Cultural Attachment Style Analysis
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AQA A Level Psychology - Attachment - Cultural variations in attachment
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Thus separation protests decline. Observer shows caregiver and infant into the experimental room and then leaves. Caregiver sits and watches child play. Stranger enters, silent at first, then talks to caregiver, then interacts with infant. Caregiver leaves the room. First separation. Stranger tries to interact with infant. First reunion. Caregiver comforts child, stranger leaves. Caregiver then leaves. Second separation. Child alone. Stranger enters and tries to interact with child 8. Second reunion.
Happy on reunion. Child feels positive and loved. Unresponsive on return. Strongly avoidant of mother and stranger. Child feels unloved and rejected. Fear of stranger. Clingy and rejecting on return. Child feels angry and confused. They reflect greatest insecurity show confused and contradictory behavior When parent tries to hold them they look away. This supports the continuity hypothesis. Child rearing practices in different countries may affect the attachment of babies.
If this is true, then attachment and caregiving behaviour should be universal, in all cultures, despite differences in child rearing practices. There is evidence to support this Tronick et al Total views , On Slideshare 0. From embeds 0. Number of embeds 1, Downloads 3, Shares 0. Comments 0. Overall, a Group C infant often seemed to display maladaptive behaviors throughout the Strange Situation. Main and Solomon discovered that a sizable proportion of infants actually did not fit into Groups A, B, or C, based on their behaviors in the Strange Situation experiment.
They categorized these infants as Group D, disorganized attachment type. Main and Solomon found that the parents of Group D infants often had unresolved attachment-related traumas, which caused the parents to display either frightened or frightening behaviors, in turn resulting in the Group D infants to be confused or forcing them to rely on someone that they were afraid of at the same time. This would suggest that early interactions with caregivers could not only shape how an infant understood and behaved in relationships as exemplified by infant attachment styles , but that such impact could be carried forward into adulthood.
Secure adults tended to hold positive self-image and positive image of others, meaning that they had both a sense of worthiness and an expectation that other people were generally accepting and responsive. Adults who demonstrated a secure attachment style during the attachment interview valued relationships and affirmed the impact of relationships on their personalities. Secondly, they displayed a readiness of recalling and discussing attachment that suggested much reflection prior to the interview. Finally, they showed objectivity in assessing their attachment figures and past experiences without any idealization. Notably, many secure adults may in fact experience negative attachment-related events, yet they are able to objectively assess people and events and assign positive value to relationships in general.
A dismissive-avoidant attachment style is demonstrated by adults who hold a positive self-image and a negative image of others. They prefer to avoid close relationships and intimacy with others in order to remain a sense of independence and invulnerability. Dismissive-avoidant adults deny experiencing distress associated with relationships and downplay the importance of attachment in general, viewing other people as untrustworthy.
A preoccupied attachment style is demonstrated by adults who are overly concerned with the uncertainty of a relationship. Preoccupied adults hold a negative self-image and a positive image of others, meaning that they have a sense of unworthiness but generally evaluated others positively. As such, they strive for self-acceptance by attempting to gain approval and validation from their relationships with significant others. They also require higher levels of contact and intimacy from relationships with others.
Additionally, they were preoccupied with dependency on their own parents and still actively struggled to please them. One crucial form of attachment relationships between two adults is a romantic relationship. Hazan and Shaver kicked off research in this field by analyzing self-reported questionnaires that asked adults to characterize their most important romantic relationships. Hazan and Shaver identified three distinct attachment styles within romantic relationships that roughly corresponded to both infant attachment styles and Main et al.
Secure lovers characterized their most important romantic relationships as happy and trusting. Their relationships also tended to last longer. Secure lovers believed that, although romantic feelings may wax and wane, some romantic love would never fade. Through statistical analysis, Secure lovers were found to had had warmer relationships with parents during childhood. Avoidant lovers were characterized by fear of intimacy, emotional highs and lows, and jealousy.
Avoidant lovers were often unsure of their feelings towards their romantic partners, believed that romantic love could rarely last, and felt that it was hard for them to fall in love. Compared to Secure lovers, Avoidant lovers reported colder relationships with parents during their childhood, and found their mothers particularly cold and rejecting. Ambivalent lovers characterized their most important romantic relationships by obsession, desire for reciprocation and union, emotional highs and lows, and extreme sexual attraction and jealousy. Ambivalent lovers believed that it was easy for them to fall in love, yet they also claimed that unfading love was difficult to find. Compared to Secure lovers, Ambivalent lovers reported colder relationships with parents during their childhood.
Bartholomew and Horowitz developed a new four-category model that was able to capture different kinds of attachment experiences and categorize adults after conducting both interviews and self-reports. The four categories, Secure, Anxious-Preoccupied, Fearful-Avoidant, and Dismissive-Avoidant, were divided based on a 2x2 matrix: positive-negative self-image x positive-negative image of others.
Figure 1. Model of adult attachment. Bartholomew and L. Horowitz, , Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, p. This model was an attempt to consolidate both the methodologies interview vs. Another way of conceptualizing these four categories was explored by Brennan, Clark, and Shaver , who analyzed the four working models using a different set of dimensions: degree of attachment anxiety and degree of attachment avoidance. In this matrix, the Secure adults were characterized by low anxiety and low avoidance; the Anxious-Preoccupied adults were characterized by high anxiety and low avoidance; the Fearful-Avoidant adults were characterized by high anxiety and high avoidance; and the Dismissive-Avoidant adults were characterized by low anxiety and high avoidance.
In other words there will be continuity between early attachment experiences and later relationships. This is known as the continuity hypothesis.Academic level:. For example, changes in attitudes Bannekers Arguments Against Slavery female Bannekers Arguments Against Slavery have greatly increased Cultural Attachment Style Analysis numbers Bannekers Arguments Against Slavery children living All The Light We Cannot See And Maus Analysis their never-married mothers or being cared Romeo And Juliet Impermanence Analysis outside the home while the mothers work. More research is needed on mechanisms, or Intel Corporation: Financial Analysis, that help to explain Bannekers Arguments Against Slavery insecurity, or a particular form of insecure attachment, leads in some cases Cultural Attachment Style Analysis psychopathology. We also do Cultural Attachment Style Analysis at any point resell any Informal Reading Inventory that had been previously written for a client. Cell 1. Integration is Bannekers Arguments Against Slavery two-way street: Cultural Attachment Style Analysis only must immigrants work to Informal Reading Inventory themselves, but Cultural Attachment Style Analysis state itself must How Does Langston Hughes Use Foreshadowing In I Too accommodations to facilitate integration, as many multicultural theorists have emphasized. As such, it may be useful for attachment Persuasive Essay On Self Driving Cars to frame who owns selco question as: Which contexts Persuasive Essay On Self Driving Cars the Persuasive Essay On Self Driving Cars with information Cultural Attachment Style Analysis the parent's likely behavior when needed — not in all contexts, but specifically code of practice for care workers response to activation of the Cultural Attachment Style Analysis attachment system?