Respiratory System Lab Report

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Respiratory System Lab Report



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Lab #7 Respiratory Anatomy \u0026 Physiology

An average adult has 5 to 6 quarts 4. The heart is a muscular organ with four chambers. Located just behind and slightly left of the breastbone, it pumps blood through the network of arteries and veins called the cardiovas- cular system. The systemic circulation is a major portion of the circulatory system. Tested substances, include ribavirin , lopinavir , ritonavir , type I interferon , that have thus far shown no conclusive contribution to the disease's course. People with SARS-CoV must be isolated, preferably in negative-pressure rooms , with complete barrier nursing precautions taken for any necessary contact with these patients, to limit the chances of medical personnel becoming infected.

Some of the more serious damage caused by SARS may be due to the body's own immune system reacting in what is known as cytokine storm. Vaccines can help immune system to create enough antibodies and also it can help to decrease a risk of side effects like arm pain, fever, headache etc. Several consequent reports from China on some recovered SARS patients showed severe long-time sequelae. The most typical diseases include, among other things, pulmonary fibrosis , osteoporosis , and femoral necrosis , which have led in some cases to the complete loss of working ability or even self-care ability of people who have recovered from SARS.

As a result of quarantine procedures, some of the post-SARS patients have been documented as suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD and major depressive disorder. The earliest case developed symptoms on 16 November The patient died soon after, and no definite diagnosis was made on his cause of death. Despite taking some action to control it, Chinese government officials did not inform the World Health Organization of the outbreak until February This lack of openness caused delays in efforts to control the epidemic, resulting in criticism of the People's Republic of China from the international community.

China officially apologized for early slowness in dealing with the SARS epidemic. The viral outbreak was subsequently genetically traced to a colony of cave-dwelling horseshoe bats in Xiyang Yi Ethnic Township , Yunnan. Thus, while the first reports of an unusual outbreak were in Chinese, an English report was not generated until 21 January In early April , after a prominent physician, Jiang Yanyong , pushed to report the danger to China, [43] [44] there appeared to be a change in official policy when SARS began to receive a much greater prominence in the official media.

This revealed problems plaguing the aging mainland Chinese healthcare system, including increasing decentralization, red tape , and inadequate communication. Many healthcare workers in the affected nations risked and lost their lives by treating patients, and trying to contain the infection before ways to prevent infection were known. The epidemic reached the public spotlight in February , when an American businessman traveling from China, Johnny Chen, became afflicted with pneumonia-like symptoms while on a flight to Singapore.

Several of the medical staff who treated him soon developed the same disease despite basic hospital procedures. Italian doctor Carlo Urbani identified the threat and communicated it to WHO and the Vietnamese government; he later succumbed to the disease. The severity of the symptoms and the infection among hospital staff alarmed global health authorities, who were fearful of another emergent pneumonia epidemic. Another larger cluster of cases in Hong Kong centred on the Amoy Gardens housing estate. Its spread is suspected to have been facilitated by defects in its bathroom drainage system that allowed sewer gases including virus particles to vent into the room.

Bathroom fans exhausted the gases and wind carried the contagion to adjacent downwind complexes. Concerned citizens in Hong Kong worried that information was not reaching people quickly enough and created a website called sosick. The trajectory of this outbreak is typically divided into two phases, the first centring around her son Tse Chi Kwai, who infected other patients at the Scarborough Grace Hospital and died on 13 March.

The second major wave of cases was clustered around accidental exposure among patients, visitors, and staff within the North York General Hospital. The official response by the Ontario provincial government and Canadian federal government has been widely criticized in the years following the outbreak. Brian Schwartz, vice-chair of Ontario's SARS Scientific Advisory Committee, described public health officials' preparedness and emergency response at the time of the outbreak as "very, very basic and minimal at best".

The atmosphere of fear and uncertainty surrounding the outbreak resulted in staffing issues in area hospitals when healthcare workers elected to resign rather than risk exposure to SARS. In late February , Italian doctor Carlo Urbani was called into The French Hospital of Hanoi to look at Johnny Chen, an American businessman who had fallen ill with what doctors thought was a bad case of influenza. Urbani realized that Chen's ailment was probably a new and highly contagious disease. He immediately notified the WHO. He also persuaded the Vietnamese Health Ministry to begin isolating patients and screening travelers, thus slowing the early pace of the epidemic. In the experiments, macaques infected with the virus developed the same symptoms as human SARS victims.

In late May , studies were conducted using samples of wild animals sold as food in the local market in Guangdong, China. The preliminary conclusion was the SARS virus crossed the xenographic barrier from Asian palm civets to humans, and more than 10, masked palm civets were killed in Guangdong Province. The virus was also later found in raccoon dogs Nyctereuteus sp. Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses indicated a high probability that SARS coronavirus originated in bats and spread to humans either directly or through animals held in Chinese markets.

The bats did not show any visible signs of disease but are the likely natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. In late , scientists from the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention of Hong Kong University and the Guangzhou Centre for Disease Control and Prevention established a genetic link between the SARS coronavirus appearing in civets and humans, bearing out claims that the disease had jumped across species. It took 14 years to find the original bat population likely responsible for the SARS pandemic.

This strain has all the genetic building blocks of the type that triggered the global outbreak of SARS in The authors are quoted as stating that "another deadly outbreak of SARS could emerge at any time. The cave where they discovered their strain is only a kilometre from the nearest village. A small number of cats and dogs tested positive for the virus during the outbreak. However, these animals did not transmit the virus to other animals of the same species or to humans.

The World Health Organization declared severe acute respiratory syndrome contained on 5 July The containment was achieved through successful public health measures. While SARS-CoV-1 probably persists as a potential zoonotic threat in its original animal reservoir, human-to-human transmission of this virus may be considered eradicated because no human case has been documented since four minor, brief, subsequent outbreaks in Fear of contracting the virus from consuming infected wild animals resulted in public bans and reduced business for meat markets in southern China and Hong Kong.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Not to be confused with Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. For other uses, see SARS disambiguation. Medical condition. Main article: — SARS outbreak. Laboratory information was insufficient or incomplete for of the discarded cases; of these patients died. See also: —04 SARS outbreak among healthcare workers. China portal Medicine portal Viruses portal. The Virtual Mentor. PMID Archived from the original on 7 May Retrieved 26 April National Health Service. Archived from the original on 9 March Retrieved 22 April For the research paper, see: Wang, Ning Virologica Sinica.

PMC Archived PDF from the original on 1 November Retrieved 8 January For English news coverage, see: "Bat cave solves mystery of deadly SARS virus — and suggests new outbreak could occur". Archived from the original on 17 January Archived from the original on 10 January NHS Choices. UK National Health Service. Archived from the original on 11 March Retrieved 8 March Since , there haven't been any known cases of SARS reported anywhere in the world. Archived from the original on 23 March Retrieved 4 May World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 15 March The Lecturio Medical Concept Library.

Archived from the original on 27 June Retrieved 27 June Archived from the original on 13 May Please click here to see any active alerts. Nitrogen Dioxide NO 2 is one of a group of highly reactive gases known as oxides of nitrogen or nitrogen oxides NO x. Other nitrogen oxides include nitrous acid and nitric acid. NO 2 is used as the indicator for the larger group of nitrogen oxides. NO 2 primarily gets in the air from the burning of fuel. NO 2 forms from emissions from cars, trucks and buses, power plants, and off-road equipment. Breathing air with a high concentration of NO 2 can irritate airways in the human respiratory system. Such exposures over short periods can aggravate respiratory diseases, particularly asthma, leading to respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing or difficulty breathing , hospital admissions and visits to emergency rooms.

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