Confederate Flag Controversy

Thursday, October 28, 2021 9:13:05 AM

Confederate Flag Controversy

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Confederate flag controversy amid S.C. grieving

It resembles the Yankee flag , and that is enough to make it unutterably detestable. They resemble too closely the dishonored ' Flag of Yankee Doodle ' … we imagine that the ' Battle Flag ' will become the Southern Flag by popular acclaim. Thompson , the editor of the Savannah-based Daily Morning News also objected to the flag, due to its aesthetic similarity to the U. Thompson stated in April that he disliked the adopted flag "on account of its resemblance to that of the abolition despotism against which we are fighting. Over the course of the flag's use by the CSA, additional stars were added to the canton, eventually bringing the total number to thirteen-a reflection of the Confederacy's claims of having admitted the border states of Kentucky and Missouri , where slavery was still widely practiced.

Many different designs were proposed during the solicitation for a second Confederate national flag, nearly all based on the Battle Flag. By , it had become well-known and popular among those living in the Confederacy. The Confederate Congress specified that the new design be a white field " The flag is also known as the Stainless Banner , and the matter of the person behind its design remains a point of contention. On April 23, , the Savannah Morning News editor William Tappan Thompson, with assistance from William Ross Postell, a Confederate blockade runner, published an editorial championing a design featuring the battle flag on a white background he referred to later as "The White Man's Flag. Beauregard , "whose earlier penchant for practicality had established the precedent for visual distinctiveness on the battlefield, proposed that 'a good design for the national flag would be the present battle-flag as Union Jack, and the rest all white or all blue' The final version of the second national flag, adopted May 1, , did just this: it set the St.

Andrew's Cross of stars in the Union Jack with the rest of the civilian banner entirely white. The Confederate Congress debated whether the white field should have a blue stripe and whether it should be bordered in red. William Miles delivered a speech supporting the simple white design that was eventually approved. He argued that the battle flag must be used, but it was necessary to emblazon it for a national flag, but as simply as possible, with a plain white field. Gray proposed the amendment that gave the flag its white field. Regardless of who truly originated the Stainless Banner's design, whether by heeding Thompson's editorials or Beauregard's letter, the Confederate Congress officially adopted the Stainless Banner on May 1, The flags that were actually produced by the Richmond Clothing Depot used the 1.

Initial reaction to the second national flag was favorable, but over time it became criticized for being "too white. Due to the flag's resemblance to one of truce, some Confederate soldiers cut off the flag's white portion, leaving only the canton. The third national flag also called the "Blood-Stained Banner" was adopted March 4, The red vertical bar was proposed by Major Arthur L. Rogers, who argued that the pure white field of the Second National flag could be mistaken as a flag of truce: when hanging limp in no wind, the flag's "Southern Cross" canton could accidentally stay hidden, so the flag could mistakenly appear all white.

Rogers lobbied successfully to have this alteration introduced in the Confederate Senate. He defended his redesign as having "as little as possible of the Yankee blue", and described it as symbolizing the primary origins of the people of the Confederacy, with the saltire of the Scottish flag and the red bar from the flag of France. The Flag Act of , passed by the Confederate congress near the very end of the War, describes the flag in the following language:. The Congress of the Confederate States of America do enact, That the flag of the Confederate States shall be as follows: The width two-thirds of its length, with the union now used as the battle flag to be in width three-fifths of the width of the flag, and so proportioned as to leave the length of the field on the side of the union twice the width of the field below it; to have the ground red and a broad blue saltire thereon, bordered with white and emblazoned with mullets or five pointed stars, corresponding in number to that of the Confederate States; the field to be white, except the outer half from the union to be a red bar extending the width of the flag.

Very few of these third national flags were actually manufactured and put into use in the field, with many Confederates never seeing the flag. Moreover, the ones made by the Richmond Clothing Depot used the square canton of the second national flag rather than the slightly rectangular one that was specified by the law. Flag of Alabama obverse January 11, Flag of Alabama reverse January 11, Flag of Arkansas No flag [note 5]. Flag of Florida September 13, Flag of Georgia de facto [note 6]. Flag of Louisiana February 11, Flag of Mississippi March 30, Flag of North Carolina June 22, Flag of South Carolina January 26, Flag of Tennessee de facto [note 7]. Flag of Texas January 25, Flag of Virginia April 30, At the First Battle of Manassas , near Manassas, Virginia , the similarity between the "Stars and Bars" and the "Stars and Stripes" caused confusion and military problems.

Regiments carried flags to help commanders observe and assess battles in the warfare of the era. At a distance, the two national flags were hard to tell apart. After the battle, General P. Beauregard wrote that he was "resolved then to have [our flag] changed if possible, or to adopt for my command a 'Battle flag', which would be Entirely different from any State or Federal flag". Miles described his rejected national flag design to Beauregard. Miles also told the Committee on the Flag and Seal about the general's complaints and request that the national flag be changed.

The committee rejected the idea by a four-to-one vote, after which Beauregard proposed the idea of having two flags. He described the idea in a letter to his commanding General Joseph E. Johnston :. I wrote to [Miles] that we should have 'two' flags — a 'peace' or parade flag, and a 'war' flag to be used only on the field of battle — but congress having adjourned no action will be taken on the matter — How would it do us to address the War Dept.

We would then on the field of battle know our friends from our Enemies. The flag that Miles had favored when he was chairman of the "Committee on the Flag and Seal" eventually became the battle flag and, ultimately, the Confederacy's most popular flag. According to Museum of the Confederacy Director John Coski, Miles' design was inspired by one of the many "secessionist flags" flown at the South Carolina secession convention in Charleston of December That flag was a blue St George's Cross an upright or Latin cross on a red field, with 15 white stars on the cross, representing the slave-holding states, [35] [36] and, on the red field, palmetto and crescent symbols. Miles received various feedback on this design, including a critique from Charles Moise, a self-described "Southerner of Jewish persuasion.

The number of stars was changed several times as well. He described these changes and his reasons for making them in early The diagonal cross was preferable, he wrote, because "it avoided the religious objection about the cross from the Jews and many Protestant sects , because it did not stand out so conspicuously as if the cross had been placed upright thus. According to Coski, the Saint Andrew's Cross also used on the flag of Scotland as a white saltire on a blue field had no special place in Southern iconography at the time.

If Miles had not been eager to conciliate the Southern Jews, his flag would have used the traditional upright " Saint George's Cross " as used on the flag of England , a red cross on a white field. James B. Walton submitted a battle flag design essentially identical to Miles' except with an upright Saint George's cross, but Beauregard chose the diagonal cross design. Miles' flag and all the flag designs up to that point were rectangular "oblong" in shape.

General Johnston suggested making it square to conserve material. Johnston also specified the various sizes to be used by different types of military units. The 12th star represented Missouri. President Jefferson Davis arrived by train at Fairfax Station soon after and was shown the design for the new battle flag at the Ratcliffe House. Hetty Cary and her sister and cousin made prototypes. Lee 's newly reorganized Army of Northern Virginia received the new battle flags in ceremonies at Centreville and Manassas, Virginia , and carried them throughout the Civil War.

Beauregard gave a speech encouraging the soldiers to treat the new flag with honor and that it must never be surrendered. Many soldiers wrote home about the ceremony and the impression the flag had upon them, the "fighting colors" boosting morale after the confusion at the Battle of First Manassas. From then on, the battle flag grew in its identification with the Confederacy and the South in general. The distance between the stars decreased as the number of states increased, reaching thirteen when the secessionist factions of Kentucky and Missouri joined in late The Army of Northern Virginia battle flag assumed a prominent place post-war when it was adopted as the copyrighted emblem of the United Confederate Veterans.

The square "battle flag" is also properly known as "the flag of the Army of Northern Virginia ". It was sometimes called "Beauregard's flag" or "the Virginia battle flag". The fledgling Confederate States Navy adopted and used several types of flags, banners, and pennants aboard all CSN ships: jacks , battle ensigns , and small boat ensigns, as well as commissioning pennants, designating flags, and signal flags. The First Confederate Navy jacks , in use from to , consisted of a circle of seven to fifteen five-pointed white stars against a field of "medium blue. One seven-star jack still exists today found aboard the captured ironclad CSS Atlanta that is actually "dark blue" in color see illustration below, left.

The Second Confederate Navy Jack was a rectangular cousin of the Confederate Army's battle flag and was in use from until It existed in a variety of dimensions and sizes, despite the CSN's detailed naval regulations. The blue color of the diagonal saltire's "Southern Cross" was much lighter than the battle flag's dark blue. The Command flag of Captain William F. Lynch , flown as ensign of his flagship, CSS Seabird , The first national flag, also known as the Stars and Bars see above , served from to as the Confederate Navy's first battle ensign. It was generally made with a aspect ratio, but a few very wide ratio ensigns still survive today in museums and private collections. As the Confederacy grew, so did the numbers of white stars on the ensign's dark blue canton: seven-, nine-, eleven-, and thirteen-star groupings were typical.

Even a few fourteen- and fifteen-starred ensigns were made to include states expected to secede but never completely joined the Confederacy. The second national flag was later adapted as a naval ensign , using a shorter aspect ratio than the ratio adopted by the Confederate Congress for the national flag. This particular battle ensign was the only example taken around the world, finally becoming the last Confederate flag lowered in the Civil War; this happened aboard the commerce raider CSS Shenandoah in Liverpool, England, on November 7, Hundreds of proposed national flag designs were submitted to the Confederate Congress during competitions to find a First National flag February-May and Second National flag April ; April When the Confederate States of America was founded during the Montgomery Convention that took place on February 4, , a national flag was not selected by the Convention due to not having any proposals.

President Jefferson Davis' inauguration took place under the state flag of Alabama, and the celebratory parade was led by a unit carrying the state flag of Georgia. Realizing that they quickly needed a national banner to represent their sovereignty, the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States set up the Committee on Flag and Seal of which the chairman was William Porcher Miles , who was also the Representative of South Carolina in the Confederate House of Representatives. The Committee began a competition to find a new national flag, with an unwritten deadline being that a national flag had to adopted by March 4, , the date of President Lincoln's inauguration - which would serve to show the world the South was truly sovereign, hundreds of examples were submitted from across the Confederate States, states that were not yet Confederate states i.

Kentucky , and even states in the Union such as New York. Many of the proposed designs paid homage to the Stars and Stripes , due to a nostalgia many of the new Confederate citizens felt towards the Union in early , some of the homages were outright mimicry, whilst others were less obviously inspired by the Stars and Stripes, yet were still intended to pay homage to that flag. Those inspired by the Stars and Stripes were discounted almost immediately by the Committee due to mirroring the Union's flag too closely. While others were wildly different, many of which were very complex and extravagant, these were largely discounted due to the being too complicated and expensive to produce.

The winner of the competition was Nicola Marschall's "Stars and Bars" flag. The "Stars and Bars" flag was only selected by the Congress of March 4, , the day of the deadline, the first flag was produced in rush, due to the date having already been selected to host an official flag-raising ceremony, W. Miles credited the speedy completion of the first "Stars and Bars" flag to "Fair and nimble fingers".

This flag, made of Merino , was raised by Letitia Tyler over the Alabama state capitol. The Congress inspected two other finalist designs on March 4, one was a "Blue ring or circle on a field of red", whilst the other consisted of alternating red and blue stripes with a blue canton containing stars, these two designs were lost, and we only know of them thanks to an letter sent by William Porcher Miles to P. William Porcher Miles, however, was not really happy with any of the proposals. He did not share in the nostalgia for the Union that many of his fellows Southerners felt, and believed that the South's flag should be completely different to that of the North.

To this end, he designed his own proposed design which featured a blue saltire Miles had originally planned to use a blue St. George's Cross like that of the South Carolina Sovereignty Flag he would have been familiar with, but was dissuaded from doing so with white Fimbriation and on a field of red, within the saltire were 7 stars, representing the then 7 states of the Confederacy, two on each of the left arms, one of each of the right arms, and one in the middle. However, Miles' flag was not well received by the rest of the Congress; one Congressman even mocked it as looking "like a pair of Suspenders".

Miles' flag lost out to that of the "Stars and Bars". First variant of flag proposal by L. Honour of Charleston , South Carolina. Flag proposal by J. Jennings of Lowndesboro , Alabama. Flag proposal submitted by an unknown person of Louisville , Kentucky. Confederate flag proposal by Mrs E. Carpenter of Cassville , Georgia. Confederate flag proposal by Thomas H.

Hobbs of Chattanooga , Tennessee. Riddle of Eutaw, Alabama. This flag proposal was the first variant submitted by William T. Riddle submitted his flag proposals to Stephen Foster Hale on February 21, In addition to the Confederacy's national flags, a wide variety of flags and banners were flown by Southerners during the Civil War. Most famously, the " Bonnie Blue Flag " was used as an unofficial flag during the early months of The " Van Dorn battle flag " was also carried by Confederate troops fighting in the Trans-Mississippi and Western theaters of war.

Besides, many military units had their own regimental flags they would carry into battle. The " Bonnie Blue Flag "—an unofficial flag in The " Van Dorn battle flag " used in the Western theaters of operation. Lee Headquarters Flag". Flag of First Corps, Army of Tennessee. Flag officially used: September — Summer, George P. Gilliss flag, also known as the Biderman Flag, the only Confederate flag captured in California Sacramento. Capers of South Carolina on April 10, Flag flown by Confederate Missouri regiments during the Vicksburg campaign. Though never having historically represented the Confederate States of America as a country, nor having been officially recognized as one of its national flags, the Battle Flag of the Army of Northern Virginia and its variants are now flag types commonly referred to as the Confederate Flag.

This design has become a recognized symbol of racism and white supremacy to some, especially in the Southern United States. It is sometimes incorrectly referred to as the Stars and Bars , the name of the first national Confederate flag. Drawing in the United Confederate Veterans Sponsor souvenir album. The Bonnie Blue Flag is on the right. Confederate National flag of Fort McAllister. Confederate National Flag captured from Fort Jackson. Battle flag of the 11th Mississippi Infantry Regiment used at Antietam. Surrender flag of Army of Northern Virginia. Congressional, Richmond, 4 Feb: A bill to establish the flag of the Confederate States was adopted without opposition, and the flag was displayed in the Capitol today.

The only change was a substitution of a red bar for one-half of the white field of the former flag, composing the flag's outer end. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. National flag. This article is about historical uses of flags associated with the defunct Confederate States of America. For modern uses, see Modern display of the Confederate battle flag. Variant of the first national flag with 13 stars November 28, — May 1, Battle flag of Forrest's Cavalry Corps , — This was also known as the 'Mobile Depot' flag. The battle flag used by the Army of the Trans-Mississippi. This section does not cite any sources. Reformation began after the Civil War which was fought over sectional differences and heavy slavery in the South.

Southerns had always been pro slavery which contributed to their low treatment of African Americans as a whole. Once the South lost the War they could no longer legally enslave African Americans, but that did not change their persona in the eyes of the rich white men. Equality was a concept for white men according to the South, especially considering that. Heritage or Hatred: The Confederate Battle Flag There is a lot of attention and opinion surrounding what we know now as the Confederate flag. Until recently the outcry of support and opposition to the flag has always been there with events bringing it back to the forefront. After the horrific events at the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, South Carolina on June 17th, the support and opposition surrounding the flag reemerged.

The argument again became main stream on whether the confederate flag represents racism or heritage. During a recent survey conducted by CNN showed that of the people polled, fifty seven percent agreed that the flag represented pride and heritage while thirty three percent agreed that it represented racism. The confederate flag was banned due to people finding it offensive. The government did not like the fact that it was a rebel banner.

The citizens did not like it because it displayed rebellion of the war that had happened during the Civil War. Another reason that the confederate was banned is because people thought it was a rebellious flag. Recently a hot topic in the news is the confederate flag and the controversy surrounding it. The confederate flag is simply a historical memento for many southern states. From my experience, the flag is very offensive because of the hate that it was used to symbolize. Others feel that Confederate flag represents southern. Compromises considering this issue were made and overturned for many years. The election that made Abraham Lincoln president was the last straw. Some southern slave states succeeded from the Union. They wanted to keep their slaves and be able to take them as their property in to the new territories.

The new territories were. To save the blacks from never getting equal rights Douglass, a father of the abolitionist society joined the fight of the civil rights fight for equal rights and in his cost Douglass escaped from slavery. Years passed with Covey beating him, until Frederick fought back, and soon he gave up. He knew Covey being faint would give him the chance to escape. He would soon end the civil rights movement. Frederick Douglass, known as the father of civil rights, was an abolitionist anti slavery writer who played a very big part in the civil rights movement of to The South wanted to keep slaves while the North wanted to abolish them.

In conclusion, the primary cause of the civil war was not slavery instead was the issue of states rights.

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