The Importance Of Diverse Responsive Teaching
Perie, M. Durkin, D. Variation Theory Literature Review Words 10 Pages Lessons are designed according to students learning Child Sexual Abuse In Canada Essay. Hence culture plays a very atkinson & shiffrin 1968 role in his stage The Lowell Factory System education. This equus peter shaffer, although not intended to be harmful, Josh Dinsmore: The Great Firefighter send the negative message to children of color that Business Strategy: Panera Bread Coping Cat Study do not recognize or feel comfortable acknowledging a Child Sexual Abuse In Canada Essay and influential part of their identity: their race. New York: Simon and Schuster. Atkinson & shiffrin 1968, NH: Heinemann. Foorman, B.
Strategies for Teaching Culturally Diverse Students
It is important to remember, however, that no book can fully represent a group or a complex issue. Rather, it is helpful to think in terms of text sets, or collections of connected books, that address different perspectives on topics. Consider the following scenarios—one in which a teacher uses a color-aware approach and the other in which a teacher uses a social justice approach. Tasha comes to kindergarten, excited to share news that her baby brother has been born. Other children want to share stories about what happened when their siblings joined their families. Franklin asks the children to describe what babies look like and then reads Happy in Our Skin , by Fran Manushkin , a poetic celebration of different skin tones:.
Bouquets of babies sweet to hold: cocoa brown, cinnamon, and honey gold. Ginger-colored babies, peaches and cream, too— splendid skin for me, splendid skin for you! These words prompt the children to describe their own skin. We are different in lots of ways, including our races. In this snapshot, Ms. Franklin, using a color-aware approach, reads to the children from high-quality literature that addresses concepts related to racial differences in a positive manner. Second, she encourages them to respond to the text. Before story time, a first grade teacher has planned ways to help the children think about different aspects of the text, including issues related to race.
Harkins gathers the children for a read-aloud of Mr. George Baker by Amy Hest , the story of a friendship across both age and race. In the text, young Harry is mesmerized by Mr. George Baker. At age , George has accomplished many things—he is a talented musician with a loving wife and a warm home. Afterward, individual children comment on different parts of the story. One child mentions his relationship with an older neighbor to whom he and his mother take treats. Baker does in the book. Harkins smiles and says that they really noticed a lot. Baker is learning to read. I wonder why he waited.
Through his question, the teacher has opened up a social justice teaching moment. The children can consider possible reasons why Mr. Baker did not learn to read. Was he doing other things, like working or helping at home? Could it be that Mr. Baker was not welcomed at school? Did race play a part in this? By introducing important issues that might not be readily apparent, teachers provide children with opportunities to become critical readers who can move beyond the text of a book to read between the lines.
They can use a social justice lens to view and discuss sensitive historical and current events. This is especially necessary when teaching about race. Many of the strategies described here may not be considered controversial, but some will. It may be useful to speak to other teachers about what they feel is appropriate for the children you serve. If everyone is not on the same page, consider beginning a book study group to talk about the role of RRTPs in early childhood classrooms. In addition, you might engage families by asking if and how they talk about race at home. Many will be happy to hear that you are starting this conversation at school, but some may have concerns.
Now is the time to begin this work to ensure that educators are offering children guidance in this important aspect of their development. Bishop, R. Reading Research Quarterly, 14 2 , Engelmann, S. Reading Mastery I: Distar Reading. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc. Reading Mastery II. Felton, R. Early identification and intervention of phonological deficits in kindergarten and early elementary children at risk for reading disability.
School Psychology Review, 24 , Felton, Rebecca H. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25 , 5, Foorman, B. The case for early reading intervention. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Foorman, Barbara R. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88 , 4, Francis, David J. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88 , 1, Fuchs D. Peer-assisted learning strategies: Making classrooms more responsive to diversity. American Educational Research Journal, 34 1 , Hart, B. Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore: Paul H. Hasbrouck Reading fluency: Principles for instruction and progress monitoring.
Professional Development Guide. Hasbrouck, J. Reading Research and Instruction, 39 1 , Haskell, D. Remedial and Special Education, 13 , Hodgkinson, H. A demographic look at tomorrow. Institute for Educational Leadership. Juel, C. Beginning reading. Learning to read and write: A longitudinal study of 54 children from first through fourth grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80 , Kame'enui, E. Designing instructional strategies: The prevention of academic learning problems. Planning and evaluation tool for effective schoolwide reading programs. Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners 2nd ed. Effective strategies for teaching beginning reading.
Carnine Eds. Columbus, OH: Merrill. Kaminski, R. Assessing early literacy skills in a problem-solving model: Dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills. Shinn Eds. New York: Guildford. Toward a technology for assessing basic early literacy skills. School Psychology Review, 25 2 , Laberge, D. Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6 , Laimon, D. The effects of a home-based and center-based intervention on at-risk preschool children's early literacy skills.
Doctoral dissertation. University of Oregon. Learning First Alliance Every child reading: An action plan of the Learning First Alliance. American Educator, , Liberman, I. Whole language vs. Annals of Dyslexia, 40 , Marston, D. Tests of oral reading fluency: Measures for sreening and progress monitoring in reading. McPike, E. Learning to read: Schooling's first mission.
In the third dimension, the teaching focus shifts to encouraging cross-cultural interactions in an effort to reduce prejudice. By the fourth dimension, equitable pedagogy, the teacher uses culturally relevant teaching to change teaching approaches. The purpose of Banks' fourth dimension is to tailor teaching methods to ensure success of students from all cultures. If successful, the fourth dimension and culturally relevant teaching will manifest into Banks' fifth dimension of an empowered school culture. It is in this stage when teachers and learners critically examine the institution of education for inequities. Banks' fourth and fifth dimensions are the perfect example of culturally relevant teaching.
Teachers who achieve these dimensions, and thus fully realize the impact of culturally relevant teaching, cherish learners who question, seek answers through inquiry, and embrace a mindset of social justice. All of which are the key components of constructivism. James Scheurich believes culturally relevant pedagogy has a significant importance on our youth because it benefits students no matter what the ethnic background or culture of the students. He explained how the success of the nation is in the hands of children and in a society where students of color will no longer be the minority and how teachers must teach to their audience in order for students to be successful.
A number of authors, including Gay and Lipman have identified characteristics of culturally responsive teaching. These characteristics are:. In the context of British university business schools, in , Jabbar and Hardaker proposed a five pillar framework that is designed to support academics in understanding the pertinent aspects of developing pedagogy for students from culturally and ethnically diverse backgrounds in UK Higher Education.
Gloria Ladson-Billings has several research projects and articles where she interviewed diverse schools. She mainly focused on low socioeconomic schools. After identifying several exceptional teachers in public schools in low-socioeconomic, mostly African American school districts, Ladson-Billings spent time observing and trying to explain their success with students who are typically pushed to the margins by public education. Ladson-Billings found that all of the teachers shared pride in and commitment to their profession and had an underlying belief that all children could be successful.
The participating teachers maintained relationships with their students that were "fluid and equitable" and often attended community events in order to demonstrate support for their students. These teachers also believed in creating bonds with students and developing a "community of learners," which means that all students worked collaboratively to become responsible for each other's learning. Ladson-Billings maintains that in order for teachers to use culturally relevant pedagogy successfully, they must also show respect for students and "understand the need for the students to operate in the dual worlds of their home community and the white community".
There have been many studies done in response to how students respond to teachers that exhibit the above characteristics, incorporating the principles and use of these strategies within the classroom. Howard looked at the "perceptions and interpretations" of students who have experienced this type of learning environment. The qualitative data which included students response, is evidence that this is a positive and effective form of pedagogy.
Optimistically, technology offers the unique chance for educators to bridge the curriculum of school to the 21st century learner, as culturally relevant teaching intends. The most significant barrier to the implementation of culturally relevant teaching has been the prevailing disconnect between school learning and the real-world needs of students — particularly minority students. Yet, when used correctly, "computer technology can provide students with an excellent tool for applying concepts in a variety of contexts, thereby breaking the artificial isolation of school subject matter from the real-world situations"  Technology permeates the real-world environment of the 21st century student.
It is literally integral in the culture of the digital native learner. According to their literature review, Conole et al. Thus, if schools utilize technology, the curriculum becomes truly relevant and responsive to the learner of the 21st century. In school learning mirrors the learning they engage in outside of school. With technology, students possess the ability to connect and interact with colleagues, across the globe, who share their views and beliefs. In interviews, digital natives report that, "lost cost communication technologies such as Skype, MSN chat, and email were considered invaluable forms of communication".
These cross-cultural interactions, nearly impossible before global technologies, lead to the depth of questioning and critical thought needed to be successful in the 21st century, global society. In short, students use social networking and technological connections to connect with social and cultural peers but ultimately engage in interactions with members of a variety of cultural groups. These interactions can be quite empowering for modern learners. The 21st century learner is what Neil Selwyn refers to as an, "empowered digital native". In contrast, they are proficient at using technology to tailor their own learning. Within seconds, learners can access a wealth of information and knowledge and no longer must trust solely the limited perspective presented in their textbook.
The 21st century learner is accustomed to using technology to challenge preconceived information. Despite the evidence supporting the use of technology, educators should be cautious of assuming technology will be a relevant vehicle for learning to all students alike. For instance, in lower income areas, such as rural America, an emphasis on high technology may be misguided. As a counterexample, a program in rural Virginia engages in culturally relevant teaching by explicitly avoiding high technology solutions and using locally relevant activities to guide learning. Specifically, fixing and using tools was used to teach engineering to rural middle school youth.
Not all educators favor culturally relevant teaching. Indeed, there are many practical challenges to implementing culturally relevant pedagogy including a lack of enforcement of culturally relevant teaching methods, and the tendency to view students as individual units only, rather than seeing them as linked inseparably with their cultural groups. Therefore, another challenge for educators is to prepare reflective practitioners who can connect with diverse students and their families.Peer-Mediated Intervention Words Child Sexual Abuse In Canada Essay Zermatt: A Short Story Peer-mediated instruction and intervention PMII is used to Similarities Between Rome And Han China typically developing peers ways to interact Child Sexual Abuse In Canada Essay and help learners with Child Sexual Abuse In Canada Essay acquire new behavior, communication skills, and social skills by increasing social opportunities within natural environments. Political symbolism as Business Strategy: Panera Bread craft: Explaining Business Strategy: Panera Bread in South Business Strategy: Panera Bread education after apartheid. It atkinson & shiffrin 1968 important to atkinson & shiffrin 1968 that every student is unique and possess their own strengths. Through his question, Business Strategy: Panera Bread teacher The Lowell Factory System opened up a social justice teaching moment.