Theories Of Management

Friday, February 25, 2022 12:42:25 AM

Theories Of Management



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Leadership Theories

These are:. Related: Henri Fayol Contribution to Management The third branch devoted itself to the study of the behavioral part of management and the control and motivation of the human resources for securing sustained and high-level of efficiency. This aspect of management shot into prominence with the now famous Hawthorne Experiments during the s. The pioneer in this field was Mary Parker Follett who was working in the U. Related: 14 Management Principles of Henri Fayol. Theories help us by organizing information and providing a systematic framework for action. A theory also works as a blueprint or a roadmap for guiding the manager towards achieving goals.

The history of management theories can help a manager to be aware of the many insights, ideas and scientific underpinnings that have gone into the making of modern management and the burgeoning of writings on management at the present day. We have already seen that although the practice of management started when man first attempted to accomplish goals by working together in groups, the systematic study of management began at the age of the Industrial Revolution which ushered in a new era of serious thinking and theorizing the management. At this stage, it is considered important and worthwhile to have some knowledge of the background of the evolution of modern management thought, for then the growth of modem thinking on management can be appreciated as the fruit of a long-going historical process and development.

However, to help put the different theories in perspective, we shall discuss them as representing different schools of management thought. It has come through a process of evolution when a lot of changes have occurred in nature and approaches and even in the understanding of Modern Management Theories. In fact, a host of scholars from various disciplines have profusely contributed towards the development of Modern Management Theories. It has reached its position through the efforts of men working on its behalf over centuries. It stands tall because it stands on the shoulders of past theoreticians and scholars in various fields. It is important for managers to understand these different theories and know how to implement them, while also realizing past management theories don't always tell the whole picture when it comes to effective leadership.

This one is a classic. Taylor's scientific theory poses some fascinating questions by diving deeper into the efficiency of work processes. Taylor was an engineer, and he experimented in various ways to determine the most efficient and effective ways to get tasks done. On the surface, this theory held great value. The scientific theory aimed to make work more efficient. Unfortunately, the theory had some major flaws as well. Taylor created four principles of his scientific management theory. First, each task should be studied to determine the most efficient way to do the task. This disrupts traditional work processes. Second, workers should be matched to jobs that align with both their abilities and motivation. Third, workers should be monitored closely to ensure they only follow best working practices.

Fourth, managers should spend time training employees and planning for future needs. There are a few positives of this theory. Maximizing efficiency is a great idea. Assigning workers to jobs based on their abilities and motivation levels is also an interesting idea that could have beneficial effects in some areas. Major flaws in the theory include the de-emphasis on teamwork. An incredible focus on specific and individualized tasks eliminates creative problem-solving and makes teamwork obsolete. The scientific management theory also encourages micromanagement that could drive today's employees crazy.

Fayol developed six functions of management that work in conjunction with 14 management principles. This theory has a few core ideas that live on today, but you'll rarely find a workplace swearing by Fayol's 14 principles. Some people combine forecasting and planning into one function, simplifying the theory down to five functions. The functions are straightforward, with Fayol saying managers need to plan for the future, organize necessary resources, direct employees, work collaboratively and control employees to make sure everyone follows necessary commands.

There are quality aspects of this theory. Remembering all 14 principles can be challenging and makes more sense for a test on management than an entrepreneur running their business, but the principles apply in today's workforce. Things like equity and remuneration are important aspects of management. Other principles, like scalar chain, aren't always necessary. Some businesses find success without clear hierarchies, and the organizational setup depends largely on the business and the size of the company. Weber created the bureaucratic theory, which says an organization will be most efficient if it uses a bureaucratic structure.

Weber's ideal business uses standard rules and procedures to organize itself. He believed this strategy was especially effective for large operations. Elements of this theory make sense. Some rules and standards are certainly necessary within every organization. On the other hand, it's not easy to implement many of these ideas. The theory and practice don't line up. It's almost impossible to keep emotions out of business decisions, and sometimes emotions are needed.

If your company offers three months of paternity leave , but a new mother has complications with her baby near the end of those three months, some managers may offer another few weeks at home to care for the child. With Weber's mindset, a manager would coldly ask her to return to work after three months like everyone else. Emotions shouldn't always dictate decisions, but the best managers can relate to their employees on a personal level. In stark contrast to Weber's bureaucratic theory of management, the human relations theory emphasizes relationships. Mayo believed that productivity increases when people feel like they are part of a team and valued by their co-workers.

The human relations theory emphasizes praise and teamwork as motivational factors. This is basically the opposite of the bureaucratic theory. While emphasizing personal factors is a good idea, there can be too much of a good thing. Valuing relationships above all else can lead to tricky situations like office romances and promotions based on personality rather than job accomplishments.

A happy medium between the bureaucratic theory and human relations theory might be a better goal for managers. Some rules are necessary, but you shouldn't dehumanize employees either. The systems theory of management believes that each business is a system, much like a living organism, with numerous things going on to keep the operation rolling along. Goals assist us to properly focus and work towards achieving the things that are important to us.

This theory is based on the premise that a person will be more motivated to perform if they have clear and specific goals and objectives. According to this theory, high performance can only come from clear expectations Pynes , p. Personal goal setting enables a person to plan and therefore live life in their own way. By setting goals that are both challenging and achievable, a person will have a clear idea of what needs to be done and will be motivated to work towards the set goals.

A person will therefore avoid wasting time on activities that do not assist in the fulfillment of the desirable goals. In many work environments, we are required to work with other people to achieve desired goals. This is especially so in a group setting where conflicts among or between group members can cause decreased productivity and lead to time being wasted. Harris reveals that the Johari Window developed by Joseph Lufh and Harry Ingham can be a good time management tool. The Johari window is a model of communication that can help people build trust and confidence by facilitating open self expression as well as feedback from peers Harris , p.

This will eliminate potential conflict and enable the group to engage in productive work. From this, more time can be allocated to these productive activities at the expense of the time wasting activities. In order to use ones times more effectively, we need to be able to say no to additional tasks from other people that stop us from completing out tasks. To do this, a person needs to be assertive. Turner cited in Cole , p. Being assertive will assist managers to better utilize their time since they will say no to non-critical requests that derail them from following their schedule.

In an attempt to improve my time management, I applied these theories in my every day life. My aim was to increase my study efficiency by creating more time. I began by coming up with an activity log which revealed to me that my current study time was less than 2hours a day. From the activity log, I was able to discover that TV and the Internet were the two activities which took up a significant amount of my time. In week one, I made use of the Bucket of Rocks Theory to come up with a list of the important activities that I engage in. I used this theory together with the Time management Grid.

I began by listing down the important tasks that I engaged in the big rocks and then the less important things until I got to the least important. I realized that most of the times I failed to give due attention to the big stuff since I did not recognize them. Applying the Bucket of Rocks Theory helped me to pay more attention to these activities and give less attention and effort to the less important tasks. In using the time management grid, I developed a grid and filled it with the tasks that I was supposed to accomplish. This grid enabled me to see the tasks that were of great importance to me. By using the Time Management Grid, I was able to identify activities which fall in the first quadrant.

This helped me to overcome procrastination since this tool enabled me to see what things I should be focusing on at the moment. By utilizing this, I avoided the temptation to put off important things for things that is more enjoyable or that I was more comfortable doing. I came up with a list of my daily tasks and assigned them priorities A, B or C. I then rearranged them in order from highest to lowest priority. The ABC system greatly assisted me since I could now see what tasks needed immediate attention.

In the past, I had a habit of writing down a list of things in a random order. An important observation I made while using this theory was that I no longer rushed to beat deadlines since the system helped me to complete the important tasks before the deadline reached. This increased my productivity since I could dedicate enough time to the important tasks. I also came up with a list of goals to achieve in the second week. This was by utilizing the goal setting theory which proposes that productivity is increased when a person has well defined goals Pynes Previously, I went through each day without any real plan and worked to beat deadlines.

Goal setting enabled me to overcome this since I now had a clear ideal of what I wanted to achieve on each day. I discovered that the goal helped me optimize my time since I was motivated to beat the deadlines that I had set for myself. In the third week, I applied the Inventory System. In so doing, I reviewed the manner in which I had been using my time in the previous two weeks and made an analysis of the same. A major observation that I made was that I spent too much time interacting with other people. While this can be a positive thing, Cole states that high levels of interaction between people at work have the potential to decrease personal effectiveness.

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