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The Lives was published by Plutarch late in his life after his return to Chaeronea and, if one may judge from the long lists of authorities given, it must have taken many years to compile. The chief manuscripts of the Lives date from the 10th and 11th centuries, and the first printed edition appeared in Rome in Thomas North's English translation was an important source-material for Shakespeare. Jacob Tonson printed several editions of the Lives in English in the late 17th century, beginning with a five-volume set printed in , with subsequent editions printed in , , , and The most generally accepted text is that of the minor edition of Carl Sintenis in the Bibliotheca Teubneriana five volumes, Leipzig ; reissued without much change in There are annotated editions by I.
Held, E. Plutarch's Life of Alexander is one of the few surviving secondary or tertiary sources about Alexander the Great, and it includes anecdotes and descriptions of incidents that appear in no other source. Likewise, his portrait of Numa Pompilius, an early Roman king, contains unique information about the early Roman calendar. Plutarch has been criticized for his lack of judicious discrimination in his use of authorities, and consequent errors and inaccuracies, but he gives an abundance of citations and, incidentally, a large number of valuable pieces of information, which fill up numerous gaps in historical knowledge obtained elsewhere.
He has been praised for the liveliness and warmth of his portrayals, and his moral earnestness and enthusiasm, and the Lives have attracted a large circle of readers throughout the ages. Plutarch structured his Lives by pairing lives of famous Greeks with those of famous Romans. After such a set of two and one set of four lives he generally writes out a comparison of the preceding biographies.
The table below gives the list of the biographies. Its order follows the one found in the Lamprias Catalogue , the list of Plutarch's works made by his hypothetical son Lamprias. The table also features links to several English translations of Plutarch's Lives available online. In addition to these 48 Parallel Lives , Plutarch wrote an additional four unpaired biographies that although not considered part of Parallel Lives , can be included in the term Plutarch's Lives.
The subjects of these four biographies are Artaxerxes, Aratus, Galba, and Otho. Volume 2. Of the biographies in Parallel Lives , that of Antonius has been cited by multiple scholars as one of the masterpieces of the series. In opposition to Stoic materialism and Epicurean "atheism" he cherished a pure idea of God that was more in accordance with Plato. He strongly defends freedom of the will, and the immortality of the soul. Platonic-Peripatetic ethics were upheld by Plutarch against the opposing theories of the Stoics and Epicureans.
His attitude to popular religion was similar. The gods of different peoples are merely different names for one and the same divine Being and the powers that serve it. Plutarch's writings had an enormous influence on English and French literature. Shakespeare paraphrased parts of Thomas North 's translation of selected Lives in his plays , and occasionally quoted from them verbatim. Ralph Waldo Emerson and the Transcendentalists were greatly influenced by the Moralia — so much so, in fact, that Emerson called the Lives "a bible for heroes" in his glowing introduction to the five-volume 19th-century edition. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined.
Montaigne 's Essays draw extensively on Plutarch's Moralia and are consciously modelled on the Greek's easygoing and discursive inquiries into science, manners, customs and beliefs. Essays contains more than references to Plutarch and his works. James Boswell quoted Plutarch on writing lives, rather than biographies, in the introduction to his own Life of Samuel Johnson. Plutarch's influence declined in the 19th and 20th centuries, but it remains embedded in the popular ideas of Greek and Roman history. One of his most famous quotes was one that he included in one of his earliest works. Jacques Amyot 's translations brought Plutarch's works to Western Europe.
He went to Italy and studied the Vatican text of Plutarch, from which he published a French translation of the Lives in and Moralia in , which were widely read by educated Europe. The complete Moralia was first translated into English from the original Greek by Philemon Holland in In , John Dryden began a life of Plutarch and oversaw a translation of the Lives by several hands and based on the original Greek. This translation has been reworked and revised several times, most recently in the 19th century by the English poet and classicist Arthur Hugh Clough first published in One contemporary publisher of this version is Modern Library.
In , English brothers John and William Langhorne published "Plutarch's Lives from the original Greek, with notes critical and historical, and a new life of Plutarch" in 6 volumes and dedicated to Lord Folkestone. Their translation was re-edited by Archdeacon Wrangham in the year From to , an American classicist, Bernadotte Perrin ,  produced a new translation of the Lives for the Loeb Classical Library. The Moralia is also included in the Loeb series, translated by various authors. Note: just main translations from the second half of 15th century. In , Hieronymus Emser translated De capienda ex inimicis utilitate wie ym eyner seinen veyndt nutz machen kan, Leipzig. The biographies were translated by Gottlob Benedict von Schirach — and printed in Vienna by Franz Haas, — Following some Hebrew translations of selections from Plutarch's Parallel Lives published in the s and the s, a complete translation was published in three volumes by the Bialik Institute in , and The first volume, Roman Lives , first published in , presents the translations of Joseph G.
The second volume, Greek Lives , first published in presents A. Three more biographies presented in this volume, those of Solon , Themistocles and Alcibiades were translated by M. The third volume, Greek and Roman Lives , published in , presented the remaining biographies and parallels as translated by Halevy. It completes the translation of the known remaining biographies. In the introduction to the third volume Halevy explains that originally the Bialik Institute intended to publish only a selection of biographies, leaving out mythological figures and biographies that had no parallels.
Thus, to match the first volume in scope the second volume followed the same path and the third volume was required. From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. Jump to: navigation , search. For other uses, see Plutarch disambiguation. Not to be confused with Plutarchy. Parallel Lives , Amyot translation, Main article: Parallel Lives. Main article: Moralia. Main article: Pseudo-Plutarch. New Haven: Yale University Press, Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Cornell University Press, Plutarch and His Roman Readers. Oxford University Press. ISBN Retrieved Although Plutarch wrote in Greek and with a Greek point of view, [ Plutarch's Lives , Volume I of 4.
The Gutenberg Project. The Online Library of Liberty. Plutarch's Lives. Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics. New York: Twayne Publishers, New York: Scribner, Citation translated by the author. Plutarch: Galba-Otho und die Apostelgeschichte : ein Gattungsvergleich. Religion and Biography, 14 ed. Berlin London: LIT, p. Holzbach, op. Penguin Books. Frank Cole Babbitt trans. The New Criterion Online. Plutarch and His Times. The Parallel Lives Vol. Loeb Classical Library Edition. In William W. Goodwin ed. Plutarch's Morals. London: Sampson, Low. Representative Men.
New York: Dutton, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University Library". The works of Plutarch. Arcesilaus Lacydes Telecles Evander Hegesinus. Carneades Clitomachus Charmadas Philo of Larissa. Ancient Greece. Outline Timeline. History Geography. City states Politics Military. Apella Ephor Gerousia Harmost. Synedrion Koinon. List of ancient Greeks. Philosophers Playwrights Poets Tyrants. Society Culture. Arts Sciences. Category Portal WikiProject. Hidden categories: Pages with script errors All articles with unsourced statements Year of birth unknown. Navigation menu Personal tools Log in Request account.