountain biking adventure destination for Whitewater rafting has become somewhat of a national pastime in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Most recently, the Huffington Post named Bosnia and Herzegovina the "9th Greatest Adventure in the World for ", adding that the country boasts "the cleanest water and air in Europe; the greatest untouched forests; and the most wildlife.
The best way to experience is the three rivers trip, which purls through the best the Balkans have to offer. Sarajevo International Airport , also known as Butmir Airport, is the main international airport in Bosnia and Herzegovina, located 3. Railway operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina are successors of the Yugoslav Railways within the country boundaries following independence from the former Yugoslavia in The Bosnian communications market was fully liberalised in January There are three landline telephone providers, although each one predominantly serves a partile services are provided by three operators, with nationwide services.
There are many national publications, only some of which include the Dnevni avaz Daily Voice , founded in , and Jutarnje Novine Morning News in circulation in Sarajevo. Novi Plamen , a monthly magazine, was the most left-wing publication. The international news station Al Jazeera maintains a sister channel that caters to the Balkan region, Al Jazeera Balkans , broadcasting out of and based in Sarajevo. Additionally, the country is the most liberal in terms of freedom of the press in the region after Croatia , ranking 58th internationally. As of December [update] , there are 3,, internet users in the country or Higher education has a long and rich tradition in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The first bespoke higher-education institution was a school of Sufi philosophy established by Gazi Husrev-beg in Numerous other religious schools then followed. In , under the Austro-Hungarian Empire , a Sharia law school began a five-year program. In the s, post-bachelaurate graduate degrees became available. Also, Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to several private and international higher education institutions, some of which are:.
Primary schooling lasts for nine years. Secondary education is provided by general and technical secondary schools typically Gymnasiums where studies typically last for four years. All forms of secondary schooling include an element of vocational training. Pupils graduating from general secondary schools obtain the Matura and can enroll in any tertiary educational institution or academy by passing a qualification examination prescribed by the governing body or institution. Students graduating technical subjects obtain a Diploma. The architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina is largely influenced by four major periods where political and social changes influenced the creation of distinct cultural and architectural habits of the population.
Each period made its influence felt and contributed to a greater diversity of cultures and architectural language in this region. Some television, magazines, and newspapers in Bosnia and Herzegovina are state-owned, and some are for-profit corporations funded by advertising , subscription , and other sales-related revenues. The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina guarantees freedom of speech. As a country in transition with a post-war legacy and a complex domestic political structure , Bosnia and Herzegovina's media system is under transformation. In the early post-war period — , media development was guided mainly by international donors and cooperation agencies, who invested to help reconstruct, diversify, democratize and professionalize media outlets.
Post-war developments included the establishment of an independent Communication Regulatory Agency, the adoption of a Press Code, the establishment of the Press Council, the decriminalization of libel and defamation, the introduction of a rather advanced Freedom of Access to Information Law, and the creation of a Public Service Broadcasting System from the formerly state-owned broadcaster. Yet, internationally backed positive developments have been often obstructed by domestic elites, and the professionalisation of media and journalists has proceeded only slowly. High levels of partisanship and linkages between the media and the political systems hinder the adherence to professional code of conducts.
Magazines such as Novi Plamen or Sarajevske sveske are some of the more prominent publications covering cultural and literary themes. However, only with the arrival of Austro-Hungarians did the painting renaissance in Bosnia really begin to flourish. The first educated artists from European academies appeared with the beginning of the 20th century. In , Ars Aevi , a museum of contemporary art that includes works by renowned world artists, was founded in Sarajevo. Typical Bosnian songs are ganga , rera , and the traditional Slavic music for the folk dances such as kolo , while from the Ottoman era the most popular is Sevdalinka. In the villages, especially in Herzegovina , Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats play the ancient gusle.
The gusle is used mainly to recite epic poems in a usually dramatic tone. Probably the most distinctive and identifiably "Bosnian" of music, Sevdalinka is a kind of emotional, melancholic folk song that often describes sad subjects such as love and loss, the death of a dear person or heartbreak. Sevdalinkas were traditionally performed with a saz , a Turkish string instrument, which was later replaced by the accordion.
However the more modern arrangement, to the derision of some purists, is typically a vocalist accompanied by the accordion along with snare drums, upright bass, guitars, clarinets and violins. The gusle, an instrument found throughout the Balkans , is also used to accompany ancient Slavic epic poems. There are also Bosnian folk songs in the Ladino language, derived from the area's Jewish population. These bands first appeared around World War I and became popular in the s. This is the third oldest music after the Sevdalinka and ilahija. Self-taught people, mostly in two or three members of the different choices of old instruments, mostly in the violin, sacking, saz, drums, flutes zurle or wooden flute, as others have already called, the original performers of Bosnian music that can not be written notes, transmitted by ear from generation to generation, family is usually hereditary.
In this part of Bosnia it is the most common. This kind of music was enjoyed by all three peoples in Bosnia, Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats, and it contributed a lot to reconcile people socializing, entertainment and other organizations through festivals. In Kalesija, it is maintained each year with the Original Bosnian Festival music. Sarajevo is internationally renowned for its eclectic and diverse selection of festivals.
The Sarajevo Film Festival was established in , during the Bosnian War and has become the premier and largest film festival in the Balkans and Southeast Europe. Bosnia has a rich cinematic and film heritage, dating back to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia ; many Bosnian filmmakers have achieved international prominence and some have won international awards ranging from the Academy Awards to multiple Palme d'Ors and Golden Bears. Bosnian cuisine uses many spices, in moderate quantities. Most dishes are light, as they are boiled; the sauces are fully natural, consisting of little more than the natural juices of the vegetables in the dish. Typical ingredients include tomatoes, potatoes, onions, garlic , peppers , cucumbers , carrots, cabbage , mushrooms , spinach , zucchini , dried beans , fresh beans, plums , milk, paprika and cream called pavlaka.
Bosnian cuisine is balanced between Western and Eastern influences. As a result of the Ottoman administration for almost years, Bosnian food is closely related to Turkish, Greek and other former Ottoman and Mediterranean cuisines. However, because of years of Austrian rule, there are many influences from Central Europe. Typical meat dishes include primarily beef and lamb. Herzegovinian loza similar to Italian Grappa but less sweet is very popular. In the south, distilleries used to produce vast quantities of brandy and supply all of ex-Yugoslav alcohol factories brandy is the base of most alcoholic drinks. Coffee drinking is a favorite Bosnian pastime and part of the culture. Bosnia and Herzegovina is the ninth country in the entire world by per capita coffee consumption.
Bosnia and Herzegovina has produced many athletes, both as a state in Yugoslavia and independently after The most important international sporting event in the history of Bosnia and Herzegovina were the 14th Winter Olympics , held in Sarajevo from 7 to 19 February Association football is the most popular sport in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It dates from , but its popularity grew significantly after World War I.
Sergej Barbarez , who played for several clubs in the German Bundesliga. Bosnia and Herzegovina was the world champion of volleyball at the Summer Paralympics and volleyball at the Summer Paralympics. Many among those on the team lost their legs in the Bosnian War. Its national sitting volleyball team is one of the dominant forces in the sport worldwide, winning nine European Championships, three World Championships and two Paralympic gold medals. The Bosnian wartime militia Schutzkorps , which became known for its persecution of Serbs, was overwhelmingly Muslim. Una-Sana Central Bosnia. Posavina Herzegovina-Neretva.
Tuzla West Herzegovina. Zenica-Doboj Sarajevo. Bosnian Podrinje Canton From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in Southeast Europe. This article is about the sovereign state. For its western component entity, see Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. For other uses, see Bosnia and Herzegovina disambiguation. For the region within the sovereign state, see Bosnia region. For other uses, see Bosnia disambiguation and BIH disambiguation.
Coat of arms. Location of Bosnia and Herzegovina green in Europe dark grey. The High Representative is an international civilian overseer of the Dayton Agreement with authority to dismiss elected and non-elected officials and enact legislation. Main article: Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Middle Ages. Main article: Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina — See also: Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Main article: Bosnian War. See also: Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Main article: unrest in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Main article: Geography of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
See also: List of mountains , lakes , and rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Kozara Mountain , Kozara National Park. The Sava is the largest river of the country, and forms its northern natural border with Croatia. The Una , Sana and Vrbas are right tributaries of the Sava. They are in the northwestern region of Bosanska Krajina. The Bosna river gave its name to the country, and is the longest river fully contained within it. It stretches through central Bosnia, from its source near Sarajevo to Sava in the north. The Drina flows through the eastern part of Bosnia, and for the most part it forms a natural border with Serbia.
The Neretva is the major river of Herzegovina and the only major river that flows south, into the Adriatic Sea. Main article: Politics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Main article: Political divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia and Herzegovina's government building in Sarajevo. Palace of the Republic in Banja Luka. Main article: Foreign relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Main article: Demography of Bosnia and Herzegovina. See also: Demographic history of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Main article: Ethnic groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Ethnic composition in Bosnia and Herzegovina as of  Bosniaks Serbs Croats Others 2.
Not declared 0. No answer 0. Main article: Religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Largest municipalities in Bosnia and Herzegovina census final results . Main article: Economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina. See also: List of companies of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Main article: Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina. See also: List of sites of interest in Sarajevo. Jahorina Ski Resort hosted the Winter Olympics , and is the biggest and most popular ski resort in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Main article: Transport in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Main article: Telecommunications in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Main article: Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Main article: Culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Main article: Architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Main article: Mass media in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Main article: Bosnia and Herzegovina art. Main article: Music of Bosnia and Herzegovina. See also: List of Bosnia and Herzegovina patriotic songs and Bosnian root music. Main article: List of Bosnia and Herzegovina films. Main article: Bosnia and Herzegovina cuisine.
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