To Kill A Mockingbird Word Analysis

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To Kill A Mockingbird Word Analysis



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To Kill a Mockingbird Film Analysis

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Nothing in violation of United States law. No trolling. Males tend to be slightly larger than females. The northern mockingbird's lifespan is observed to be up to 8 years, but captive birds can live up to 20 years. The mockingbird's breeding range is from Maritime provinces of Canada westwards to British Columbia , practically the entire Continental United States south of the northern Plains states and Pacific northwest , the Greater Antilles , and the majority of Mexico to eastern Oaxaca and Veracruz. In the 19th century, the range of the mockingbird expanded northward towards provinces such as Nova Scotia and Ontario and states such as Massachusetts, although the sightings were sporadic.

Within the first five decades of the 20th century, regions that received an influx of mockingbirds were Maine , Vermont , Ohio , Iowa , and New York. The mockingbird's habitat varies by location, but it prefers open areas with sparse vegetation. In the eastern regions, suburban and urban areas such as parks and gardens are frequent residential areas. It has an affinity for mowed lawns with shrubs within proximity for shade and nesting. When foraging for food, it prefers short grass.

The northern mockingbird is an omnivore. The birds' diet consists of arthropods , earthworms , berries, fruits, seeds, and occasionally lizards. These birds forage on the ground or in vegetation; they also fly down from a perch to capture food. There is disagreement among ornithologists over the purpose of this behavior, with hypotheses ranging from deceleration to intimidation of predators or prey. Both the male and female of the species reach sexual maturity after one year of life.

The breeding season occurs in the spring and early summer. The males use a series of courtship displays to attract the females to their sites. The males also engage in flight to showcase their wings. The species can remain monogamous for many years, but incidents of polygyny and bigamy have been reported to occur during a single bird's lifetime. Both the male and female are involved in the nest building. The nest is built approximately three to ten feet above the ground. The eggs are a light blue or greenish color and speckled with dots. Once the eggs are hatched, both the male and female will feed the chicks. The birds aggressively defend their nests and surrounding areas against other birds and animals.

Other birds may gather to watch as the mockingbirds drive away the intruder. In addition to harassing domestic cats and dogs that they consider a threat, [12] mockingbirds will at times target humans. The birds are bold, and will attack much larger birds, even hawks. One incident in Tulsa, Oklahoma involving a postal carrier resulted in the distribution of a warning letter to residents. The northern mockingbird pairs hatch about two to four broods a year. In one breeding attempt, the northern mockingbird lays an average of four eggs.

They hatch after about 11 to 14 days of incubation by the female. Northern mockingbirds are famous for their song repertoires. Studies have shown that males sing songs at the beginning of breeding season to attract females. In addition, unmated males perform more flight displays than mated males. The unmated male keeps close track of this change. He sings in one direction when he perceives a chance to lure a female from the nest of the mated male. An observational study by Logan demonstrates that the female is continuously evaluating the quality of the male and his territory. In those cases, the mated female is constantly seen flying over both the original and the new male's territory, evaluating the qualities of both territories and exchanging calls with both males.

Divorce, mate switching and extra-pair matings do occur in northern mockingbirds. Northern mockingbirds adjust the sex ratio of their offspring according to the food availability and population density. Male offspring usually require more parental investment. There is therefore a bias for bearing the costlier sex at the beginning of a breeding season when the food is abundant.

In passerine birds, like the northern mockingbird, females are more likely to disperse than males. Since northern mockingbirds are abundant in urban environments, it is possible that the pollution and contamination in cities might affect sexual hormones and therefore play a role in offspring sex ratio. Northern mockingbirds are socially monogamous. The two sexes look alike except that the male is slightly larger in size than the female. Mutual mate choice is exhibited in northern mockingbirds. However, males are more defensive of their nests than females. In a population where male breeding adults outnumber female breeding adults, females have more freedom in choosing their mates.

Northern mockingbirds are altricial , meaning that, when hatched, they are born relatively immobile and defenseless and therefore require nourishment for a certain duration from their parents. The young have a survival bottleneck at the nestling stage because there are higher levels of nestling predation than egg predation. The levels of belligerence exhibited by parents therefore increase once eggs hatch but there is no increase during the egg stage. A recent study shows that both food availability and temperature affect the parental incubation of the eggs in northern mockingbirds. Increasing food availability provides the females with more time to care for the nest and perform self-maintenance.

Increasing temperature, however, reduces the time the females spend at the nest and there is increased energy cost to cool the eggs. The incubation behavior is a trade-off among various environmental factors. Mockingbird nests are also often parasitized by cowbirds. The parents are found to reject parasitic eggs at an intermediate rate. Early nesting hosts may not have learned the pattern and coloration of their first clutch yet, so are less likely to reject foreign eggs. There is also a seasonal threshold in terms of the overlap between the breeding seasons of the northern mockingbirds and their parasites. If the breeding season of the parasites starts later, there is less likelihood of parasitism. Hence, it pays the hosts to have relatively lower sensitivity to parasitic eggs.

A laboratory observation of 38 mockingbird nestlings and fledglings thirty-five and three, respectively recorded the behavioral development of young mockingbirds. Notable milestones included the eyes opening, soft vocalizations, begging, and preening began within the first six days of life. Variation in begging and more compact movements such as perching, fear crouching, and stretching appeared by the ninth day. Wing-flashing, bathing, flight, and leaving the nest happened within seventeen days nest leaving occurred within 11 to 13 days. Improvements of flight, walking and self-feeding took place within forty days.

Agonistic behavior increased during the juvenile stages, to the extent that one of two siblings living in the same area was likely killed by the other. Although many species of bird imitate the vocalizations of other birds, the northern mockingbird is the best known in North America for doing so. Among the species and vocalizations imitated are Carolina wren , northern cardinal , tufted titmouse , eastern towhee , house sparrow , wood thrush and eastern bluebird songs, calls of the northern flicker and great crested flycatcher , jeers and pumphandles of the blue jay , and alarm, chups , and chirrs of the American robin.

As convincing as these imitations may be to humans, they often fail to fool other birds, such as the Florida scrub-jay. The northern mockingbird's mimicry is likely to serve as a form of sexual selection through which competition between males and female choice influence a bird's song repertoire size. Both male and female mockingbirds sing, with the latter being generally quieter and less vocal. Male commencement of singing is in late January to February and continues into the summer and the establishing of territory into the fall. Frequency in female singing is more sporadic, as it sings less often in the summer and fall, and only sings when the male is away from the territory.

Repertoire sizes ranged from 14 to types in Texas, and two studies of mockingbirds in Florida rounded estimates to and , approximately. There are four recognized calls for the mockingbird: the nest relief call , hew call , chat or chatburst , and the begging call. The differences between chats and chatbursts are frequency of use, as chats are year-round, and chatbursts occur in the fall. Adult mockingbirds can fall victim to birds of prey such as the great horned owl , screech owl and sharp-shinned hawk , though their tenacious behavior makes them less likely to be captured.

Scrub-jays also have killed and eaten mockingbirds. Snakes rarely capture incubating females. Fledgelings have been prey to domestic cats, red-tailed hawks , and crows. Eggs and nestlings are consumed by blue jays, fish crows and American crows, red-tailed hawks, swallow-tailed kites , snakes, squirrels, and cats. Blowfly larvae and Haemoproteus have been found in Florida and Arizona populations, respectively. Winter storms limit the expansion of mockingbirds in their range. The storms have played a role in the declining of the populations in Ohio where it has since recovered , Michigan, Minnesota and likely in Quebec. Dry seasons also affect the mockingbird populations in Arizona. In a paper published in , researchers found that mockingbirds were able to recall an individual human who, earlier in the study, had approached and threatened the mockingbirds' nest.

Researchers had one participant stand near a mockingbird nest and touch it, while others avoided the nest. Later, the mockingbirds recognized the intruder and exhibited defensive behavior, while ignoring the other individuals. The northern mockingbird is a species that is found in both urban and rural habitats. There are now more northern mockingbirds living in urban habitats than non-urban environments, so they are consequently known as an urban-positive species. Lower food availability and travel costs may account for the higher mortality rate in rural habitats.

One explanation for this phenomenon is that urban environments are more predictable than non-urban ones, as the site fidelity among urban birds prevents them from falling into ecological traps. This bird features in the title and central metaphor of the novel To Kill a Mockingbird , by Harper Lee. In that novel, mockingbirds are portrayed as innocent and generous, and two of the major characters, Atticus Finch and Miss Maudie, say it is a sin to kill a mockingbird because "they don't do one thing for us but make music for us to enjoy.

They don't eat up people's gardens, don't nest in corncribs , they don't do one thing but sing their hearts out for us. And if that mockingbird don't sing, Mama's gonna buy you a diamond ring. The song of the northern mockingbird inspired many American folk songs of the midth century, such as " Listen to the Mocking Bird ". Thomas Jefferson had several pet mockingbirds, including a bird named "Dick". In the fictional Neighborhood of Make-Believe on Mister Rogers' Neighborhood , one of King Friday's "pets" is a wooden northern mockingbird on a stick, which he refers to by the scientific name Mimus polyglottos.

The northern mockingbird is the state bird of Arkansas , [58] Florida , [59] Mississippi , [60] Tennessee , [61] and Texas , [62] and previously the state bird of South Carolina. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Northern Mockingbird.

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