Prometheus Functionalism Analysis

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Theoretical Perspectives: Structural Functionalism

Ontological Issues in Metaethics a. Moral Realisms If moral truth is understood in the traditional sense of corresponding to reality, what sort of features of reality could suffice to accommodate this correspondence? Moral Relativisms Other metaethical positions reject altogether the idea that moral values— whether naturalistic, non-naturalistic, or dispositional—are real or objective in the sense of being independent from human belief or culture in the first place. Psychology and Metaethics One of the most pressing questions within analytic metaethics concerns how morality engages our embodied human psychologies. Motivation and Moral Reasons Those who argue that the psychological motivation to act morally is already implicit in the judgment that something is morally good, are commonly called motivational internalists.

Experimental Metaethics Not only has psychology been of interest to metaethicists, but metaethics has also been of interest to psychologists. Moral Emotions Another psychological topic that has been of interest to metaethicists is the nature and significance of moral emotions. Epistemological Issues in Metaethics Analytic metaethics also explores questions of how we make moral judgments in the first place, and how if at all we are able to know moral truths. Thick and Thin Moral Concepts Moral epistemology explores the contours of moral knowledge itself—not the specific content of individual moral beliefs, but the conceptual characteristics of moral beliefs as a general epistemic category.

Moral Justification and Explanation Metaethical positions may also be divided according to how they envision the requirements of justifying moral beliefs. Anthropological Considerations Although much of analytic metaethics concerns rarified debates that can often be highly abstracted from actual, applied moral concerns, several metaethical positions have also drawn heavily on cultural anthropological considerations to motivate or flesh-out their views. Cross-Cultural Differences One of the most influential anthropological aspects of metaethics concerns the apparent challenge that pervasive and persistent cross-cultural moral disagreement would seem to present for moral realists or objectivists.

Cross-Cultural Similarities For all the apparent cross-cultural moral diversity, however, there have also been several suggestions against extending anthropological relativism to the metaethical level. Political Implications of Metaethics In addition to accommodating or accounting for the existence of moral disagreements, metaethics has also been thought to provide some insight concerning how we should respond to such differences at the normative or political level. References and Further Reading a. Textual Citations Adams, Robert. Oxford University Press. Altham, J. Fact, Science, and Morality. Oxford University Press, Appiah, Kwame Anthony. Experiments in Ethics. Harvard University Press. Audi, Robert. Blackwell Guide to Epistemology , , ch.

Ayer, A. Language, Truth and Logic. Gollancz Press. Benedict, Ruth. Beyleveld, Deryck. The Dialectical Necessity of Morality. University of Chicago Press. Bhabha, Homi. The Location of Culture. Routledge Press. Blackburn, Simon. Spreading the Word. Essays in Quasi-Realism. Blair, Richard. Bloomfield, Paul. Moral Reality. Blum, Lawrence. Boas, Franz. The Mind of Primitive Man. Free Press. Boisvert, Daniel. Boyd, Richard. Geoffrey Sayre-McCord. Cornell University Press , ch. Boylan, Michael. A Just Society. Boylan, Michael, ed. Brink, David. Moral Realism and the Foundations of Ethics. Cambridge University Press. Calhoun, Cheshire and Solomon, Robert, eds.

What Is An Emotion? Chisholm, Roderick. University of Minnesota Press. Cohen, Andrew. Copp, David. Morality in a Natural World. Daly, Mary. Beacon Press. Dancy, Jonathan. Ethics without Principles. Practical Reality. Darwall, Stephen. Oxford University Press , ch. Davidson, Donald. Inquiries into Truth and Interpretation. Clarendon Press. DeLapp, Kevin. Derrida, Jacques. The Gift of Death.

Divers, John and Miller, Alexander. Dreier, James. Doris, John. Lack of Character. Dworkin, Ronald. Firth, Roderick. Flanagan, Owen. Varieties of Moral Personality. Foot, Philippa. Natural Goodness. Foucault, Michel. The Foucault Reader , ed. Paul Rabinow. Pantheon Books. Geach, Peter. Geertz, Clifford. Basic Books, Gewirth, Alan. Reason and Morality. Gibbard, Alan. Wise Choices, Apt Feelings. Gilligan, Carol. In a Different Voice. Gordon, John-Stewart, ed. Lexington Books. Gowans, Christopher, ed. Moral Dilemmas.

Graham, Gordon. Toleration: An Elusive Virtue. Princeton University Press, Greenspan, Patricia. Haidt, Jonathan and Graham, Jesse. Haidt, Jonathan and Joseph, Craig. Hare, R. Moral Thinking. Harman, Gilbert. The Nature of Morality. Morality, Reason and Truth. Heinaman, Robert, ed. Aristotle and Moral Realism. Westview Press. Herskovits, Melville. Man and His Works. Heyd, David, ed. Princeton University Press. Hooker, Brad and Little, Margaret, eds. Moral Particularism. Horgan, Terence and Timmons, Mark. Hudson, W. Ethical Intuitionism.

Hume, David. A Treatise on Human Nature. Selby-Bigge, ed. Oxford University Press, 2e Hurka, Thomas. Jackson, Frank and Pettit, Philip. James, William. Dover Publishers, Joyce, Richard. The Myth of Morality. Kalderon, Mark, ed. Moral Fictionalism. Kasulis, Thomas. Intimacy or Integrity: Philosophy and Cultural Difference. Kjellberg, Paul and Ivanhoe, Philip, eds. Essays on Skepticism, Relativism, and Ethics in the Zhuangzi.

SUNY Press. Knobe, Joshua and Nichols, Shuan, eds. Experimental Philosophy. Korsgaard, Christine. The Sources of Normativity. Kramer, Matthew. Moral Realism as a Moral Doctrine. Wiley-Blackwell Publishers. Levy, Neil. Moral Relativism: A Short Introduction. Oneworld Publications. Lovibond, Sabina. Realism and Imagination in Ethics. Minnesota University Press. MacIntyre, Alasdair.

Whose Justice? Which Rationality? Notre Dame Press. After Virtue , 2e. Mackie, J. Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong. Penguin Books. Markus, H. McCrae, R. McDowell, John. Ted Honderich. Routledge : McNaughton, David. Moral Vision. Blackwell Publishing. Paul's praising, in 1 Corinthians 7, sexual celibacy as the ideal spiritual state. Schools of thought. Mazdakism Mithraism Zoroastrianism Zurvanism. Kyoto School Objectivism Postcritique Russian cosmism more Formalism Institutionalism Aesthetic response. Consequentialism Deontology Virtue.

Action Event Process. By region Related lists Miscellaneous. Portal Category. Social and political philosophy. Jurisprudence Philosophy and economics Philosophy of education Philosophy of history Philosophy of love Philosophy of sex Philosophy of social science Political ethics Social epistemology Index. Categories : Philosophy of sexuality Social philosophy. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Taken out of their context, they are falsified. I have suffered a great deal from writers who have quoted this or that sentence of mine either out of its context or in juxtaposition to some incongruous matter which quite distorted my meaning, or destroyed it altogether," says Alfred North Whitehead, British mathematician, and philosopher. Halliday ] maintains that meaning should be analyzed not only within the linguistic system but also taking into account the social system in which it occurs.

In order to accomplish this task, both text and context must be considered. Context is a crucial ingredient in Halliday's framework: Based on the context, people make predictions about the meanings of utterances ," says Patricia Mayes, Ph. According to the book, "Rethinking Context: Language as an Interactive Phenomenon," "Recent work in a number of different fields has called into question the adequacy of earlier definitions of context in favor of a more dynamic view of the relationship between linguistic and non-linguistic dimensions of communicative events. Instead of viewing context as a set of variables that statically surround strips of talk, context and talk are now argued to stand in a mutually reflexive relationship to each other, with talk, and the interpretive work it generates, shaping context as much as context shapes talk.

According to writer, Larry W. Smith, "Although [Belarusian psychologist Lev] Vygotsky did not write extensively specifically about the concept of context, all of his work implies the importance of context both at the level of individual speech acts whether in inner speech or social dialogue and at the level of historical and cultural patterns of language use. Vygotsky's work as well as that of others has been an impetus in the development of the recognition of the need to pay close attention to context in studies of language use.

For example, an interactionist approach following Vygotsky is readily compatible with recent developments in such linguistics- and language-associated fields as sociolinguistics , discourse analysis , pragmatics , and the ethnography of communication precisely because Vygotsky recognized the importance of both immediate contextual constraints and the wider social, historical, and cultural conditions of language use. Goodwin, Charles and Alessandro Duranti. Cambridge University Press, Kramsch, Claire.

Context and Culture in Language Teaching. Oxford University Press, Marshall, Alfred.

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