Examples Of Government Surveillance

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Examples Of Government Surveillance



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Heidi Boghosian: Spying on Democracy: Government Surveillance Corporate Power and Public Resistance

Length: A thesis statement can be short or long, depending on how many points it mentions. Typically, however, it is only one concise sentence. It does contain at least two clauses, usually an independent clause the opinion and a dependent clause the reasons. You probably should aim for a single sentence that is at least two lines, or about 30 to 40 words long.

Position: A thesis statement always belongs at the beginning of an essay. This is because it is a sentence that tells the reader what the writer is going to discuss. Teachers will have different preferences for the precise location of the thesis, but a good rule of thumb is in the introduction paragraph, within the last two or three sentences. Strength: Finally, for a persuasive thesis to be strong, it needs to be arguable. This means that the statement is not obvious, and it is not something that everyone agrees is true. Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are easy to make because it just takes three ingredients. Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are fun to eat because they always slide around.

Composing a thesis statement does take a bit more thought than many other parts of an essay. However, because a thesis statement can contain an entire argument in just a few words, it is worth taking the extra time to compose this sentence. It can direct your research and your argument so that your essay is tight, focused, and makes readers think. Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style.

Get Started. Certain features require a modern browser to function. Please use a different browser, like Firefox , Chrome , or Safari. See, however, emergency powers. In July of , President Bush signed into law the Protect America Act of PAA , which amended FISA to loosen the warrant requirement by permitting wiretapping of any phone calls originating in or being received in a foreign country. The PAA expired after days, at which time Congress declined to renew it. The Patriot Act modified portions of numerous electronic communications laws, including the ECPA and FISA , expanding the authority of federal law enforcement to combat terrorism through electronic surveillance.

Among its surveillance -related provisions, the Patriot Act discarded the FISA requirement that the President only conduct warrantless wiretaps against non-U. Another provision directed that the acquisition of stored voicemails be governed by ordinary search and seizure law, not more-stringent surveillance law. Controversially, the Patriot Act also authorized roving wiretaps, which occur when a court grants a surveillance warrant without naming the communications carrier and other third parties involved in the tap. The FBI and other intelligence-gathering organizations justify the use of roving wiretaps because terrorists are able to change computers, email accounts, or cellphones quickly upon learning that a device or account is tapped.

Critics of the provision argue that it violates the Particularity Clause of the Fourth Amendment. The original Patriot Act included a sunset provision for the law to terminate on December 31, Because federal courts struck down provisions of the Act as unconstitutional in the interim, Congress made certain substantive changes to the act and renewed the amended legislation in March of It also limited the surveillance powers of the FBI and NSA , though not as much as some civil liberties and human rights watchdogs would like. Please help us improve our site! No thank you. Electronic Surveillance Primary tabs Overview Electronic surveillance is defined in federal law as the nonconsensual acquisition by an electronic, mechanical, or other surveillance device of the contents of any wire or electronic communication, under circumstances in which a party to the communication has a reasonable expectation of privacy.

The Fourth Amendment and Landmark Cases Electronic surveillance can implicate the Fourth Amendment right of the people to be secure against unreasonable searches and seizures. Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Justice Harlan defines the privacy expectation in his concurrence in Katz , which is referenced in Kyllo , and states that a person must "have exhibited an actual subjective expectation of privacy and Warrant Requirement Because electronic surveillance is a search under the Fourth Amendment , it is subject to the same warrant requirements as other searches. Foreign Surveillance Legislation Case law is split on the constitutionality of wiretapping a foreign national 's devices to obtain foreign intelligence. This assures preservation of that degree of privacy against government that existed when the Fourth Amendment was adopted.

Aristocracy refers to a government form in which a small, elite ruling class — the aristocrats — have power over those in lower socioeconomic strata. Members of the aristocracy are usually chosen based on their education, upbringing, and genetic or family history. Aristocracies often connect wealth and ethnicity with both the ability and right to rule. Aristocracy originated in ancient Greece; the term derives from the Greek word, aristokratia, meaning "rule of the best.

Aristocrats led major countries, including Britain, Germany, and Russia, until World War I, when other government forms gained popularity. Monarchy is a power system that appoints a person as head of state for life or until abdication. Authority traditionally passes down through a succession line related to one's bloodline and birth order within the ruling royal family, often limited by gender. There are two types of monarchies: constitutional and absolute. Constitutional monarchies limit the monarch's power as outlined in a constitution, while absolute monarchies give a monarch unlimited power.

Today, 45 nations have some form of monarchy, though the concept has become increasingly diluted with the evolution of democratic principles. But monarchs in other countries, including Morocco, Oman, and Saudia Arabia, still have far-reaching political authority. Theocracy refers to a form of government in which a specific religious ideology determines the leadership, laws, and customs. In many instances, there is little to no distinction between scriptural laws and legal codes.

Likewise, religious clergy will typically occupy leadership roles, sometimes including the highest office in the nation. Iran is perhaps the most important and powerful theocratic state in the world today. The ayatollahs — Shiite religious leaders — rule the country. Among them is a "supreme leader" who serves as head of state, delegates authority to other religious leaders, and presides over the elected president. The Sharia — the Islamic faith's primary legal doctrine — dictates the country's legal, judiciary, and administrative codes. Colonialism is a form of government in which a nation extends its sovereignty over other territories.

In other words, it involves the expansion of a nation's rule beyond its borders. Colonialism often leads to ruling over indigenous populations and exploiting resources. The colonizer typically installs its economy, culture, religious order, and government form to strengthen its authority. In the 15th century, European monarchies launched an age of nautical exploration that led to several notable colonial governments. British, French, Spanish, and Dutch colonists spread their influence and authority throughout the New World, dismantling and sometimes eradicating entire cultures and peoples in the process.

One of the most familiar cases is the thirteen colonies, established after North America's colonization by Britain beginning in and later founded as the United States of America. Totalitarianism is an authoritarian form of government in which the ruling party recognizes no limitations whatsoever on its power, including in its citizens' lives or rights. A single figure often holds power and maintains authority through widespread surveillance, control over mass media, intimidating demonstrations of paramilitary or police power, and suppression of protest, activism, or political opposition.

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