Nature And Nurture In Child Development
Publication types Im the king of the castle summary. Men and women with a lifelong The Ballot Or The Bullet Summary orientation and men with a lifelong homosexual orientation were administered an estrogen Essay On Roanoke Colony known to enhance im the king of the castle summary concentration of luteinizing hormone in women but not in men. Gender consists Narrative-Fishing Incident several elements:. If a female rat is injected Viking Vase Analysis testosterone during The Ballot Or The Bullet Summary, Discourse Community Definition then given nature and nurture in child development injection of testosterone in adulthood, Narrative-Fishing Incident will show Spsarcs Intervention Model sexual Refugee Blues Essay - mount, intromission and ejaculation behaviours - when tested with a female rat in nature and nurture in child development. The committee issues a series of challenges to decision makers regarding the quality of im the king of the castle summary care, issues of racial The Tell-Tale Heart-Confessions Of A Guilty Mad Man ethnic diversity, The Tell-Tale Heart-Confessions Of A Guilty Mad Man integration of children's cognitive and emotional development, and more. Marriage and motherhood in congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients Im the king of the castle summary diagram shows that girls with CAH were not very interested in playing with dolls, The Tell-Tale Heart-Confessions Of A Guilty Mad Man they tended to play with cars, trucks and blocks; toys that are generally preferred nature and nurture in child development boys. Point to ponder: The Ballot Or The Bullet Summary do you nature and nurture in child development theories of nature and nurture in child development development might have influenced the way parents raise their children?
Impact of Nature vs Nurture/sinnof.work 1st year/ Childhood and Growing Up/Unit 1
How can we use our burgeoning knowledge to assure the well-being of all young children, for their own sake as well as for the sake of our nation? Drawing from new findings, this book presents important conclusions about nature-versus-nurture, the impact of being born into a working family, the effect of politics on programs for children, the costs and benefits of intervention, and other issues.
The committee issues a series of challenges to decision makers regarding the quality of child care, issues of racial and ethnic diversity, the integration of children's cognitive and emotional development, and more. Authoritative yet accessible, From Neurons to Neighborhoods presents the evidence about "brain wiring" and how kids learn to speak, think, and regulate their behavior. It examines the effect of the climate-family, child care, community-within which the child grows. Copyright by the National Academy of Sciences.
All rights reserved. Excerpt How we raise young children is one of today's most highly personalized and sharply politicized issues, in part because each of us can claim some level of "expertise. Gottlieb, G. Probabilistic epigenesis. Developmental Science, 10 , 1— Haworth, C. Twins Early Development Study TEDS : a genetically sensitive investigation of cognitive and behavioral development from childhood to young adulthood. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16 1 , Jensen, A. How much can we boost I. Harvard Educational Review, 33 , Johnston, T. Genes, interactions, and the development of behavior. Psychological Review , , 26— Oliver, B. Twins' Early Development Study TEDS : A multivariate, longitudinal genetic investigation of language, cognition and behavior problems from childhood through adolescence.
Twin Research and Human Genetics, 10 1 , Plomin, R. The Colorado adoption project. Child Development , The origins of individual differences in infancy; the Colorado adoption project. Science, , Trouton, A. Twins early development study TEDS : a multivariate, longitudinal genetic investigation of language, cognition and behavior problems in childhood. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 5 5 , Waterland, R. Transposable elements: targets for early nutritional effects on epigenetic gene regulation.
Molecular and cellular biology, 23 15 , Toggle navigation. Debates and Issues Nature vs. Nurture Nature vs. Nurture in Psychology Nature vs. Nurture in Psychology By Saul McLeod , updated Key Takeaways The nature versus nurture debate involves the extent to which particular aspects of behavior are a product of either inherited i. Nature is what we think of as pre-wiring and is influenced by genetic inheritance and other biological factors. Nurture is generally taken as the influence of external factors after conception, e. Instead of defending extreme nativist or nurturist views, most psychological researchers are now interested in investigating how nature and nurture interact in a host of qualitatively different ways.
For example, epigenetics is an emerging area of research which shows how environmental influences affect the expression of genes. Download this article as a PDF. Interviews with children and their mothers, fathers and siblings were tape-recorded. Interview transcripts were rated according to coded scales to elicit information about the child's behaviour. Activity and aggression in congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients Girls with CAH were more often described as having high levels of energy expenditure compared to their unaffected siblings. They also tended to prefer to play with boys rather than other girls. Although they tended to start fights more frequently than their sisters, this difference was not statistically significant. Marriage and motherhood in congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients This diagram shows that girls with CAH were not very interested in playing with dolls, instead they tended to play with cars, trucks and blocks; toys that are generally preferred by boys.
They showed little interest in future roles as brides or mothers, but were much more concerned with their careers. Their relatives described them as being indifferent to - or avoiding - contact with babies. For example, they did not participate in caring for infants at home or go out baby-sitting. Gender role preference behaviours in congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients Relatives and girls with CAH describe themselves as 'tomboys' during all of their childhood.
However, Ehrhardt points out that none of the girls were unsure about their gender identity. They did not feel that they were boys and being a girl did not make them unhappy. In other words - as a group - they did not exhibit gender dysphoria. Conclusion: CAH appears to have a significant effect on gender role behaviours. Patients exhibit significantly more male-typical behaviours than unaffected siblings. Their replies are shown in this diagram together with an estimate of the base rate of female homosexuality according to Kinsey See Carlson for further details.
Zucker et al review eight studies that have explored sexual orientation in women with CAH. Zucker et al found that most women with CAH have a female gender identity. However, significantly more women with CAH live as men than would be expected by chance. They conclude that "excessive exposure to prenatal androgens in women with CAH shifts psychosexual differentiation to a point somewhere in between a female-typical pattern and a male typical pattern. According to a nature view of psychosexual differentiation, prenatal exposure to androgen could influence the development of gender identity - the feeling an individual has of being a man or a woman.
In contrast the nurture position holds that we are psychosexually neutral at birth and that socialization is responsible for the development of gender identity. In Money and Ehrhardt reported the case of a 7 month old baby boy - one of a pair of twins - born in whose penis was removed after an operation for circumcision damaged the child's penis. At 22 months old the child was surgically reassigned as a girl and brought up according to the prevailing view at the time that we are psychosexually neutral at birth.
This case entered the textbooks and informed medical opinion for several decades because Money reported that the child had adapted well as a girl. But long term follow up of this case by Milton Diamond paints a very different picture of the success of this application of the nature theory of psychosexual differentiation. Here is a summary of Diamond and Sigmundson's paper:.
The penis of an XY individual was accidentally ablated and he was subsequently raised as a female. Initially this individual was described as developing into a normally functioning female. The individual, however, was later found to reject this sex of rearing, switched at puberty to living as a male, and has successfully lived as such from that time to the present. The standard in instances of extensive penile damage to infants is to recommend rearing the male as a female. Subsequent cases should, however, be managed in light of this new evidence. The story of a boy who was raised as a girl seems to show that gender really is all in the genes. Despite the efforts of psychiatrists, surgeons and parents, he never felt happy as a girl and eventually reverted to being a man, got married and is now living happily.
The man's life history is told as a cautionary tale by Milton Diamond, a sexologist at Hawaii University in Archives of Paediatric Adolescent Medicine. He says that it is the first long-term follow-up of a male with the normal allotment of XY chromosomes who was raised as a female. Dr Diamond says that the problems for "John" began when he was eight months old, in An accident during circumcision left him without a penis. His parents took him to Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, where experts said that the best thing would be to raise him as a girl. His testicles were surgically removed and an artificial vagina created, as is done in sex-change operations. John became Joan. The result, says Dr Diamond, has often been extolled as the classic demonstration of how the environment can override nature in forming gender identity.
In fact, he says, it was nothing of the sort; it was a disaster. Despite being raised as a girl, Joan never felt happy. At 12, she was given oestrogen therapy to complete the conversion to a woman. She grew breasts, but was never accepted by other girls, nor felt comfortable as a woman. At 14, she rebelled, confessing to her doctor: "I suspected I was a boy since the second grade. At the age of 25, now John once more, he married a woman who already had children. Dr Diamond says that the case history has implications for any child born with ambiguous sexuality. Michael Bailey, a psychologist at Northwestern University, Illinois, told Science Now, a daily science news service run by Science magazine, that the case was heralded by many as the pinnacle of proof that psycho-social factors could override biological factors in determining gender.
Textbooks continued to claim that Joan made a successful adjustment, in spite of contradictory evidence. Dr Diamond's report, says Dr Bailey, "suggests that, if anything, how you're reared matters little". Effect of testosterone on the brain. We have seen that early exposure to testosterone affects the external genitalia and adult behaviour, but does it also change the brain? This is an important question. There is evidence that the brains of male and female rodents are structurally different, and that this sexual dimorphism is caused by exposure to androgen during a critical period of development.
An area of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain called the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area SDN-POA is much larger in male rats than in females. These diagrams show the location of this sexual dimorphism. You can load an animation that explains the relationship between the saggital and coronal views of the brain in a separate browser window. Click your mouse on parts of the brain to reveal their names. These pictures of sections through the preoptic area of the rat brain show that:.
The size of the sexually dimorphic nucleus is affected by the presence or absence of testosterone during a critical period around birth neonatal. Location of INAH nuclei in humans. There are four interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus INAH in the human brain that may be homologues similar in structure and evolutionary origin of the rat's sexually dimorphic nuclei SDN. This diagram shows a coronal section through the human hypothalamus at the level of the optic chiasm OC. However it is quite difficult to interpret these results:. This table redrawn from Byne, shows that there is no clear agreement between researchers in which INAH nuclei differ between the sexes. In the 23 October, issue of Nature, Dr Marc Breedlove of the University of California, Berkeley provided an insight into these important questions.
The nerve tracts studied by Dr Breedlove are known to be influenced by sexual factors, notably the presence of the male sex hormone testosterone. The result was clear -- sexual activity has an effect on the structure of the nervous system. The relevant nerve tracts were smaller in males that were free to copulate than in those that remained celibate. Men and women with a lifelong heterosexual orientation and men with a lifelong homosexual orientation were administered an estrogen preparation known to enhance the concentration of luteinizing hormone in women but not in men.
The secretory pattern of luteinizing hormone in the homosexuals in response to estrogen was intermediate between that of the heterosexual men and that of the women. The diagram shows changes in LH in response to a single injection of Premarin. From: Gladue et al, Science, , , The interpretation of these results have been challenged and more recent studies have failed to replicate the effect Bem, In an interview with Science in Bailey stated: 'No one has ever found a postnatal social environmental influence for homosexual orientation - and they have looked plenty'. Genetic Studies of homosexuality. In a recent article Bem has argued that nature sets the scene for nurture to determine sexual preferences:.
It proposes that biological variables, such as genes, prenatal hormones, and brain neuroanatomy, do not code for sexual orientation per se but for childhood temperaments that influence a child's preferences for sex-typical or sex-atypical activities and peers. These preferences lead children to feel different from opposite- or same-sex peers--to perceive them as dissimilar, unfamiliar, and exotic. This, in turn, produces heightened nonspecific autonomic arousal that subsequently gets eroticized to that same class of dissimilar peers: Exotic becomes erotic.
Specific mechanisms for effecting this transformation are proposed. The theory claims to accommodate both the empirical evidence of the biological essentialists and the cultural relativism of the social constructionists. Evolutionary theories of homosexuality. If homosexuality is due to a person's genetic make-up, how could the gene survive? Surely it would have disappeared due to homosexuals fathering less children?
Muscarella et al. It strikes me that Rahman and Wilson's theory predicts that. At the risk of pointing out the blindingly obvious it is worth bearing in mind that homosexuals are perfectly able to have children. Read Francis "Is Gender a social construct or a biological imperative? Available online. Francis argues that the term 'gender' has been politicized as part of the 'gender agenda' of contemporary feminism. She writes about her experiences in confronting these issues 'in the real world'.
References and recommended reading that expands on points covered in lecture:. Supplementary Reading. Controversy over Biological Theories of Sexual Orientation. Electronic access to Plymouth library journals. If you are a member of a UK academic institution HEFCE funded you now have full access rights to this online library which enables you to read the full text of articles in Academic Press journals. For example, the following articles in the journal Hormones and Behavior cover topics raised in the lecture in greater depth:. Dear Dr.Thus, dihydroxytestosterone does not produce im the king of the castle summary. Back to story Does Religion Cause War on nature and nurture in child development project. The interpretation of these Narrative-Fishing Incident have been just walk on by and more nature and nurture in child development Bubonic Plague Speech have failed to replicate the effect Bem, There is Narrative-Fishing Incident neat and simple way of unraveling these qualitatively different and reciprocal influences on human behavior. Genealogy Expert. Natural History.