Theories Of Utilitarianism, Kantianism, And Aristotelianism

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Theories Of Utilitarianism, Kantianism, And Aristotelianism



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Mill's Utilitarianism and Kant's Deontology: Comparing two Heavyweights in Ethical Philosophy

All actions are performed in accordance with some underlying maxim or principle, which are deeply different from each other; it is according to this that the moral worth of any action is judged. Kant's ethics are founded on his view of rationality as the ultimate good and his belief that all people are fundamentally rational beings. This led to the most important part of Kant's ethics, the formulation of the categorical imperative , which is the criterion for whether a maxim is good or bad. Simply put, this criterion amounts to a thought experiment : to attempt to universalize the maxim by imagining a world where all people necessarily acted in this way in the relevant circumstances and then see if the maxim and its associated action would still be conceivable in such a world.

For instance, holding the maxim kill anyone who annoys you and applying it universally would result in a world which would soon be devoid of people and without anyone left to kill. Thus holding this maxim is irrational as it ends up being impossible to hold it. Universalizing a maxim statement leads to it being valid, or to one of two contradictions — a contradiction in conception where the maxim, when universalized, is no longer a viable means to the end or a contradiction in will where the will of a person contradicts what the universalization of the maxim implies.

The first type leads to a "perfect duty", and the second leads to an "imperfect duty. Kant's ethics focus then only on the maxim that underlies actions and judges these to be good or bad solely on how they conform to reason. Kant showed that many of our common sense views of what is good or bad conform to his system but denied that any action performed for reasons other than rational actions can be good saving someone who is drowning simply out of a great pity for them is not a morally good act. Kant also denied that the consequences of an act in any way contribute to the moral worth of that act, his reasoning being highly simplified for brevity that the physical world is outside our full control and thus we cannot be held accountable for the events that occur in it.

The Formulations of the Categorical Imperative :. See Kant's Aesthetics and Teleology. In political philosophy , Kant has had wide and increasing influence with the major political philosopher of the late twentieth century, John Rawls , [ citation needed ] drawing heavily on his inspiration in setting out the basis for a liberal view of political institutions. From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. Jump to: navigation , search. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it see how or discuss these issues on the talk page. This article's factual accuracy is disputed. Please help to ensure that disputed statements are reliably sourced. March This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.

Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. February Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals. Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason. Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch. Kantianism Kantian ethics. Transcendental idealism Critical philosophy Sapere aude Schema A priori and a posteriori Analytic—synthetic distinction Noumenon Categories Categorical imperative. Fichte F. Jacobi G. Hegel David Hume Arthur Schopenhauer. German idealism Neo-Kantianism. Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals 3rd ed. Philosophical schools of thought and philosophical movements.

Baptism - Bayesianism - Bioconservatism - Biosophy - Buddhist philosophy. Cartesianism - Categorical imperative - Charvaka - Chinese naturalism - Capitalism - Chinese philosophy - Christian existentialism - Christian humanism - Christian philosophy - Cognitivism - Communitarianism - Communism - Compatibilism and incompatibilism - Confirmation holism - Confucianism - Consequentialism - Conceptualism - Conservatism - Constructivist epistemology - Continental philosophy - Cosmopolitanism - Critical rationalism - Critical realism - Cynicism - Czech philosophy. German idealism - German philosophy - Greek philosophy - Gnosticism -. Kantianism - Korean philosophy.

Quantum mysticism - Quietism. Universalism - Utilitarian bioethics - Utilitarianism - Ubuntu. Zen - Zoroastrianism - Zurvanism. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia list article. See also: Glossary of philosophy. Schools of thought. Mazdakism Mithraism Zoroastrianism Zurvanism. Kyoto School Objectivism Postcritique Russian cosmism more Formalism Institutionalism Aesthetic response. Consequentialism Deontology Virtue.

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