Police Brutality In The Black Community

Friday, August 13, 2021 5:58:08 PM

Police Brutality In The Black Community



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The Black Community. The Police. The Solution - Seun Babalola - TEDxPSUBehrend

If an officer is cleared of charges and honored for the actions, then any initial reports will not be part of the tracking mechanism. A vast majority of Americans support the thin blue line. We all want good officers to succeed. Police officers risk death every single day. The sacrifices that law enforcement make on our behalf are often overlooked and underappreciated. Police brutality statistics should not exist, but they do because a small minority of officers abuse their privilege. The other side of the story is all of the police officers who are injured in the line of duty. This is not referring to the fact that, in spite of the dangers of Covid, police officers have still gone to work and Covid has now killed more police officers than all other causes combined as of September It is referring to, for example, the over police officers who were injured or killed in protests or targeted attacks…in the week of May 25, alone Federalist, June 5, On average, in the United States, a police officer takes the life of a citizen every 7 hours.

Fatal Encounters. In , there were 1, people who lost their lives at the hands of a police officer or law enforcement official. In , that number was 1, Although lower, both years are still higher than the 1, people who were killed by police in US Department of Justice. Cop Crisis. The Guardian. The reasons or circumstances of the deaths are not revealed.

Out of the 2. The most common form of police misconduct in was excessive force. This is similar to the data that was collected in by the US Government. The second most common form of police misconduct is sexual assault. Cato Institute. Mapping Police Violence. Where you live matters when it comes to police brutality. The levels of violent crime in US cities are not a factor in the likelihood of police brutality occurring. An individual is 15 times more likely to be the victim of police brutality in Orlando, FL compared to Buffalo, NY even though Orlando has a lower violent crime rate. Only 3 police departments in the largest cities in the United States did not kill anyone from Police officers are The number of police officers who were killed in in ambush-style attacks: More than , law enforcements serve across the United States at any given time over the course of a year.

The average number of fatalities suffered by police officers in the United States over the past 10 years: The average number of civilians killed by police officers over the past decade per year: 1, The Dallas police department has implemented mandatory de-escalation techniques as part of their officer training. Dallas News. The Nation. The Bronze Night occurred from 26 to 29 April , when riots broke out over the Bronze Soldier of Tallinn being relocated. The government wanted to relocate the statue and rebury the associated remains near the Tallinn Military Cemetery; the response was heavily negative among the country's Russophone population, but for Estonians historically the Bronze Soldier served as a symbol of Soviet occupation and repression.

One Russian rioter was killed and other protesters were arrested. Due to the overcrowded detention centres, many of the detainees were taken to cargo terminals in Tallinn's seaport. Then-chairman of the Constitution Party Andrei Zarenkov stated "people were forced to squat for hours or lie on the concrete floor with their hands tied behind their backs. The police used plastic handcuffs which caused great pain. The police selectively beat the detainees including women and teenagers. We have pictures of a toilet which is stained with the blood of the injured". The police department denied all claims made against them. On 22 May , the Office of Prosecutor General of Estonia [] received more than fifty complaints on the police brutality that occurred during Bronze Night and opened seven criminal cases against them.

In November , the United Nations Committee Against Torture expressed concerns over the use of excessive force and brutality by law enforcement personnel in regards to Bronze Night. It was later discovered that the accused were only allowed outside contact and lawyer assistance when brought before a judge. Several detainees were denied access to a doctor while in police custody despite displaying visible injuries.

The policing structure of the nineteenth century France has been linked to the outcomes of France's reorganisation during the French Revolution. France's police ombudsman is currently dealing with 48 judicial inquiries into police brutality against its citizens, in which 1, individuals have been arrested within three months. Grey areas around police accountability have come to light, including questions over how his body was covered in bruises and whether or not carotid restraint which involves constricting the carotid arteries was used against him. Recent protests over disputed labor laws have revealed the extreme nature of police brutality in France, as many videos have surfaced in the media depicting police using disproportionate force on protesters.

French officials have forced these aggressive videos to be destroyed. A group known as the Stolen Lives Collective formed in response to the increased number of cases of police brutality in French communities. The group strongly demands the government to act against police brutality and to reduce racism present across the police force in France. On 14 December , Amnesty International reported police brutality during the yellow vests movement.

Historically, anti-communist police brutality was commonplace during the s and s following the Finnish Civil War. In , there were police officers in Finland. The number of these crimes were shown to increase annually. These types of cases were the most likely to be dismissed before proceeding to the prosecutor for consideration. In , a year-old police constable lured a year-old girl to his house by showing her his badge, where he got her drunk and raped her twice. The constable was fired and sentenced to a two-year suspended sentence.

Facial bones were also broken and he was left permanently damaged. One guard participating in the assault was sentenced to an day suspended prison sentence. The police twisted the man's hands and pushed him backward and broke a femur in the process. According to the police, he had resisted, contrary to eyewitness accounts. A third officer testified that the event was captured on surveillance video, which was stored but accidentally destroyed. The officer also stated that they had seen the footage and claimed that the video did not show any resistance on the part of the victim, but also that the assault happened out of the camera's view. Germany is sensitive towards its history in implementing policing practices, though this has not stopped international bodies from identifying a clear pattern of police ill-treatment of foreigners and members of ethnic minorities.

As law enforcement is vested solely with the states of Germany, each state's police force or "Land" police follows a different system of law. Accordingly, there is an absence of a federal comprehensive register, compiling and publishing regular, uniform, and comprehensive figures on complaints about police ill-treatment. The study was conducted by the Ruhr-University of Bochum and was the biggest study at the time to be conducted on police brutality in Germany. The study found that the low number of complaints was likely due to a low expectation of success. Despite this objective lack of accountability for policing practice, public levels of trust in police remain among the highest in the EU only behind Scandinavian countries and Switzerland.

Lower numbers exist in Scandinavian countries and the UK, [] suggesting that Germany is attempting to build the impression of having a more laissez-faire approach to policing, despite instances of police brutality. One of the first documented incidents dates back to , where year-old activist Sideris Isidoropoulos was killed by police while he put up campaign posters on a public building. In , year-old protester Stamatina Kanelopoulou died at the hands of the Greek police.

She was beaten to death by police officers during a demonstration commemorating the Athens Polytechnic uprising. The protests still occur to this day for protesters to commemorate the uprising. The protests are still commonly affected by police brutality around the time of the event. The level and severity of police brutality in Greece over the last few years have been profound. Due to the recent financial crisis, many austerity measures have been enforced, resulting in many individuals and families struggling to survive. Greek citizens opposed these austerity measures from the beginning and showed their disapproval with strikes and demonstrations.

In response, police brutality has significantly increased, with consistent reports on the use of tear gas, severe injuries inflicted by the police force, and unjustified detention of protesters. In Greek police allegedly tortured four young men believed to be bank robbery suspects following their arrest. It was claimed that the men were hooked and severely beaten in detention. The media published photos of the men, all with severe bruising, though the police's press release showed digitally manipulated photos of the four without injuries.

The Greek minister of citizen protection—Nikos Dendias—supported the police and claimed that they needed to use Photoshop to ensure the suspects were recognisable. Victims claimed they were tortured while being held at the Attica General Police Directorate and stated that police officers slapped them, spat on them, burnt their arms with cigarette lighters, and kept them awake with flashlights and lasers. Dendias countered by accusing the British newspaper that published the details of these crimes of libel. It was proven by forensic examination that the torture had taken place. The two Greek journalists who commented on The Guardian report the next day were fired. Police brutality in Greece today predominantly manifests itself in the form of unjustified and extreme physical violence towards protesters and journalists.

Amnesty International highlights that the continued targeting of journalists is concerning as it infringes on the right to freedom of expression. According to a recent Amnesty International report, there have been multiple instances in which police have used excessive brutal force, misused less-lethal weapons against protesters, attacked journalists, and subjected bystanders to ill-treatment, particularly over the course of the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising, which took place on 17 November Police allegedly sprayed protesters with chemical irritants from close range — in one instance a year-old girl with asthma had been treated in the hospital after this attack and when she informed police of her condition they laughed.

Video footage confirmed that on 13 November , riot police began to strike students who attempted to run away from the grounds of Athens Polytechnic. Media reports suggest that around 40 protesters had to seek subsequent medical attention to injuries sustained from brutal police beatings. A German exchange student said he was beaten randomly by riot police in the Exarheia district, stating his only reason for being there was that he was eating with other students.

The student gave a horrifying description of the violence he endured and cowered in a corner when he saw police because a few weeks before he had witnessed police beating a man they had arrested. He claimed that upon spotting him, about six police officers began assaulting him with their batons, and when they left they were replaced by another group of police. It has been indicated that riot police left beaten and gravely injured individuals without any medical assistance. Amnesty International urges Greece to effectively and promptly investigate these crimes against civilians, which violate human rights, and hold perpetrators accountable.

There have been instances where protesters were used as human shields — a photo of a female protester in handcuffs ahead of policeman as people threw rocks at the police has gained considerable media attention. None of the cases of police brutality above resulted in any prosecution of police force members. One case that sparked nationwide riots was the death of year-old Alexis Grigoropoulos, who was shot dead by a police officer in December during demonstrations in Athens. Unlike other cases, the police officer responsible was convicted of murder. The police force in Hungary consists of the National Bureau of Investigation and the Operational Police, who respectively deal with investigating severe crimes and riot suppression.

Police threw gas grenades and used rubber bullets to shoot protesters. Protesters and non-violent civilians passing by were targeted, tackled, and injured by the police. Police broke the fingers of a handcuffed man and raided restaurants and bars to find radical demonstrators. Police brutality ranged from offensive language to physically attacking protesters. Reports show that brutality extended to bypassers, tourists, news reporters, and paramedics. Hungarian Spectrum blogger Eva S. The requirements to become a police officer in Hungary are to graduate from high school, pass a matriculation exam, and complete two years in the police academy.

Most of what the Hungarian police academy teaches is academic theory and not much on practice. Police brutality has been a long-standing issue in Northern Ireland due to unsavoury police procedures used during the Troubles to obtain admissions of guilt. At present Northern Ireland still faces policing issues, though not to the extent during the Troubles. There are concerns about harassment by police against children aged 14—18 in low socio-economic areas of Northern Ireland which have led to a deep level of mistrust between the youth and the police.

Instances of harassment include police officials spitting on individuals or enforcing laws in a discriminatory fashion. Excessive use of force is unlawful, though section 76 7 of the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act allows the following considerations when deciding on what force is reasonable. A person acting for a legitimate purpose may not be able to weigh up the exact necessary action at the time or may act instinctively but honestly — in these instances, the use of force may be considered reasonable.

This is acknowledged by the Garda, who state: "Unfortunately, even in the most civilised democratic jurisdictions, tragedies resulting from police use of force will continue to devastate families and communities". The use of force by Irish Police officers has been of international concern, when the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture reported on this issue in the Republic three times within a decade.

Incidents that prompted this concern centred around the death of John Carty, a man suffering from mental illness who was shot and killed by police; the prosecution of seven Garda police members due to assaults on protesters in and in ; and a fifteen-year-old boy who died after spending time in Garda custody. Given this state of events, the Garda engaged independent Human Rights experts to conduct a review of the force who found numerous deficiencies. The government responded by implementing new procedures based on this report. These include a new complaints procedure available against the Garda Ombudsman Commission , disciplinary procedures and whistle-blowing protections.

The use of excessive violence by police officers has been a major concern in Italy since the s. Beatings and violence are commonly used during demonstrations, and several murders have been carried out. The following incidents caused concern in the country:. Latvia became an independent republic in and attempted to develop an effective and accepted police force, moving away from the untrusted Russian Tsarist administration.

Despite positive post-independence aims to reform the police system and to maintain public order and security, the Latvian police were underfunded and under-resourced. The National Militia was created in response, consisting of a group of volunteers to protect public order. From to , Latvia was occupied by the Soviet Union , and all previous regulations and practices were overruled by the Communist regime, which brought in the Soviet militsiya. More significantly, the approach of community policing was replaced with a militarised authority based on Marxist ideologies. During this time, an imbalance existed between police actions and citizens' rights.

Despite the lack of statistics, it is clear that police brutality was a major issue, as ustrated by the case where the former nominal head of the militsiya in practice - the secret police of the KGB of the Latvian SSR Alfons Noviks was sentenced to life imprisonment in this time period for genocide against the Latvian people. In , the independence of the state of Latvia was restored, which saw another change in the police system with the implementation of the Law on Police on 5 June.

This restructured the police into State, Security, and Local Government levels. The Law on Police reiterated ethical requirements, where police officers were prohibited from performing or supporting acts relating to "torture or other cruel, inhuman or demeaning treatment or punishment". However, despite these reforms, issues regarding police brutality arose among the Russian population living in Latvia; in , police forces were accused of dispersing a rally of predominately Russian pensioners through the use of excessive force and brutality.

Reports from Latvian prisons illustrate cases where police batons were used to inflict serious harm to inmates, including causing broken ribs, which often were not medically assessed for up to two days. This identifies fundamental flaws in the Latvian police authorities. While the CPT gives appropriate authorities recommendations for improvements such as a review board for ill-treatment, they found that in , Latvian authorities did not enact any of their recommendations.

This was alleged to occur mostly while being apprehended or at the police station including during questioning. Despite the flaws within the Latvian Police system, CPT has found that the number of allegations for poor treatment is decreasing over the years. The Latvian Police force operates under the Professional Ethics and Conduct Code of the State Police Personnel, which states "a police officer shall use force, special facilities or weapon only in the cases stipulated by due course of law and to attain a legal aim.

The use of spontaneous or -intentioned force, special facilities or weapon shall not be justified. The Grand Ducal Police is the primary law enforcement agency in Luxembourg and has been operating since 1 January , when the Grand Ducal Gendarmerie previous Luxembourg military merged with the police force. Police brutality is not perceived to be a serious threat to society in Luxembourg. The European Union's Anti-Corruption report placed Luxembourg, along with Denmark and Finland, as having the lowest incidents of reported police brutality within the European Union.

Laws in Luxembourg specifically distinguish between coercion and force in the Act on Regulating the Use of Force. However, this Act does not cover other forms of physical coercion by police officers such as the use of handcuffs as these are seen as basic police measures that do not require specific legislation. The officer must be legitimately executing his duty and his actions and must be compatible under the principles of proportionality, subsidiarity, reasonability, and measure to use force. The police inspector the term used for a common officer must undergo legal and tactical training lasting an intensive 26 months followed by further training at an allocated police station.

Although police brutality is almost nonexistent in Luxembourg, there are effective procedures in place for the investigation and punishment of any potential misconduct by the Grand Ducal Police. Malta's Police Force MPF is one of the oldest in Europe, with the Maltese government taking over the force in following the grant of self-governance. There are approximately 1, members in the Force. Under the Police Act of , Part V deals with the use of force, where"police officers may use such moderate and proportionate force as may be necessary [ Malta is expected to abide by the European Code of Ethics as a member of the European Union , where "the police may use force only when strictly necessary and only to the extent required to obtain a legitimate objective.

Similarly, the Council of Europe of which Malta is a member follows the five principles developed by the European Court of Human Rights , where definition 16 states that police officers "may use reasonable force when lawfully exercising powers". In , Lawrence Gonzi The Minister for Justice and Home Affairs called upon Martin Scicluna, a former civil servant and currently an expert on security issues at the Prime Minister's Office, to conduct an independent inquiry into 24 March police brutality incident.

The inquiry required the investigation of "allegations of beatings carried out on detainees at Safi Detention Centre by members of the Detention Service on 24 March and to make any recommendations necessary in the light of [his] findings". Scicluna, made public by the Maltese Government , it was concluded that "excessive force was used by Detention Service Personnel". Scicluna made recommendations that "appropriate [action] should be taken to reprimand the Detention Service officers involved in this operation and the relevant Senior NCOs for the acts of 25 excessive force used by some personnel in their charge". Although Malta has attempted to tackle the police brutality through the implementation of independent systems such as the Internal Affairs Unit IAU , the US Department of State report on Malta's human rights found that "authorities detained irregular immigrants under harsh conditions for up to 18 months during the review of their protected status.

After the IAU was implemented, the Human Rights Committee has raised questions on the use of force by state officials with respect to the countering of detention center riots, where police were accused of punching and striking detainees. An inquiry was consequently conducted in and following riots, resulting in criminal proceedings against the law enforcement officials responsible. They called upon Maltese authorities to conduct a rapid investigation emphasising the need to forbid violence against migrants and refugees, whether by state parties or by individuals.

The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination , concerning the conditions of migrants in detention, recommended that the "State party take appropriate measures to improve detention conditions and refrain from resorting to excessive use of force to counter riots by immigrants in detention centers, and also to avoid such riot". The Malta Police Force issued a statement detailing what had happened, in which it claimed that Mr. Calleja acted aggressively, refused to take a breathalyser test, ignored police orders, and used foul language.

He was subsequently arrested and taken to a police squad car, but according to the police statement, he kicked the driver, tried to escape and banged his head repeatedly against the car window. The police added that he even spit blood at police officers and bit a constable's arm, tearing off part of his skin. When asked to state his client's plea, Dr. Abela declared "absolutely not guilty," before accusing the police of grossly distorting the truth. Calleja's nose was bandaged, and Dr. Abela presented a medical certificate showing that it had been broken as evidence.

The lawyer also presented his client's blood-stained clothes — prosecuting inspector Jason Sultana originally objected, but relented after Dr. Abela said that this objection was due to the fact that the clothes helped confirm the injuries Mr. Calleja sustained. The man said his son was in a bar in Paceville when police went up to him because he was smoking. The man claimed that the police roughly manhandled his son, handcuffed him and threw him into a van where he was beaten up and suffered from lacerations to the head as well as bruised ribs and muscles. He was subsequently charged with threatening the two officers while carrying out their duties, breaching the peace and refusing to give his particulars.

He was cleared of the charges. In the ensuing verbal exchange the officer, Defence lawyer Rachel Tua said, made offensive remarks about the accused's father. Robertson was then allegedly thrown to the ground by the officer, who slammed the man's head on the ground, the lawyer said, also claiming that the accused had his injured arm cruelly twisted while he was being handcuffed.

She denied the prosecution's assertion that Robertson had assaulted police, adding that his friends had witnessed the incident and would be summoned to testify. Tua told magistrate Vella that the police refused to allow Robertson to speak to her during his arrest, instead of holding him overnight and taking a statement the next morning — with the police officer who allegedly delivered the beating present in the interrogation room. The police had not even told him why he was being arrested, she said. The Netherlands is signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights [] detailing the limits and responsibilities of police powers, and as such demonstrates a public commitment to the restricted legal use of police powers.

These powers include the use of reasonable force to enable the effective discharge of duties, with the stipulation force be used proportionately and only as a last resort []. The police force of the Netherlands is divided into 25 regional forces and one central force. A Regional Police Board, made up of local mayors and the chief public prosecutor, heads each regional force, with a chief officer placed in charge of police operations. Police accountability procedures include mandatory reporting of any on-duty incident that requires the use of force. The Rijksrecherche is the national agency responsible for the investigation of serious breaches of police conduct resulting in death or injury.

In the Rijksrecherche conducted 67 inquiries related to police officers, 21 of which were related to shootings. While Dutch society has a history of support for liberal values, it has been subject to practicing racial profiling and increased levels of police violence towards racial minorities. Van der Leun writes that suspicion and mistrust of some racial groups is evident and perpetuated by police attitudes at all levels of command. A notable case in racial profiling and the use of police force occurred in June with the death of Aruban man Mitch Henriquez. Henriquez died of asphyxiation while in police custody after being suspected of carrying a firearm and being arrested at a music festival in The Hague.

The first anniversary of his death in June provided a catalyst for protests against police brutality in The Hague, an area with a significant proportion of residents of non-European background. Eleven protesters were arrested for failing to comply with instructions from the Mayor to limit protest to certain areas of the city, which led some protesters to claim authorities were attempting to criminalize the right to peaceful protest. The five officers alleged to be involved in Hendriquez's death have been suspended but have yet to be charged.

The Polish police Policja force aims to "serve and protect the people, and to maintain public order and security". A key factor influencing the levels of police brutality in Poland has been the move from a communist state to a democracy. It is argued that Poland's transition has resulted in a more transparent system, reducing levels of police brutality. Although there is a more open police force within Poland, many organizations still have issues against police brutality.

The United States Department of State report on Poland raised several concerns of police brutality; [] The report cited a case of police officers using violence to acquire a confession for armed robbery in , [] though it also noted that these police officers were eventually indicted for police brutality. In year Polish women started protesting against new restrictions in abortion law. In response Polish police started arresting, use of gas against protesters and even beating them on the streets. Government states that use of force was necessary, even tho there was no reported example of aggression on the side of protesters. In recent years one of the main sources of controversy concerning Polish police brutality has been the use of rubber bullets to disperse uncooperative crowds at sporting events.

In , major riots occurred when a young basketball fan was killed by the police. In , a man was killed and a woman injured in a riot when Polish police accidentally shot live ammunition instead of rubber bullets into the crowd after an association football game. Although rubber bullets were used, one man was hit in the neck and later died at the hospital. The Polish police also have a history of police brutality within the Roma community. One particular case of police brutality against the Romani people occurred in when the police took four Roma men to a field and beat them.

Portugal is ranked the fourth most heavily policed country in the world. This is restrictive on multiple counts; for example, police are not permitted to use their firearms when an offender is running away. Portuguese police have adopted an aggressive position in combating football hooliganism. Despite their means being considered disproportionate, the police view the heavy-handed nature of their tactics as a necessary and successful approach towards protecting the community and maintaining social order. In , a viral video showed a Benfica fan being heavily beaten in front of his two children outside a football stadium. The footage, filmed by a local television station, showed Jose Magalhaes leaving the football match early with his children and elderly father before being confronted by police officers.

A statement released by the PSP acknowledged the controversial incident and announced that an investigation was launched against the officer responsible for initiating the attack. The statement also defended policing the large crowds in the aftermath of the football match. Riot police had clashed with supporters the following day in Lisbon as fans celebrated Benfica's title victory.

The harsh approach was described as sufficient, justified, and necessary to prevent the social disorder from escalating. In a similar incident in , another football club, Sporting Lisbon, complained about "barbaric" police assaults on their fans. There have been suggestions of institutionalised racism within the Portuguese police force, with activists claiming that discrimination is the deep-rooted cause of police brutality in Portugal. Despite a good record in migrant integration, historical parallels can be drawn between Portugal's colonial past and modern police racism. Racially-influenced police actions are illustrated by the violence in Cova de Moura, a low socio-economic area housing a significant migrant population.

Notably, during an incident in February , a young man named Bruno Lopes was aggressively searched and physically abused. On the same day, two human rights workers and five youth entered the Alfragide police station requesting information on Lopes' situation. Upon arrival, the group was allegedly attacked by police officers shouting racist slurs. The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance ECRI has raised concerns about police mistreatment of minorities in Portugal in all of its reports on the country. Portuguese people of Roma descent have also been victims of police harassment and brutality in the country. There are several examples publicized by the media: one case from involved a Roma man and his son.

The two walked to the Nelas police station in Porto to get some information, but the police allegedly ended up abusing them. Two officers were convicted in for physically assaulting the father. Some of the people living in the camp, including children and women, were reportedly attacked by GNR officers. Six Roma that were detained in the operation allege that they were later tortured and humiliated in the GNR station of Amares ; the GNR denied the accusations, while SOS Racismo promised to file a complaint against the force. Russian protests have gained media attention with the reelection of Vladimir Putin in More attention has been given to the frequency of police brutality shown on posted videos online.

Then-president Dmitry Medvedev initiated reforms of the police force in an attempt to minimize the violence by firing the Moscow police chief and centralising police powers. Police divisions in Russia are often based on loyalty systems that favor bureaucratic power among political elites. Phone tapping and business raids are common practice in the country, and often fail to give due process to citizens. Proper investigations into police officials are still considered insufficient by Western standards. In , Russia's top investigative agency investigated charges that four police officers had tortured detainees under custody.

Human rights activists claim that Russian police use torture techniques to extract false confessions from detainees. Police regulations require officers to meet quotas for solving crimes, which encourages false arrests to meet their numbers. Police brutality in Slovakia is systematic and widely documented, but is almost exclusively enacted on the Romani minority. The nation-state itself has particularly racist attitudes toward the Romani minority dating back to before the split of Czechoslovakia.

It is widely known that the government practiced forced sterilisation of Romani women and the segregation of the Romani into walled-off settlements; [] these forms of discrimination have filtered down to the police force. Excessive use of force against the Romani minority by police has been publicly criticised by the United Nations. In , a year-old Romani man died as a result of abuse in police custody at the hands of the Mayor of Magnezitovce and his son who works as a police officer.

The victim, Karol Sendrei, was allegedly chained to a radiator and fatally beaten after being forcefully removed from his home. In response to this incident, the Minister for Internal Affairs attempted to establish new measures to prevent police brutality by including mandatory psychological testing for law enforcement and better training around the effective use of coercion. However, police brutality toward the Roma minority remains a serious issue. Video footage shot by law enforcement officers in shows 6 Romani boys aged between being forced to strip naked, kiss, and slap each other. It is alleged that the boys were then set upon by police dogs , with at least two sustaining serious injuries.

Officers attempted to justify their behaviour because the boys were suspected of theft against an elderly citizen; however, cruel , inhuman, or degrading treatment by police, regardless of whether a crime has been suspected or committed, is prohibited under international law. As the footage was the main piece of evidentiary support for the crime, without it a conviction could not be passed down. Human rights watchdog organisations have raised concerns around police selectivity in making recordings of raids after a raid in the settlement of Vrbica in ; the police claimed to have not thought the settlement would be problematic; this raid involved 15 men being seriously injured. It is often the experience of the Roma in regards to pressing charges for police brutality, a counter charge is often threatened by law enforcement in an attempt to pressure the alleged victim into dropping the charges.

It is generally an effective move as the hostile attitude toward the Roma in Slovakia is so entrenched that lawyers are often reluctant to represent Romani victims. Minority groups in Slovenia, particularly the Roma and any residents from the former Yugoslav Republic face discrimination and sometimes brutality by Slovenian police. Their rights have not been fully restored yet. The police have been known to occasionally use excessive force against detainees in prisons, as well as foreigners and other minority groups, though no police officer has ever been arrested or charged.

The worst case of police brutality was the November protests; political dissatisfaction spurred a series of protests in Maribor, Slovenia. For the most part, the protests were peaceful; [] the crowds chanted and behaved non-violently for about two hours on 26 November also known as, "the second Maribor uprising". Slovenian media sources reported that the protest only turned violent after the police started using physical force. Since , Slovenian authorities have attempted to rectify this discrimination by introducing a two-day training programme on policing in a multi-ethnic community.

Spanish police developed a global reputation for brutality after images of clashes between demonstrators and police were spread on social networks and international news in and Video footage published online showed the use of force by police against peaceful demonstrators on both occasions. Images show officers using handheld batons to repeatedly hit peaceful demonstrators some of them in the face and neck , rubber bullets, pepper spray, and the injuries caused.

Despite public outrage, the Spanish government did not make any attempt to reform policing and police mistreatment of the public; the opposite happened instead: in July , new reforms to the law on Public Security and the Criminal Code were enforced which limited the right to freedom of assembly and gave police officers the broad discretion to fine people who show a "lack of respect" towards them. The UN Human Rights Commission has expressed concern at the impact this legislation could have on human rights and police accountability. The report of Torture in the Spanish State found at least people were tortured by law enforcement in at demonstrations and other public situations and in police stations and prisons.

The practice of torture is an everyday reality in Spain [ There were only convictions of police for mistreatment during these 10 years. Despite eyewitness testimony and medical reports confirming her injuries the Spanish Courts dismissed her claims on the grounds of insufficient evidence. They also condemned Spain for failing to investigate both Solomon's assault and other racist and sexist acts of violence by police officers. Under Spanish law, the police have the right to check the identity of anyone in a public space when there is a security concern. However, African and Latin American immigrants are most frequently targeted, often without a legitimate security concern.

Since the REVA Legally Certain and Efficient Enforcement project had been applied in Sweden in an attempt to deport illegal immigrants, it had exposed the brutal and illegal methods used by police. Officers have been shown to harass and racially profile non-white Swedes who often live in segregated suburbs. The marginalised such as the poor, homeless, people of colour, users of illicit drugs, and the mentally ill are facing Sweden as a Police State. This has resulted in social disobedience with ordinary people in Sweden updating others on Twitter and Facebook on the whereabouts of police. In police shot a man in his own home in front of his wife in the town of Husby [ clarification needed ]. The police alleged the man had been wielding a machete and threatening them with it.

The Stockholm riots were set off after the Husby shooting, where more than cars were torched. When the police showed up they had stones thrown at them. People said the police called them "monkeys" and used batons against them in the clash. The police picked him up and in the process of his arrest broke his arm and locked him in a cell for nearly six hours with no medical aid.

Socially excluded groups have been targeted and the result of police investigations often means the police officers are not deemed to be at fault. The common denominator for people on a special police list is being or married to a Romani person. A register of Romani people is kept by police. Police target apparent ethnicity at Stockholm subways for ID-checks to see if they are illegal immigrants. The police claim that they are "following orders", the "rule of law" and "democratic process".

The police ordered the local security guards to stop the child. One guard tackled him to the ground and sat on him. He then pushed the child's face into the pavement hard and covered his mouth. The child can be heard screaming and gasping on the video that has gone viral on the internet. The police then put him in handcuffs. In the United Kingdom employed approximately , police officers in the 43 police forces of England, Wales and the British Transport Police , the lowest number since March Physical force is considered appropriate if:.

This requires a consideration of the degree of force used. Any excessive use of force by a police officer is unlawful and an officer could be prosecuted under criminal law. Despite an average reduction in deaths in custody since , a Public Confidence Survey revealed that public satisfaction following contact with the police was falling and that there was a greater willingness to file a complaint. However, young people and people from black or minority ethnic groups were much less likely to come forward with complaints. While instances of police brutality in the UK is comparatively less than its US counterpart, there are nonetheless high profile incidents that have received wide media coverage.

In May , year-old Julian Cole was arrested outside a nightclub in Bedford by six police officers. The altercation left Cole in a vegetative state due to a severed spinal cord. Expert evidence indicated that Cole was struck with considerable force on his neck whilst his head was pulled back. On 20 February , Bedfordshire Police Constables Christopher Thomas and Christopher Pitts, chased Faruk Ali before allegedly knocking him over and punching him in the face outside his family home.

Ali was described as an autistic man who had the mental age of a five-year-old. Following an investigation by the IPCC, the officers were fired following breaches of standards of professional conduct including standards of honesty, integrity, authority, equality, and diversity. On 13 July , year-old Mzee Mohammed died in police custody after being detained by Merseyside police at a Liverpool shopping centre. Officers were called to the scene after Mzee was allegedly behaving aggressively and erratically while armed with a knife. After successfully detaining Mzee, the police called an ambulance after Mzee suffered a "medical episode" and was pronounced dead.

Questions remain about how appropriate medical condition could have been administered given how the handcuffs would restrict breathing. The public incidents in which police judgments or actions have been called into question raised concerns about police accountability and governance. On 16 March , people were arrested in Montreal at a protest against police brutality. In the United States, major political and social movements have involved excessive force by police, including the civil rights movement of the s, anti-war demonstrations, the War on Drugs , and the Global War on Terrorism. In , the UN Committee against Torture condemned police brutality and excessive use of force by law enforcement in the US, and highlighted the "frequent and recurrent police shootings or fatal pursuits of unarmed black individuals".

Seven members of the United States Maryland military police were convicted for the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse incidents in Iraq. The United States has developed a notorious reputation for cases of police brutality. The United States has a far higher number of officer-involved killings compared to other Western countries. According to a study published in The Lancet , more than 30, people have died by police violence in the United States from to Breonna Taylor was killed at the age of 26 when police forced entry into the apartment as part of an investigation into drug dealing operations. Officers said that they announced themselves as police before forcing entry, but Walker said he did not hear any announcement, thought the officers were intruders, and fired a warning shot at them and hit Mattingly in the leg, and the officers fired 32 shots in return.

Walker was unhurt but Taylor was hit by six bullets and died. On 23 September, a state grand jury found the shooting of Taylor justified but indicted officer Hankison on three counts of wanton endangerment for endangering Taylor's neighbors with his shots. On 25 May , George Floyd , who was unarmed and in handcuffs, died after a Minneapolis police officer, Derek Chauvin , knelt on his neck for over nine minutes seconds while 3 other officers appeared to hold down his back and legs. The officer involved was charged with 2nd-degree murder and three colleagues stand accused of aiding and abetting. The death, captured on video, triggered protests against racial discrimination across the US and the world.

The police in Brazil have a history of violence against the lower classes. In the latter half of the twentieth century, the country was heavily urbanized, while over its last military dictatorship state governments became responsible for Brazilian police forces experiencing which became heavily militarized. The militarist approach to dealing with social issues led the country to its highest violence levels and in Brazil had more violent deaths than the Syrian Civil War , [] with most people fearing the police. A significant portion of the officers involved had already been charged for crimes previously. The unrest has since spread to many cities throughout Colombia. As of 12 September [update] , 13 people have died and over have been injured as part of the protests.

In recent years, Chile 's police force Carabineros de Chile has been under investigation because of various cases of power abuse and police brutality, particularly towards students participating in riots for better education and the indigenous Mapuche people; countless cases of violence were enacted on this group for allegedly committing crimes; it was later discovered that some Carabineros officers were responsible for these crimes and blamed Mapuches. One of the recent cases involving the Mapuche was Camilo Catrillanca 's death. The first reports of his death came from the Carabineros who claimed that Camilo shot at a police officer and others while being investigated for allegedly stealing 3 cars.

After seeing Camilo "attacking" policemen with a gun in an attempt to escape, the Carabineros shot Camilo in the head and killed him. It was later discovered that this was not what happened; a partner of the police officer that killed Camilo showed the video of the policeman killing him while he drove a tractor. Carabineros was asked why they did not have a recording of the officer being shot at by Camilo. The institution responded the officer destroyed the SD card because it had private photos and videos of his wife; most people were not satisfied with the answer. The policeman was later discharged and prosecuted. During the —20 Chilean protests , Carabineros de Chile has caused hundreds of eye mutilations on protesters and random civilians with so-called "rubber" bullets and tear gas canisters.

In November a police officer fatally shot a year-old indigenous man, Kumanjayi Walker, after Walker stabbed two police officers, in the central Australian town of Yuendumu. The police officer was charged with murder. Police officers are legally permitted to use force. Jerome Herbert Skolnick writes in regards to dealing largely with disorderly elements of the society, some people [ who? There are many reasons why police officers can sometimes be excessively aggressive. It is thought that psychopathy makes some officers more inclined to use excessive force than others. In one study, police psychologists surveyed officers who had used excessive force.

The information obtained allowed the researchers to develop five unique types of officers, only one of which was similar to the bad apple stereotype. These include personality disorders; previous traumatic job-related experience; young, inexperienced, or authoritarian officers; officers who learn inappropriate patrol styles; and officers with personal problems. Schrivers categorized these groups and separated the group that was the most likely to use excessive force. A broad report commissioned by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police on the causes of misconduct in policing calls it "a simplistic explanation that permits the organization and senior management to blame corruption on individuals and individual faults — behavioural, psychological, background factors, and so on, rather than addressing systemic factors.

The use of force by police officers is not kept in check in many jurisdictions by the issuance of a use of force continuum , [] which describes levels of force considered appropriate in direct response to a suspect's behavior. This power is granted by the government, with few if any limits set out in statutory law as well as common law. Violence used by police can be excessive despite being lawful, especially in the context of political repression. Police brutality is often used to refer to violence used by the police to achieve politically desirable ends terrorism and, therefore, when none should be used at all according to widely held values and cultural norms in the society rather than to refer to excessive violence used where at least some may be considered justifiable.

Studies show that there are officers who believe the legal system they serve is failing and that they must pick up the slack. This is known as "vigilantism", where the officer-involved may think the suspect deserves more punishment than what they may have to serve under the court system. During high-speed pursuits of suspects, officers can become angry and filled with adrenaline, which can affect their judgment when they finally apprehend the suspect. The resulting loss of judgment and heightened emotional state can result in inappropriate use of force.

The effect is colloquially known as "high-speed pursuit syndrome. Police brutality is the misuse of power by the police force to intentionally harm individuals. In , the percentage of people who have confidence in the police hit its lowest since at 52 percent. Individual state statutes and police department policies generally say that police officers are legally allowed to shoot in the instance that they feel the need to protect their lives or an innocent life [ citation needed ] or to prevent the suspect from escaping and posing a dangerous threat to bystanders in society.

Garner made it possible to shoot a fleeing suspect only if they may cause harm to innocent people to prevent officers from shooting every suspect that tries to escape. Lorie Fridell, Associate Professor of Criminology at University of South Florida states that "racial profiling was the number one issue facing police [in the s]", which led her to two conclusions: "bias in policing was not just a few officers in a few departments and, overwhelmingly, the police in this country are well-intentioned.

So the black crime implicit bias might be implicated in some of the use of deadly force against African-Americans in our country". A experiment conducted on white undergraduate female students showed that there was a higher degree of fear of racial minorities. The paper concluded that people with a higher fear of racial minorities and dehumanization had "a lower threshold for shooting Black relative to White and East Asian targets". While the Justice Department reported that Cleveland police officers used "excessive deadly force, including shootings and head strikes with impact weapons; unnecessary, excessive, and retaliatory force, including Tasers, chemical sprays, and their fists" on the victim, there was no real repercussions from their actions.

In a report released concerning the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri , the Justice Department admitted to the Ferguson's police department's pattern of racial bias. The department argued that it is typically an effort to ticket as many low-income black residents as possible in an attempt to raise local budget revenue through fines and court fees.

The Justice Department explained police encounters could get downright abusive when the person being questioned by the police officers becomes disrespectful or challenges their authority. The Department of Justice also released a statement that confronted police officers' susceptibility to implicit bias: One of the things they looked at was "threat perception failure", where an officer may believe that the person was armed and it turned out not to be the case. These failures were observed to occur more frequently when the suspect was black. Data released by the US Bureau of Justice Statistics showed that from to at least 4, people died while being arrested by local police.

Of the deaths classified as law enforcement homicides, there were 2, deaths; of those, 1, or According to the police violence tracking website fatalencounters. However, for every million in population, police killed According to the Police Violence Report, 1, people were killed by police, of which in 16 cases police officers were charged with a crime. Sam Sinyangwe, founder of the Mapping Police Violence project, stated in that "black people are three times more likely to be killed by police in the United States than white people. They automatically investigate any deaths caused by or thought to be caused by, police action.

In the United States, more police are wearing body cameras after the death of Michael Brown. The US Department of Justice has made a call to action for police departments across the nation to implement body cameras into their departments so further investigation will be possible. Police brutality is measured based on the accounts of people who have experienced or seen it , as well as the juries who are present for trials involving police brutality cases, as there is no objective method to quantify the use of excessive force for any particular situation. In addition to this, police brutality may also be filmed by police body cameras , worn by police officers. Whereas body cams could be a tool against police brutality by prevention, and by increasing accountability.

However according to Harlan Yu, executive director from Upturn, for this to occur, it needs to be embedded in a broader change in culture and legal framework. In particular, the public's ability to access the body camera footage can be an issue. In , only one out of five people thought that police brutality was a serious problem. Police brutality is relative to a situation: it depends on if the suspect is resisting.

African Americans, women, and younger people are more likely to have negative opinions about the police than Caucasians, men and middle-aged to elderly individuals. Various community groups have criticized police brutality. These groups often stress the need for oversight by independent civilian review boards and other methods of ensuring accountability for police action. Umbrella organizations and justice committees usually support those affected. Amnesty International is a non-governmental organization focused on human rights with over 3 million members and supporters around the world.

The stated objective of the organization is "to conduct research and generate action to prevent and end grave abuses of human rights, and to demand justice for those whose rights have been violated". Tools used by these groups include video recordings, which are sometimes broadcast using websites such as YouTube. Civilians have begun independent projects to monitor police activity to reduce violence and misconduct.

These are often called "Cop Watch" programs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Use of excessive force by a police officer. For other uses, see Excessive force disambiguation. This article has multiple issues. Please help to improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably.

Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. June This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Some entries are in broken English, lack specificity, or could use improvement in sentence structure or flow. Please help improve this article if you can. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints.

Please improve the article by adding information on neglected viewpoints, or discuss the issue on the talk page. November Police brutality by country India Canada United Kingdom. United States Canada. Main article: List of cases of police brutality.

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