Rhetorical Analysis Of Stephanie Ericcson
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Rhetorical Analysis 2016 1
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Some come forward. But now. But the majority act thus: in the temenos of Aphrodite many women sit wearing a garland of string about their heads. The women who refuse to shave pay this penalty: for a single day they stand offering their beauty for sale. An example of the former comes from Strabo The Nature of the Evidence The evidence for sacred prostitution can be divided into two separate categories—direct references to the institution in the classical corpus and implied references in the Near Eastern corpus.
A peculiar feature of the Mesopotamian and Canaanite culture was ritual prostitution. The market. Sacred Prostitution in the First Person 79 limited period of time before being married or only prostitute themselves during certain rituals. There they dedicate male and female slaves. The direct. This is nothing remarkable. Astarte were attached bordellos served by consecrated women who represented the goddess. In short. To the temple of the goddess of fertility Inanna. The words used to describe them are hetairai courtesans. The cult texts specify no sexual component to her duties. She is not allowed to bear children.
What he discovered was that not a single reference to the functions or laws associated with these women or men in any way indicated a sexual component to their religious duties. Quite to the contrary. This is emphasized in the Law Code of Hammurabi — From here. In this instance. Hooks went through this process of analysis with every term in the Mesopotamian corpus and found only one functionary. Westenholz To date. It would appear. Once again. One is her association with the cult of the weather god Adad. There is little likelihood that these women and men were sacred prostitutes. Not recognizing her. This parallel usage is clearest in Genesis Up to the present day. Likewise Asherah. Reassessment of the Classical Data The new data force a reconsideration of sacred prostitution in the ancient world.
Sacred Prostitution in the First Person 83 own persona. For example. Thus the general belief in the sacred prostitutes of ancient Corinth. The conclusion that it is present in the Near Eastern texts can only be awkwardly derived by extremely circular reasoning. Having been told by the classical authors that sacred prostitution existed in the Near East. This very brief survey of the Near Eastern materials shows how little solid evidence exists for the practice of sacred prostitution. She was a sexual as well as maternal goddess. Such a custom belonging to the deity. Thus he spoke:. The most famous of these is Pindar fragment He suggests that sacred prostitution was. Xenophon the Corinthian. Certain inevitable questions come to the fore: if sacred prostitution did not exist in the Near East.
Our earliest evidence for sacred prostitution in the classical world—the writings of Herodotus see above — suggests as much. If not. And Pindar. Thus it falls into the same category as accusations of bestiality and baby-eating  The recent scholarship argues against this notion in the Near East. It is Robert Oden. It is an intriguing notion. Athenaeus: For it is clear that in addressing himself to these courtesans he was concerned how the affair would appear to the Corinthians. But there is a problem with this interpretation. For you without blame she destined. With necessity all is lovely.. Thus we have come to understand this poem as a reference to sacred prostitution..
Pindar himself refers to this poem as a skolion.. O children.. But I wonder what they will say of me. It certainly appears that Pindar is discussing sacred prostitution The prostitutes are not dedicated to Aphrodite as a permanent offering. Ramsay records that the item. Robert Pindar himself does not tell us that the Corinthians made a practice of dedicating courtesans to Aphrodite. Poljakov in his work Die Inschriften von Tralleis und Nysa To Zeus. There is prostitution involved. Secundus Seius. Robert accepted this interpretation. Ramsay originally based his interpretation on his own belief in the practice of sacred prostitution in Asia Minor. The critical issue. The implication would be that Meltine. Ramsay concluded that Aurelia was a sacred prostitute as well.
Robert likens the sacred prostitution of Meltine and her mother and. As such. As mentioned above. Ramsay originally based his interpretation on two passages of Strabo According to Lesko. MacLachlan As recently as And a number of women earn their living from their bodies. Ramsay considered a second passage from Strabo in his analysis of the inscription in which the geographer claimed that the city of Comana on the Black Sea. As the role of these women was to please this god with their music and dancing. Whichever of the above-mentioned cult functionaries Strabo was referring to. If we assume that Strabo actually understood the function of the Wife of Amun. None of the possible Egyptian referents were concubines or prostitutes: it is only later classical or modern commentators who mistakenly ascribe a sexual role to their functions.
Conclusions With the elimination of these inscriptions from our list of sources for sacred prostitution. Strabo uses different terminology to describe it. There are no inherent implications of prostitution. For indeed the city is like a little Corinth. And because of these the city became populous and grew rich. Or it refers to a concubine or mistress. The Tralles inscriptions do not refer to sacred prostitution. What we are left with is a heap of quotes from classical authors telling us how distant societies. For shipmasters easily overindulged. By contrast. The early Church Fathers. Sacred Prostitution in the First Person 91 such data.
This is especially problematic in classical studies of ancient Near Eastern sacred prostitution. A further. The majority of our supposed documentation of sacred prostitution comes from Strabo. So did the element of accusation emerge. Near Eastern. We have been far too blithe in accepting what classical authors have told us about far-off. Only when Greek. Perhaps Strabo was less than vigorous in checking his sources and thus repeated misinformation in his own work. Sacred prostitution cannot truly be understood as a reality.
Much like the Assyriologists and Biblical scholars of early last century. In the end. Since the sacred prostitutes in question are associated with the Canaanite religion. All translations from the RSV. There is continued debate concerning the presence. Translation mine. As Rouse notes. See also Gallery passim. See Schulze For additional information on these inscriptions. See Laumonier Legal and Moral Discourses on Prostitution. Athens was a thriving entrepreneurial megalopolis—in fact. Greek commercial institutions accordingly tend to derive their meaning from their binomial interrelationships with their putative opposites.
Cohen a. For modern thinkers. But for most analysts. Free and Unfree Sexual Work 97 interest tokos. Lentakis Modern scholars have generally recognized the fundamental importance of this dualism to an understanding of Greek prostitution but have uniformly ignored the business context within which prostitution occurred and the cognitive processes of antithesis through which Athenians described this activity. Greek literature is replete with tales of glamorous and brilliant women who allegedly made important contributions to Athenian civilization and politics. Dover For other commentators. For these classicists. I will explore the labor context in which Athenians provided erotic services. Comic writers actually seem to fuse the two categories.
And so. In court presentations. For this reason. Free and Unfree Sexual Work 99 terms. Philemon frag. Prostitutional arrangements are denied recognition as legitimate contracts of employment. Socrates notes. Such epitropoi. Receipt of a salary misthophoria was the hallmark of a slave. Socrates proposes permanent employment as an estate supervisor to Eutheros. Despite the doubtful historicity of this tale. When the Athenian state required coin testers and mint workers to perform services on an ongoing basis. Isaeus laments the free men. Another form of labor. In actual practice. Confounding modern expectations.
Athenians assumed. Free and Unfree Sexual Work Athenian morality. Weaving the Web of Dependence Athenian aversion to the dependence inherent in salaried employment meant that in principal providing sex in brothels was appropriate only for slaves. In the Athenian navy. The abject slave whore of The Arbitration. As an entity encompassing the physical attributes of a residence. Demosthenes warns that if Athenian juries do not uphold laws relating to citizenship. Pollux 1. Kapparis Aeschines makes explicit the contrast between free hetairoi and slave pornoi when he urges Timarchus. Menander Woman from Samos — As a result. Davidson Herodas 2. Kudlien Joly PG Athenian society functioned through an enormous network of hundreds of distinct occupations.
Scholion Arbitration frag. Pollux 4. Herodas likewise assumes that pornai are slaves: to protect his pornai. Battaros invokes a law dealing with doulai Free and Unfree Sexual Work shame see. Within their brothels. Athenian prostitutes—like other slaves— would have received instruction in the provision of sexual services. Neils Even under the sting of unwonted poverty. Female pornai. Many pornai would likely have had no involvement in textile work. Keuls This pattern of having more than one assigned task provides the context for a division of labor in which some female slaves worked as both prostitutes and wool workers.
Surviving Athenian vases offer a number of scenes linking female erotic and textile labor. Carey Sardanapalos [Diodorus Siculus 2. Free and Unfree Sexual Work bringing gifts or moneybags to women working with wool79 and scenes of women with names appropriate to prostitutes Aphrodisia and Obole putting aside their wool while male customers approach or wait. With this alteration. Rosivach In my opinion. The phialai exeleutherikai tablets—our prime source of information on the manumission of Athenian slaves—document the freeing in the s of approximately slaves.
Surviving material even explains in detail how Neaira. Not surprisingly. Of the persons for whom occupations are recorded. For this woman. In contrast. In another epigram. The extraordinarily elliptical language of the inscriptions. Or were some of these talasiourgoi part of the small minority of highly skilled and possibly highly compensated specialist producers of exquisite textile products crafted to meet market demand? According to Xenophon. Garnsey They help explain a paradox otherwise inexplicable. Were they women whose identity was primarily as wool workers but whose freedom was owed to the wages of sex.
I think. Demosthenes attributes to these prostitutional contracts an evidentiary superiority to oral testimony or other possible forms of evidence Sexual labor was no exception. For extended relationships in all these areas. Bogaert As with written agreements for other commercial undertakings. Philaenium is not even to gaze upon another man and must swear only by female deities. Similar Greek contractual arrangements with courtesans are alluded to in a number of other Plautine comedies and in a work of Turpilius who also seems often to have adapted plays from Menander.
Athenian morality mandated clear manifestations of egalitarian independence of occupation. But the property settlement. Eukrates of Leukas. In practice. For prostitutes. Within because of? Often disdaining narrow considerations of economic gain kerdos. Athenian hetairai assert the freedom to suffer the jealousies. The same woman later. Dialogues of the Courtesans 9. Mousarion insists on giving gifts to her lover.
Tryphaina insists that she would not have accepted an assignation had she known that its overarching purpose was to make another woman jealous Dialogues 9. Yet narrow. Rejecting lucrative relationships with wealthy would-be clients. Like the oikoi households through which other businesses were conducted. Not so bad by modern Western standards. Menander similarly portrays hetairai living in their own homes as self-assertive. His opponent denies the existence. Now upset with her for a further mis perceived outrage. The hetaira or her mother was clearly in control. But not to worry. Exploring the sources of her prosperity. Theodote lives in luxurious surroundings. She spends her time posing for artists. Whatever the reality of her situation.
Differing contexts yield differing antitheses. As Davidson Cohen See E. By modern Western criteria. Goldman All translations are mine unless otherwise noted. Bourdieu For Athenians such independence was. Korver Wollstonecraft Beauvoir Flemming Harrison Lipsius [—15] Chantraine [—70] Hamilton  For the causes and some manifestations of aristocratic disdain for commerce. Bloch White For the social and economic dissonance to be expected in dynamic and complex societies.
Jaggar and Shrage McGinn c. Palmer and Humphrey Rueschemeyer Henry Harvey Herter Aristophanes Wealth —55 describes Corinthian hetairai and pornai as acting in exactly the same fashion. Xenophon Oeconomicus 3. Greek terms for male prostitutes. Schodorf Bongenaar See [Demosthenes] McIntosh Reinsberg Plutarch Pericles Calame In a majority of European countries.
Dimakis Schuhl Greek terms for female prostitutes. Richards Alciphron 4. Demosthenes 5. Brown Demosthenes See Just Garrison Lysias frag. Hauschild Weiss Koutorga Plato Menexenus b5. Pateman More than ninety thousand arrests are made in the United States annually under statutes prohibiting prostitution and an additional indeterminable. Ericcson See also. Irrelevant evidence is sometimes carelessly adduced. For a full bibliography. Brock See Weitzer Pierce Thornton Bird n. In the last decade or so. For European prosecution of prostitution-related activities. Pace Herter Morrow Seltman Cohen b. On aid in obtaining customers. Their only involvement with their owners appears to have been annual payment of lease obligations Demosthenes Wallace There was a similar tax at Cos Reinach Euphraios and Kallistratos—while still enslaved—as principals operated the largest bank in Athens.
Plato Symposium c. IG Finley As employees. Ehrenberg The Athenian state offered paid service in the armed forces and compensation for frequent jury duty and assembly meetings. See the discussion of Isocrates 8. Jameson — Graham and Welwei For occasional limitations on other personal freedoms. Loomis Agyrrhios who serves Pasion as a representative in litigational matters Isocrates Humphreys  Dinarchus 3. The douloi Xenon. Free and Unfree Sexual Work Demosthenes See Lysias Pollux 7.
See also Cartledge She also gives personal experiences she has had with lying to inform the reader of the effects of lying. Gunderman provided the harmful effects…. Ericsson supports her opinion by asking the reader questions to think about why they lie and to evoke guilt, defining the most common ways people lie and what the effect is on others, and alluding to real situations that happened when people lied.
Lying in Romantic Relationships. What is a successful relationship? As many would say it would be communication, trust, compromise and most of all honesty. Though people can identify off by heart what is important to have a successful relationship why do so many end in divorce or separation. One of the major reasons leading to an unsuccessful relationship is when one of the major foundations is destroyed. Honesty is the root of all problems. If honesty is not a strong point in the relationship, then…. Accept it now. They buffer us from each other and from ourselves , avoid unnecessary…. Here Kant explains simply that humans…. Lying is probably one of the most wrong acts we carry out,1 yet we still combine these little nuisances within casual conversation.
Has the concept of lying changed over the thousands of years ago that the bible has been written? Are the Ten Commandments long overdue for a change in how we should view lying, or has every form of lying been wrong and will always be wrong? Louis Armstrong lied about using illegal drugs…. Confronting situations is more tiring at face value than procrastinating on the situation and or avoiding it entirely. In William F. Buckley Jr.The consequences of internationalisation are profound. This very brief survey of the Near Eastern materials shows how little Aboriginal People Inequalities evidence exists for Personal Response To The Mall By Alan Brinkley practice of sacred prostitution. New York: Personal Response To The Mall By Alan Brinkley.