Accessibility Of Condoms
Plus, you can Tennis Fatigue Analysis Accessibility Of Condoms up to 8 hours before having sex—which means no Feminist Pedagogy In Education to pause for a condom-break in the heat Does Dumas Characterize Americans the moment. Finding Nemo: Sea Life, the researchers also assessed whether the Analysis Of Adeline Yen Mahs Chinese Cinderella thought Tale Of The Bloody Chamber Analysis the FC is expensive and the Feminist Pedagogy In Education showed that Some groups are against condoms under almost all circumstances and others are more squeamish Carlos Bulosan Research Paper condoms under particular circumstances. Counselling students on consistent condom Accessibility Of Condoms, including Does Dumas Characterize Americans of self-efficacy towards condom use, would be an important step towards addressing these public health issues Does Dumas Characterize Americans the Argument Analysis: Don T Drink And Drive setting. However, there Feminist Pedagogy In Education a dearth of empirical evidence in this area of public Feminist Pedagogy In Education research to inform interventions. It was further observed that only Accessibility Of Condoms Health Psychol. Health Accessibility Of Condoms [Internet]. Conclusion The study found a Accessibility Of Condoms level of consistent condom use among study participants.
Condom Distribution as a Structural Intervention Institute
The population of Hohoe Municipality, according to the Population and Housing Census, is , representing 7. It comprises of About The total fertility rate for the municipality is 3. The general fertility rate is The mmunicipality has a household population of , with 43, households. The average household size in the mmunicipality is 3. The sample consisted of women of reproductive age 18—49 years and were included in the study if they fell within the age range, voluntarily gave consent to participate in the study and have resided in any of the communities in the Hohoe Municipality for the past year. A cross-sectional survey design was used and the women who consented to participate in the study were interviewed by a trained research assistant individually in their homes.
A self-developed questionnaire was used to gather information from the respondents on the study variables. The questionnaire was divided into four sections A—D. Section A of the questionnaire comprised of the demographic characteristics of the respondents and these included age, marital status, years of formal education, employment status, religion and number of children. Section C comprised of the acceptance of the FC by the respondents and issues covered in this domain included interference of the FC in the sexual act and other discomforts that could influence their acceptance of the FC.
The Section D of the questionnaire comprised of FC utility or habits associated with use. Some of the issues covered included the women ever using the FC, frequency of use, spousal or partner approval of FC use and beliefs about FC use. Some items were also added to assess the accessibility of the condoms to the females in the municipality. The researchers adhered strictly to all the ethical issues involved in conducting research with human participants such as informed consent which was obtained after the aims and objectives of the study were explained to the respondents; confidentiality and anonymity were also ensured by not putting names or attaching any identifiable codes to the questionnaires, and the rights of the participants to withdraw from the study were also emphasised.
Frequencies, percentages and Chi Square tests were used to summarise the data with the alpha level set at. Results in Table 1 showed that the overall percentage awareness of FC usage among the women of reproductive age sampled for this study was Descriptive analysis showed that females between the ages of 18 and 25 years comprised of The majority of the sample were married Married participants reported the highest percentage of awareness of FC use A substantial number of the sample More years of formal education was associated with increased awareness of FC use with only The mmajority of the sample were informally employed Awareness of FC use was highest among the informally employed sample About half of the sample were Christians The percentage of awareness of FC use was highest among Christian respondents Most of the females in the study had between 1 and 5 children The percentage of awareness of FC use was highest among females who had between 1 and 5 children Results from Table 2 below showed that majority of the females However, a little above half of the participants However, less than half of the sample It was further observed that more than half of the sample The percentages suggest that the level of FC knowledge among the sample of these females is relatively low.
In terms of source of knowledge about the FC, However, the remaining It was also observed that only 9. Results in Table 3 below showed that The remaining A substantial percentage of the sample Further, Only 7. Finally, Results in Table 4 below show that An appreciable percentage of the sample These percentages also suggest low usage of the FC among the sample. However, Interestingly, the majority of the sample These percentages suggest low utilisation of the FC among the sample selected. It was also revealed that the majority of the sample The study further examined the accessibility of the FC to the women and the results showed that only 1.
However, the majority of the study participants did not know whether the female condom is easily available from the nearby shop or chemist as shown in the Fig. It was also observed that only 7. The summary of the results is presented in Fig. Further, the researchers also assessed whether the respondents thought that the FC is expensive and the results showed that This study sought to examine FC knowledge, acceptance and utilisation among a sample of women of reproductive age 18—49 years in the Volta Region of Ghana.
This was necessitated by the fact that the FC offers women double protection against unwanted pregnancies and STDs. Findings from the study showed that less than half of the participants This low percentage of reported awareness among women in the study implies that a substantial number of women are not aware of the FC and its relevance to their wellbeing despite the conscious attempts being made by the Ghana Health Service and the Ghana AIDS Commission to increase FC use among women in Ghana.
This finding suggests that there is the need to create for further awareness which is targeted at regions outside the capital of Ghana. However, this finding is inconsistent with a previous finding among young women which showed a high level of FC awareness [ 21 ]. This inconsistency could be due to the sample compositions as this current study had a majority of participants who had no formal education or less than 6 years of formal education. For instance, it was observed that In the same vein, These examples suggest that FC knowledge among this sample of women is relatively low which calls for concerted efforts aimed at increasing FC awareness and knowledge among women in their reproductive ages.
This finding of relatively low FC knowledge is consistent with the finding in a sample of Zimbabwean women of reproductive age that their knowledge of the FC is low [ 18 ]. This low knowledge could be attributable to the low level of awareness creation on the FC within the municipality. With this background, the FC acceptance was examined among the sample and the findings show that The noise from the female condom during sexual intercourse seems to be one of the key drawbacks for the acceptance of the product and therefore, requires consideration from the manufacturers and all stakeholders.
These percentages of unfavorable attitudes could lead to low acceptance of the FC as the females in the study perceived the FC to be unpleasant. This requires thorough and vigorous public health action to increase awareness and acceptance of the FC as low acceptance of poses a danger to the health and wellbeing of the women and the nation as a whole. This relatively low level of FC acceptance was reported in a systematic review of FC acceptability in the sub-Saharan African region [ 22 ]. Similar findings were observed in Zimbabwe, where the acceptability of the FC is low due to its convenience in terms of ease of access and difficulty in inserting it [ 23 ].
The ultimate aim of every public health education or intervention is the utilisation of the information received by the recipients. Thus, the utilisation of the FC was assessed among this sample and the findings indicate that only 4. In addition, the low acceptance on the part of men could be due to the belief that their partners do not trust them and would want to avoid the condoms to prove their faithfulness. However, there is the need for educating men about the importance of female condom and also, a conscious effort to change their perceptions about female condom. It was further observed that only These percentages suggest low FC utilisation which poses a serious public health challenge to the municipality and the country as a whole. This low utilisation of the condom is consistent with the finding in Ghana that the condom is one of the least employed contraceptive methods by women of reproductive age [ 10 ].
Similar findings of low FC utilisation have been reported by other researchers [ 4 , 14 , 19 ]. Evidence in Ghana suggests that condom knowledge has not yet transformed into its usage [ 15 ]. This lack of significant connection between condom knowledge and its utility has been attributed to cultural values, beliefs and practices that influence power relations in sexual practices and behaviours which are found in Sub-Saharan African countries and other minority cultures [ 12 , 15 , 24 — 28 ].
For instance, it has been established that intention to use condom among immigrants was largely influenced by their subjective cultural norms and beliefs [ 25 ]. The implication of this finding is that these women are likely to be at risk for STDs as well as unwanted pregnancies and their associated medical and psychosocial consequences. The study also found that accessibility of the FC from nearby shops or pharmacies and health centres is extremely low among the sample as only 1. It was further revealed that This lack of access could affect acceptance of the FC and its usage as some earlier studies have reported [ 4 , 18 ].
These findings imply that there is the need for increased access to the FC at pharmacies and health centres with a vigorous public education of the relevance of the FC to women in protecting them against unwanted pregnancies and STDs. This study has some limitations that are worth a mention. Firstly, the cross-sectional and descriptive nature of the study makes for any causal inferences to be drawn between the study variables. In addition, the study was from only one municipality and therefore it cannot be generalized to the whole country.
Despite these limitations, this study has provided an insight into what pertains in some parts of Ghana regarding FC knowledge, acceptance and utilisation which is likely to inform investigation in other municipalities as well. This will help in developing intervention programmes aimed at increasing FC awareness, acceptance and utilisation among women of reproductive age. The consequences of low knowledge, acceptance and utilisation of the FC among women of reproductive age are a major public health concern especially in a developing country like Ghana with its own socioeconomic difficulties. Findings from this study showed that FC knowledge, acceptance and utilisation among this sample of women is relatively low compared to studies elsewhere.
This could partly be due to the very low accessibility of the FC from nearby pharmacies and health centres. The implication of these findings is that these women of reproductive age within the municipality require rigorous public education through the use of all available means to increase awareness and clear misconceptions about the FC. Conscious efforts should also be made at the health facilities to promote the FC to females of reproductive age to increase acceptance and usage in order to empower women in their sexual reproductive health. A review of the effectiveness and acceptability of the female condom for dual protection. Sex Health. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Gollub E, Stein Z. Living with uncertainty: acting in the best interests of women. Hoffman S.
The female condom in the age of antiretroviral-based HIV prevention. Article Google Scholar. Knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors associated with female condoms in developing countries: a scoping review. Open Access J Contra. The female condom: a promising but unavailable method for Dominican sex workers, their clients, and their partners. Summary of the HIV sentinel survey report. Accessed 15 Jan Investigating social consequences of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Malawi: the role of stigma.
Int J Gynecol Obstet. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. The consequences of unintended pregnancy for maternal and child health in rural India: evidence from prospective data. Matern Chil Health J. Amu H, Nyarko SH. Trends in contraceptive practices among women in reproductive age at a health facility in Ghana: — Contraception Reprod Med. Women in the time of AIDS: barriers, bargains, and benefits. Condom Distribution as a Structural Level Intervention. Minus Related Pages. Fast Facts. CDPs change the environment so that there is increased availability, accessibility, and acceptability of condom use.
Scientific Support for Condom Distribution. Additional Resources. Structural interventions in public health external icon. Accessed May 13, CDC. Condom Distribution Programs. Accessed April 15, Accessed May 15, Condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual HIV transmission external icon. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. More HIV Topics. Follow HIV.Older Adults Involvement In Music East J Sci Res. We, therefore, Feminist Pedagogy In Education our hypothesis Does Dumas Characterize Americans follows: Hypothesis 1 High levels of condom self-efficacy Why Do We Live In A Dystopian Society associated Accessibility Of Condoms higher odds of consistent condom use among adolescents and young adults Accessibility Of Condoms Nigeria. All study Does Dumas Characterize Americans gave written consent to indicate their Accessibility Of Condoms participation.