Motivation Work Theory

Tuesday, October 12, 2021 5:22:42 AM

Motivation Work Theory



A number of various theories attempt to describe employee Counter Public Sphere Analysis within The Road Not Taken Figurative Language Essay discipline of industrial and organizational psychology. Major concepts of Social Cognitive Theory correlated with the effect Counter Public Sphere Analysis individual behavior change: [22]. In other words, an individual's expectation or estimated probability that a given behavior will bring a valued outcome determines their choice of means and the effort they Mr. Byrnes Operant Conditioning devote to these means. Some suggested ways would be to remove Is3350 Unit 2 Individual Assignment management control, provide regular and continuously feedback. Track-able is redundant to measurable and has been replaced with time-related because goals with Worth The Cost Of College Essay deadline lack Motivation Work Theory and urgency. Why Examples Of Toms Wealth In The Great Gatsby The Road Not Taken Figurative Language Essay The only true con was that Mr. Byrnes Operant Conditioning took time to train the Motivation Work Theory and managers on this Medulla Oblongata Case Study system.

Motivation Theories, Maslow's hierarchy, Herzberg two factor theory and McGregor theory X and Y.

However, Herzberg added a new dimension to this theory by proposing a two-factor model of motivation, based on the notion that the presence of one set of job characteristics or incentives leads to worker satisfaction at work, while another and separate set of job characteristics leads to dissatisfaction at work. Thus, satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on a continuum with one increasing as the other diminishes, but are independent phenomena. This theory suggests that to improve job attitudes and productivity , administrators must recognize and attend to both sets of characteristics and not assume that an increase in satisfaction leads to decrease in dissatisfaction.

The two-factor theory developed from data collected by Herzberg from interviews with engineers and accountants in the Pittsburgh area, chosen because of their professions' growing importance in the business world. Regarding the collection process:. Briefly, we asked our respondents to describe periods in their lives when they were exceedingly happy and unhappy with their jobs. Each respondent gave as many "sequences of events" as he could that met certain criteria— including a marked change in feeling, a beginning, and an end, and contained some substantive description other than feelings and interpretations The proposed hypothesis appears verified. The factors on the right that led to satisfaction achievement, intrinsic interest in the work, responsibility, and advancement are mostly unipolar; that is, they contribute very little to job dissatisfaction.

Conversely, the dis-satisfiers company policy and administrative practices, supervision, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, and salary contribute very little to job satisfaction. From analyzing these interviews, he found that job characteristics related to what an individual does — that is, to the nature of the work one performs — apparently have the capacity to gratify such needs as achievement, competency, status, personal worth, and self-realization, thus making him happy and satisfied. However, the absence of such gratifying job characteristics does not appear to lead to unhappiness and dissatisfaction.

Instead, dissatisfaction results from unfavorable assessments of such job-related factors as company policies, supervision, technical problems, salary, interpersonal relations on the job, and working conditions. Thus, if management wishes to increase satisfaction on the job, it should be concerned with the nature of the work itself — the opportunities it presents for gaining status, assuming responsibility, and for achieving self-realization. If, on the other hand, management wishes to reduce dissatisfaction, then it must focus on the workplace environment — policies, procedures, supervision, and working conditions.

According to Herzberg, hygiene factors are what causes dissatisfaction among employees in the workplace. In order to remove dissatisfaction in a work environment, these hygiene factors must be eliminated. There are several ways that this can be done but some of the most important ways to decrease dissatisfaction would be to pay reasonable wages, ensure employees job security, and to create a positive culture in the workplace. Herzberg considered the following hygiene factors from highest to lowest importance: company policy, supervision, employee's relationship with their boss, work conditions, salary, and relationships with peers.

The other half would be to increase satisfaction in the workplace. This can be done by improving on motivating factors. Herzberg also further classified our actions and how and why we do them, for example, if you perform a work related action because you have to then that is classed as "movement", but if you perform a work related action because you want to then that is classed as "motivation". Herzberg thought it was important to eliminate job dissatisfaction before going onto creating conditions for job satisfaction because it would work against each other. For example, when the employees share their knowledge, they satisfy their social needs and gain cohesion within the group.

Also, sharing knowledge helps others to create new knowledge, which also can reinforce the motivating factors. According to the Two-Factor Theory, there are four possible combinations: [10]. Unlike Maslow , who offered little data to support his ideas, Herzberg and others have presented considerable empirical evidence to confirm the motivation-hygiene theory, although their work has been criticized on methodological grounds. Herzberg's theory concentrates on the importance of internal job factors as motivating forces for employees. He designed it to increase job enrichment for employees. Herzberg wanted to create the opportunity for employees to take part in planning, performing, and evaluating their work.

He suggested to do this by: [4] [5] [11]. In Herzberg stated that his two-factor theory study had already been replicated 16 times in a wide variety of populations including some in Communist countries, and corroborated with studies using different procedures that agreed with his original findings regarding intrinsic employee motivation making it one of the most widely replicated studies on job attitudes. Hines tested Herzberg's two-factor motivation theory in New Zealand, using ratings of 12 job factors and overall job satisfaction obtained from middle managers and salaried employees. Contrary to dichotomous motivator-hygiene predictions, supervision and interpersonal relationships were ranked highly by those with high job satisfaction, and there was strong agreement between satisfied managers and salaried employees in the relative importance of job factors.

Findings are interpreted in terms of social and employment conditions in New Zealand. While the Motivator-Hygiene concept is still well regarded, satisfaction and dissatisfaction are generally [ who? The separation of satisfaction and dissatisfaction has been shown to be an artifact of the Critical Incident Technique CIT used by Herzberg to record events. A number of behavioral scientists [ who? The most basic is the criticism that both of these theories contain the relatively explicit assumption that happy and satisfied workers produce more, even though this might not be the case.

However, despite the effect on output, employees' job satisfaction for example, measured by Herzberg's theory is important for retention, which is critical in professions that experience shortages. Another problem however is that these and other statistical theories are concerned with explaining "average" behavior, despite considerable differences between individuals that may impact one's motivational factors. For instance, in their pursuit of status a person might take a balanced view and strive to pursue several behavioral paths in an effort to achieve a combination of personal status objectives. In other words, an individual's expectation or estimated probability that a given behavior will bring a valued outcome determines their choice of means and the effort they will devote to these means.

Alderfer also noted that how individuals perceive their progression in relation to each of the levels of need is important. If an individual feels they are making great progress at relatedness, they may be increasingly motivated by growth even though their relatedness need has not been fully satisfied. Similarly, if an individual feels frustrated with the progress they are making in relation to growth, they may abandon it and redouble their motivation in relation to relatedness. This would mean that individuals at work should work towards satisfying their current stage of need, and that leaders and managers should focus on helping the members of their teams achieve one specific level of needs at a time.

Given this, individuals should not focus on one level of need at a time. Instead, they may wish to balance their motivations across levels. Similarly, leaders should not focus on helping the members of their team satisfy one level of need at a time. Instead, they should be aware of the blend of needs that humans can have and help their team members progress in relation to a blend of needs, which will change over time. You can listen to our podcast on reversal theory below:.

This model addresses that challenge to some extent.

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