The Black Cat Edgar Allan Poe
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Poe and Allan reached a temporary rapprochement after the death of Allan's wife in Poe later failed as an officer cadet at West Point , declared a firm wish to be a poet and writer, and parted ways with Allan. Poe switched his focus to prose and spent the next several years working for literary journals and periodicals, becoming known for his own style of literary criticism. His work forced him to move among several cities, including Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York City. In , he married his year-old cousin, Virginia Clemm , but she died of tuberculosis in In January , Poe published his poem " The Raven " to instant success.
He planned for years to produce his own journal The Penn later renamed The Stylus , but before it could be produced, he died in Baltimore on October 7, , at age 40, under mysterious circumstances. The cause of his death remains unknown, and has been variously attributed to many causes including disease, alcoholism, substance abuse, and suicide. Poe and his works influenced literature around the world, as well as specialized fields such as cosmology and cryptography. He and his work appear throughout popular culture in literature, music, films, and television. A number of his homes are dedicated museums today. The Mystery Writers of America present an annual award known as the Edgar Award for distinguished work in the mystery genre.
Poe was then taken into the home of John Allan, a successful merchant in Richmond, Virginia , who dealt in a variety of goods, including cloth, wheat, tombstones, tobacco, and slaves. The Allan family had Poe baptized into the Episcopal Church in John Allan alternately spoiled and aggressively disciplined his foster son. There he studied at a boarding school in Chelsea until summer Poe moved with the Allans back to Richmond in In , he served as the lieutenant of the Richmond youth honor guard as the city celebrated the visit of the Marquis de Lafayette. Poe may have become engaged to Sarah Elmira Royster before he registered at the University of Virginia in February to study ancient and modern languages.
It had strict rules against gambling, horses, guns, tobacco, and alcohol, but these rules were mostly ignored. Jefferson had enacted a system of student self-government, allowing students to choose their own studies, make their own arrangements for boarding, and report all wrongdoing to the faculty. The unique system was still in chaos, and there was a high dropout rate. He claimed that Allan had not given him sufficient money to register for classes, purchase texts, and procure and furnish a dormitory. Allan did send additional money and clothes, but Poe's debts increased. He traveled to Boston in April , sustaining himself with odd jobs as a clerk and newspaper writer,  and he started using the pseudonym Henri Le Rennet during this period.
Poe was unable to support himself, so he enlisted in the United States Army as a private on May 27, , using the name "Edgar A. He claimed that he was 22 years old even though he was Only 50 copies were printed, and the book received virtually no attention. Poe was promoted to "artificer", an enlisted tradesman who prepared shells for artillery, and had his monthly pay doubled. Poe revealed his real name and his circumstances to his commanding officer, Lieutenant Howard, who would only allow Poe to be discharged if he reconciled with Allan. Poe wrote a letter to Allan, who was unsympathetic and spent several months ignoring Poe's pleas; Allan may not have written to Poe even to make him aware of his foster mother's illness.
Frances Allan died on February 28, , and Poe visited the day after her burial. Perhaps softened by his wife's death, Allan agreed to support Poe's attempt to be discharged in order to receive an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point , New York. Poe was finally discharged on April 15, , after securing a replacement to finish his enlisted term for him. Poe traveled to West Point and matriculated as a cadet on July 1, On February 8, , he was tried for gross neglect of duty and disobedience of orders for refusing to attend formations, classes, or church.
He tactically pleaded not guilty to induce dismissal, knowing that he would be found guilty. Poe left for New York in February and released a third volume of poems, simply titled Poems. They may have been expecting verses similar to the satirical ones that Poe had been writing about commanding officers. Corps of Cadets this volume is respectfully dedicated". The book once again reprinted the long poems "Tamerlane" and "Al Aaraaf" but also six previously unpublished poems, including early versions of " To Helen ", " Israfel ", and " The City in the Sea ".
His elder brother Henry had been in ill health, in part due to problems with alcoholism, and he died on August 1, After his brother's death, Poe began more earnest attempts to start his career as a writer, but he chose a difficult time in American publishing to do so. After his early attempts at poetry, Poe had turned his attention to prose, likely based on John Neal's critiques in The Yankee magazine. Found in a Bottle ". Kennedy , a Baltimorean of considerable means who helped Poe place some of his stories and introduced him to Thomas W.
White, editor of the Southern Literary Messenger in Richmond. Poe became assistant editor of the periodical in August ,  but White discharged him within a few weeks for being drunk on the job. Poe was reinstated by White after promising good behavior, and he went back to Richmond with Virginia and her mother. He remained at the Messenger until January During this period, Poe claimed that its circulation increased from to 3, On May 16, , he and Virginia held a Presbyterian wedding ceremony at their Richmond boarding house, with a witness falsely attesting Clemm's age as He published numerous articles, stories, and reviews, enhancing his reputation as a trenchant critic which he had established at the Messenger.
Also in , the collection Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque was published in two volumes, though he made little money from it and it received mixed reviews. In June , Poe published a prospectus announcing his intentions to start his own journal called The Stylus ,  although he originally intended to call it The Penn , as it would have been based in Philadelphia. He bought advertising space for his prospectus in the June 6, issue of Philadelphia's Saturday Evening Post : "Prospectus of the Penn Magazine, a Monthly Literary journal to be edited and published in the city of Philadelphia by Edgar A. Poe left Burton's after about a year and found a position as writer and co-editor at the then-very-successful monthly Graham's Magazine.
Our success has been unexampled, almost incredible. We may assert without fear of contradiction that no periodical ever witnessed the same increase during so short a period. Around this time, Poe attempted to secure a position within the administration of President John Tyler , claiming that he was a member of the Whig Party. One evening in January , Virginia showed the first signs of consumption, now known as tuberculosis , while singing and playing the piano, which Poe described as breaking a blood vessel in her throat.
He left Graham's and attempted to find a new position, for a time angling for a government post. He returned to New York where he worked briefly at the Evening Mirror before becoming editor of the Broadway Journal , and later its owner. Nearby, Poe befriended the Jesuits at St. John's College, now Fordham University. Poe was increasingly unstable after his wife's death. Their engagement failed, purportedly because of Poe's drinking and erratic behavior. There is also strong evidence that Whitman's mother intervened and did much to derail their relationship. On October 3, , Poe was found delirious on the streets of Baltimore, "in great distress, and… in need of immediate assistance", according to Joseph W.
Walker, who found him. He is said to have repeatedly called out the name "Reynolds" on the night before his death, though it is unclear to whom he was referring. Some sources say that Poe's final words were, "Lord help my poor soul". Newspapers at the time reported Poe's death as "congestion of the brain" or "cerebral inflammation", common euphemisms for death from disreputable causes such as alcoholism. Immediately after Poe's death, his literary rival Rufus Wilmot Griswold wrote a slanted high-profile obituary under a pseudonym, filled with falsehoods that cast him as a lunatic and a madman, and which described him as a person who "walked the streets, in madness or melancholy, with lips moving in indistinct curses, or with eyes upturned in passionate prayers, never for himself, for he felt, or professed to feel, that he was already damned ".
It was soon further published throughout the country. The piece began, "Edgar Allan Poe is dead. He died in Baltimore the day before yesterday. This announcement will startle many, but few will be grieved by it. Griswold somehow became Poe's literary executor and attempted to destroy his enemy's reputation after his death. Griswold wrote a biographical article of Poe called "Memoir of the Author", which he included in an volume of the collected works. There he depicted Poe as a depraved, drunken, drug-addled madman and included Poe's letters as evidence.
This was in part because it was the only full biography available and was widely reprinted, and in part because readers thrilled at the thought of reading works by an "evil" man. Poe's best known fiction works are Gothic ,  adhering to the genre's conventions to appeal to the public taste. Beyond horror, Poe also wrote satires , humor tales, and hoaxes. For comic effect, he used irony and ludicrous extravagance, often in an attempt to liberate the reader from cultural conformity. Poe wrote much of his work using themes aimed specifically at mass-market tastes.
Poe's writing reflects his literary theories, which he presented in his criticism and also in essays such as " The Poetic Principle ". Works with obvious meanings, he wrote, cease to be art. Poe describes his method in writing "The Raven" in the essay " The Philosophy of Composition ", and he claims to have strictly followed this method. Poe discusses the guilty feeling and psychological. Regarded in the literary world as the architect of impeccably crafted short stories and poems, Edgar Allan Poe revitalized American literature.
He was a main author in the nineteenth century during the movement of European literature. He is recognized as one of the leading progenitors of modern literature, in both horror and mystery fiction, and in its more complex and self-conscious form, which represent the essential artistic manner of the twenty century. He investigated the profound corners of. Throughout the entirety of his piece Poe creates a scene that continuously leaves his readers wondering what was happening next. Suspicion being a key factor in gothic tales is only one strategy Poe used to illuminate the story of an unnamed psychopath and his attempts to either clear his conscious or set the record. Honors English IIIA 18 October Following death in , the reputation of Edgar Allan Poe had been seen as nothing short of atrocious and faulty; regarding excessive use of alcohol and seemingly alarming sexual desire.
Today, the works and aforementioned peculiarity are valued enough to be positively referred to over years later, and ultimately earn Poe a place as an eminent literature pioneer. Edgar Poe, American poet and writer, swept the 19th century by provoking thought through writing. Edgar Allan Poe: A Literary Catalyst Edgar Allan Poe created a new age of poem and prose though his articulate calculation of production and fantastic usage of poetic effect.
As he words it: "I had walled the monster up within the tomb! At the time, the publication was using the temporary title United States Saturday Post. In the beginning of the tale, the narrator says the reader would be "mad indeed" if the reader should expect a reader to believe the story, implying that he has already been accused of madness. Since the narrator's wife shares his love of animals, he likely thinks of her as another pet, seeing as he distrusts and dislikes humans. Additionally, his failure to understand his excessive love of animals foreshadows his inability to explain his motives for his actions.
One of Poe's darkest tales, "The Black Cat" includes his strongest denunciation of alcohol. The narrator's perverse actions are brought on by his alcoholism , a "disease" and "fiend" which also destroys his personality. Poe owned a black cat. In his " Instinct vs Reason -- A Black Cat " he stated: "The writer of this article is the owner of one of the most remarkable black cats in the world - and this is saying much; for it will be remembered that black cats are all of them witches. The eponymous cat is named Pluto after the Roman god of the Underworld. Although Pluto is a neutral character at the beginning of the story, he becomes antagonistic in the narrator's eyes once the narrator becomes an alcoholic.
The alcohol pushes the narrator into fits of intemperance and violence, to the point at which everything angers him — Pluto in particular, who is always by his side, becomes the malevolent witch who haunts him even while avoiding his presence. When the narrator cuts Pluto's eye from its socket, this can be seen as symbolic of self-inflicted partial blindness to his own vision of moral goodness. The fire that destroys the narrator's house symbolizes the narrator's "almost complete moral disintegration". From a rhetorician's standpoint, an effective scheme of omission that Poe employs is diazeugma , or using many verbs for one subject; it omits pronouns. Diazeugma emphasizes actions and makes the narrative swift and brief.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Short story by Edgar Allan Poe. Early 20th-century illustration by Byam Shaw. New York City: Norton. Edgar Allan Poe: his life and legacy. ISBN OCLC Oxford UP, Oxford Reference Online. Accessed October 22, Edgar Allan Poe: a critical biography. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved Edgar Allan Poe, A to Z: the essential reference to his life and work. New York City: Facts on File. In Harold Bloom ed.Stanislavski an actor prepares his relative, Tenon Disorders: A Literature Review Edgar Allan Poe Circular Narrative: Film Analysis attorney general. Tulsa World. As he continued to avoid the creature, it Essay On The Mediterranean Diet to favor him.