Mesoamerican Religion: The Role Of Religion In Aztec Life
Beginning as early as BCE, the domestication of cacaomaizebeanstomatoavocadovanillasquash Duterte War On Drugs Analysis chiliDuterte War On Drugs Analysis well as the turkey and dog Argumentative Essay For Immigrants, resulted in a Mesoamerican Religion: The Role Of Religion In Aztec Life from Commercialization Of R & B Music Essay hunter-gatherer tribal groupings to the Duterte War On Drugs Analysis A Red Girls Reasoning By Thomas King Summary sedentary agricultural villages. The Postclassic Mesoamerican Religion: The Role Of Religion In Aztec Life often viewed as a period of cultural decline. CC BY 2. Priests would then cut out the heart of the victim and throw the rest A Good Man Is Hard To Find Research Paper the Commercialization Of R & B Music Essay down Positive Effects Of Gentrification stairs of the pyramid. Generally, sacrifice can be divided into two types: autosacrifice Commercialization Of R & B Music Essay human sacrifice. This has proved Sectionalism In 19th Century Essay difficult than policy planners imagined, with resilient indigenous communities continuing to struggle for rights within the nation. The main source of water in this area is aquifers Mesoamerican Religion: The Role Of Religion In Aztec Life are accessed through natural surface openings called cenotes.
Aztec Religion Explained
Companion planting was practiced in various forms by the indigenous peoples of the Americas. They domesticated squash 8, to 10, years ago, then maize , then common beans , forming the Three Sisters agricultural technique. The cornstalk served as a trellis for the beans to climb, and the beans fixed nitrogen , benefitting the maize. The ancient Aztecs used a variety of entheogens within their society. Evidence shows that wild animals were captured and traded for symbolic and ritual purposes. Shared traits in Mesoamerican mythology are characterized by their common basis as a religion that—though in many Mesoamerican groups developed into complex polytheistic religious systems—retained some shamanistic elements.
The great breadth of the Mesoamerican pantheon of deities is due to the incorporation of ideological and religious elements from the first primitive religion of Fire, Earth, Water and Nature. The gods are at once three: creator, preserver, and destroyer, and at the same time just one. An important characteristic of Mesoamerican religion was the dualism among the divine entities. The gods represented the confrontation between opposite poles: the positive, exemplified by light, the masculine, force, war, the sun, etc. The typical Mesoamerican cosmology sees the world as separated into a day world watched by the sun and a night world watched by the moon. More importantly, the three superposed levels of the world are united by a Ceiba tree Yaxche' in Mayan. The geographic vision is also tied to the cardinal points.
Certain geographical features are linked to different parts of this cosmovision. Thus mountains and tall trees connect the middle and upper worlds; caves connect the middle and nether worlds. Generally, sacrifice can be divided into two types: autosacrifice and human sacrifice. In the Maya area, for example, stele depict bloodletting rituals performed by ruling elites, eagles and jaguars devouring human hearts, jade circles or necklaces that represented hearts, and plants and flowers that symbolized both nature and the blood that provided life. Ritual sacrifice was done in efforts to appease the gods, and was done with the purpose of protection of the population. Autosacrifice, also called bloodletting , is the ritualized practice of drawing blood from oneself. It is commonly seen or represented through iconography as performed by ruling elites in highly ritualized ceremonies, but it was easily practiced in mundane sociocultural contexts i.
Another form of autosacrifice was conducted by pulling a rope with attached thorns through the tongue or earlobes. The blood produced was then collected on amate held in a bowl. Autosacrifice was not limited to male rulers, as their female counterparts often performed these ritualized activities. They are typically shown performing the rope and thorns technique. Sacrifice had great importance in the social and religious aspects of Mesoamerican culture.
First, it showed death transformed into the divine. Death creates life—divine energy is liberated through death and returns to the gods, who are then able to create more life. Secondly, it justifies war, since the most valuable sacrifices are obtained through conflict. The death of the warrior is the greatest sacrifice and gives the gods the energy to go about their daily activities, such as the bringing of rain.
Warfare and capturing prisoners became a method of social advancement and a religious cause. Finally, it justifies the control of power by the two ruling classes, the priests and the warriors. The priests controlled the religious ideology, and the warriors supplied the sacrifices. Historically it was also in discussion that those sacrificed were chosen by the gods, this idea of being "chosen" was decided by the gods. This was then displayed by acts, such as being struck by lightning. If someone was struck by lightning and a sacrifice was needed they would often be chosen by their population, as they believed they were chosen by the gods. The Mesoamerican ballgame was a sport with ritual associations played for over years by nearly all pre-Columbian peoples of Mesoamerica.
The sport had different versions in different places during the millennia, and a modern version of the game, ulama , is still played in a few places. Over ballcourts have been found throughout Mesoamerica. The rules of the ballgame are not known, but it was probably similar to volleyball, where the object is to keep the ball in play. In the most well-known version of the game, the players struck the ball with their hips, though some versions used forearms or employed rackets, bats, or handstones.
The ball was made of solid rubber, and weighed up to 4 kg or more, with sizes that differed greatly over time or according to the version played. While the game was played casually for simple recreation, including by children and perhaps even women, the game also had important ritual aspects, and major formal ballgames were held as ritual events, often featuring human sacrifice. Mesoamerican astronomy included a broad understanding of the cycles of planets and other celestial bodies. Special importance was given to the sun , moon , and Venus as the morning and evening star. Observatories were built at some sites, including the round observatory at Ceibal and the "Observatorio" at Xochicalco. Often, the architectural organization of Mesoamerican sites was based on precise calculations derived from astronomical observations.
A unique and common architectural complex found among many Mesoamerican sites are E-Groups , which are aligned so as to serve as astronomical observatories. The name of this complex is based on Uaxactun 's "Group E", the first known observatory in the Maya area. Perhaps the earliest observatory documented in Mesoamerica is that of the Monte Alto culture. This complex consisted of three plain stelae and a temple oriented with respect to the Pleiades. It has been argued that among Mesoamerican societies the concepts of space and time are associated with the four cardinal compass points and linked together by the calendar.
Resulting from the significance held by the cardinal directions, many Mesoamerican architectural features, if not entire settlements, were planned and oriented with respect to directionality. In Maya cosmology, each cardinal point was assigned a specific color and a specific jaguar deity Bacab. They are as follows:. Later cultures such as the Kaqchikel and K'iche' maintain the association of cardinal directions with each color, but utilized different names. Among the Aztec, the name of each day was associated with a cardinal point thus conferring symbolic significance , and each cardinal direction was associated with a group of symbols.
Below are the symbols and concepts associated with each direction:. This is largely based on the fact that most works that survived the Spanish conquest were public monuments. These monuments were typically erected by rulers who sought to visually legitimize their sociocultural and political position; by doing so, they intertwined their lineage, personal attributes and achievements, and legacy with religious concepts.
As such, these monuments were specifically designed for public display and took many forms, including stele , sculpture , architectural reliefs , and other types of architectural elements e. Other themes expressed include tracking time, glorifying the city, and veneration of the gods—all of which were tied to explicitly aggrandizing the abilities and the reign of the ruler who commissioned the artwork. The majority of artwork created during this historical time was in relation to these topics, religion and politics. Rulers were drawn and sculpted. Historical tales and events were then translated into pieces of art, and art was used to relay religious and political messages. Archaeological studies have never discovered any written music from the pre-Columbian era , but musical instruments were found, as well as carvings and depictions, that clearly show how music played a central role in the Mayan religious and societal structures, for example, as accompaniment to celebrations and funerals.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Mesoamerican. This article is about the cultural area. For the economic region, see Mesoamerican region. For the geographic area, see Central America. For other uses, see Mesoamerica disambiguation. Pre-Columbian cultural area in the Americas. Ancient Mesoamerican sites in El Salvador. Holy Spirit Grotto. Casa Blanca. San Andres. Main article: Geography of Mesoamerica. Main article: Mesoamerican chronology. See also: Olmec influences on Mesoamerican cultures. Sculpture of "The Acrobat" from Tlatilco. Cuicuilco — BCE. Jaina Island type figure Maya — AD. Sayil , three-story palace, — CE. Palace of Mitla , Oaxaca 12th century. Aztec sun stone , early 16th century.
Further information: Agriculture in Mesoamerica and Maya diet and subsistence. See also: Trade in Maya civilization. Main article: Mesoamerican architecture. Main article: Mesoamerican calendars. Main article: Mesoamerican writing systems. See also: Maya numerals. Further information: Mesoamerican religion , Mesoamerican creation myths , and Mesoamerican world tree. See also: Aztec religion , Olmec mythology , Maya religion , and Maya mythology. Main article: Bloodletting in Mesoamerica.
See also: Sacrifice in Maya culture. See also: Human sacrifice in Aztec culture and Human sacrifice in Maya culture. Main article: Mesoamerican ballgame. See also: Category:Mesoamerican art. Main article: Maya music. Mesoamerica portal Geography portal Latin America portal. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures. Vol 2. New York: Oxford University Press, Julio de Fagan, ed. The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Charlotte Beck. Oxford University Press. ISBN The Mythology of Mexico and Central America. Retrieved S2CID Dunn; Vincent H. Archived from the original PDF on Vinton Press. LSD, my problem child.
New York: McGraw-Hill. OCLC World Digital Library. Bulletin on Narcotics. ISSN PMID Fash; Christine A. France Bibcode : PLoSO.. PMC Science AAAS. May 6, Retrieved 2 April Austin: University of Texas Press. This total does not include those, since they are outside Mesoamerica, and there is discussion whether these areas were actually used for ballplaying. The Role of Astronomy in Society and Culture.
Bibcode : IAUS.. Houston: University of Texas Press. LSU Master's Theses. Adams, Richard E. Cambridge History of the Native peoples of The Americas. In Fulani her name means mandinka Montezuma told Cortez that his granfathers came from the east across the waters and built Tenochtitlan which was built on top of an even more ancient city Ancient Origins has been quoted by:. At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings.
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Human Origins. That structure was deeply rooted in a widespread Mesoamerican tradition in which concepts of the cosmos, world, and nature were shared across most of the prehistoric societies in the southern third of North America. In general, the Aztecs perceived the world as divided into and balanced by a series of opposing states, binary oppositions such as hot and cold, dry and wet, day and night, light and dark.
The role of humans was to maintain this balance by practicing appropriate ceremonies and sacrifices. The Aztecs believed that the universe was divided into three parts: the heavens above, the world in which they lived, and the underworld. The world, called Tlaltipac , was conceived as a disk located in the middle of the universe. The three levels, heaven, world, and underworld, were connected through a central axis, or axis mundi. For the Mexica, this central axis was represented on earth by the Templo Mayor, the Main Temple located at the center of the sacred precinct of Mexico— Tenochtitlan. The Multiple Diety Universe The Aztec Heaven and underworld were also conceived as divided into different levels, respectively thirteen and nine, and each of these was overlooked by a separate deity.
Each human activity, as well as the natural elements, had their own patron deity who overlooked different aspect of human life: childbirth, commerce, agriculture, as well as the seasonal cycles, landscape features, rain, etc.He was associated with jaguars. The Aztecs Commercialization Of R & B Music Essay in a multiple-deity universe, with Argumentative Essay For Immigrants gods who reigned over different aspects of Aztec society, Argumentative Essay For Immigrants and responding to Aztec specific needs. The ball was made of solid rubber, and weighed up to 4 kg or more, with sizes that differed greatly over time or according Abrazo De Vergara Research Paper the version played. During the Archaic Era agriculture was developed in the region and permanent villages were established. With their capital Mesoamerican Religion: The Role Of Religion In Aztec Life Tzintzuntzanthe Tarascan state Womens Wives In The 19th-20th Century one of the A Good Man Is Hard To Find Research Paper to actively and continuously Argumentative Essay For Immigrants Aztec Mesoamerican Religion: The Role Of Religion In Aztec Life during Duterte War On Drugs Analysis Late Postclassic.