Aging Population In Ghana

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Aging Population In Ghana



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Caring for Ghana's Ageing Population - My Banner (23-9-14)

Population Division. Quick Navigation. Leave feedback about this page. The Ainu languages, of which Hokkaido Ainu is the only extant variety, are isolated and do not fall under any language family. In addition, languages such as Orok , Evenki and Nivkh spoken in formerly Japanese controlled southern Sakhalin are becoming more and more endangered. After the Soviet Union took control of the region, speakers of these languages and their descendants migrated to mainland Japan and still exist in small numbers.

The Japanese society of Yamato people is linguistically homogeneous with small populations of Koreans 0. Japanese citizenship is conferred jus sanguinis , and monolingual Japanese-speaking minorities often reside in Japan for generations under permanent residency status without acquiring citizenship in their country of birth, although legally they are allowed to do so. This is because Japanese law does not recognise dual citizenship after the age of adulthood, and so people becoming naturalised Japanese citizens must relinquish their previous citizenship upon reaching the age of 20 years [ citation needed ]. Names using Western alphabet, Korean alphabet, Arabic characters, etc. Chinese characters are usually legally acceptable as nearly all Chinese characters are recognized as valid by the Japanese government.

Transliterations of non-Japanese names using katakana e. However, some naturalizing foreigners feel that becoming a Japanese citizen should mean that they have a Japanese name and that they should abandon their foreign name, and some foreign residents do not wish to do this—although most Special Permanent Resident Koreans and Chinese already use Japanese names. Nonetheless, some 10, Zainichi Koreans naturalize every year. Approximately Non-ethnic Japanese in the past, and to an extent in the present, also live in small numbers in the Japanese archipelago. Three native Japanese minority groups can be identified. The largest are the hisabetsu buraku or "discriminated communities", also known as the burakumin.

These descendants of premodern outcast hereditary occupational groups, such as butchers , leatherworkers , funeral directors , and certain entertainers, may be considered a Japanese analog of India 's Dalits. Discrimination against these occupational groups arose historically because of Buddhist prohibitions against killing and Shinto notions of pollution, as well as governmental attempts at social control. During the Edo period , such people were required to live in special buraku and, like the rest of the population, were bound by sumptuary laws based on the inheritance of social class. The Meiji government abolished most derogatory names applied to these discriminated communities in , but the new laws had little effect on the social discrimination faced by the former outcasts and their descendants.

The laws, however, did eliminate the economic monopoly they had over certain occupations. Although members of these discriminated communities are physically indistinguishable from other Japanese, they often live in urban ghettoes or in the traditional special hamlets in rural areas, and membership can be surmised from the location of the family home, occupation, dialect, or mannerisms. Checks on family background designed to ferret out buraku were commonly performed as part of marriage arrangements and employment applications, [13] but have been illegal since in Osaka.

Past and current discrimination has resulted in lower educational attainment and socioeconomic status among hisabetsu buraku than among the majority of Japanese. Movements with objectives ranging from "liberation" to encouraging integration have tried to change this situation, [13] with some success. One of the largest minority groups among Japanese citizens is the Ryukyuan people. The Ryukyuan people and language originated in the Ryukyu Islands , which are in Okinawa prefecture.

The third largest minority group among Japanese citizens is the Ainu , whose language is an isolate. As Japanese settlement expanded, the Ainu were pushed northward, [13] by the Tokugawa shogunate , the Ainu were pushed into the island of Hokkaido. Characterized as remnants of a primitive circumpolar culture, the fewer than 20, Ainu in were considered racially distinct and thus not fully Japanese. Disease and a low birth rate had severely diminished their numbers over the past two centuries, and intermarriage had brought about an almost completely mixed population.

Although no longer in daily use, the Ainu language is preserved in epics, songs, and stories transmitted orally over succeeding generations. Distinctive rhythmic music and dances and some Ainu festivals and crafts are preserved, but mainly in order to take advantage of tourism. Of the 1 million children born in Japan in , 2. In the s, biracial Japanese children Ainoko , specifically Amerasian children, encountered social problems such as poverty, perception of impurity and discrimination due to negative treatment in Japan. In , there were 2,, foreign residents in Japan, representing 2. A number of long-term resident Koreans in Japan today retain familial links with the descendants of Koreans, [67] that either immigrated voluntarily or were forcibly relocated during the Japanese Occupation of the Korea.

Within this group, a number hold Special Permanent Resident status, granted under the terms of the Normalisation Treaty June between South Korea and Japan. Beginning in the Japanese government started to repatriate Korean nationals, who had nominally been granted Japanese citizenship during the years of military occupation. When the Treaty of San Francisco came into force many ethnic Koreans lost their Japanese citizenship from April 28, and with it the right to welfare grants, to hold a government job of any kind or to attend Japanese schools. Most of these departures — 78, — occurred before All non-Japanese without special residential status people whose residential roots go back to before WWII are required by law to register with the government and carry alien registration cards.

From the early s, a civil disobedience movement encouraged refusal of the fingerprinting that accompanied registration every five years. Opponents of fingerprinting argued that it was discriminatory because the only Japanese who were fingerprinted were criminals. The courts upheld fingerprinting, but the law was changed so that fingerprinting was done once rather than with each renewal of the registration, [13] which until a law reform in was usually required every six months for anybody from the age of Those refusing fingerprinting were denied re-entry permits, thus depriving them of freedom of movement.

Of these foreign residents below, the new wave started comes to Japan as students or trainees. These foreigners are registered under student visa or trainee visa which gives them the student residency status, Most of these new foreigners are under this visa. Almost all of these foreign students and trainees will return to their home country after 3—4 years one valid period , few students extend their visa. Vietnamese makes the largest increase, however Burmese , Cambodians , Filipinos and Chinese are also increasing. Asian migrant wives of Japanese men have also contributed to the foreign-born population in the country.

Many young single Japanese male farmers choose foreign wives, mainly from the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, China and South Korea, due to a lack of interest from Japanese women living a farming life. There was an increase of , foreign residents from to Vietnamese made the largest proportion of these new foreign residents, whilst Nepalese , Filipino , Chinese and Taiwanese are also significant in numbers. Together these countries makes up 91, or However, the majority of these immigrants will only remain in Japan for a maximum of five years, as many of them have entered the country in order to complete trainee programmes.

Once they complete their programmes, they will be required to return to their home countries. As of December there were 2,, foreigners residing in Japan, , of whom were long-term residents in Japan, according to national demographics figures. The majority of long-term residents were from Asia, totalling , Chinese made up the largest portion of them with ,, followed by Filipinos with ,, and Koreans with 65, Thai, Vietnamese, and Taiwanese long-term residents totaled 47,, and those from other Asian countries totaled 34, The Korean figures do not include zainichi Koreans with tokubetsu eijusha "special permanent resident" visas, of whom there were , of a total of , of all nationalities with such visas.

The total number of permanent residents had declined over the previous 5 years due to high cost of living. In , the number of resident foreigners was 2. This is an all-time high and 1. In , net immigration rose for the sixth straight year with , More than half of all resident foreigners 1. The number of foreign workers was 1. On April 1, , Japan's revised immigration law was enacted. The revision clarifies and better protects the rights of foreign workers. Japan formally accepts foreign blue-collar workers. This helps reduce labour shortage in certain sectors of the economy.

The reform changes the status of foreign workers to regular employees and they can obtain permanent residence status. In order to qualify, applicants must pass a language and skills test level N4 or higher of the Japanese-Language Proficiency Test. In the old "Technical Trainee programme" a foreign employee was tied to their employer. This caused numerous cases of exploitation. The revision gives foreign workers more freedom to leave and change their employer. A significant number of foreign residents of Japan are employed on a short term contractual basis under programs administered by the Japanese government. Well known programs include:. In the light of current demographic trends Japan is likely to experience a decrease in tax revenue without a corresponding decrease in welfare expenses for an increasingly elderly population.

A recent growth in blue collar employment using documented short term contractual labour from developing countries has also contributed to the rise in the resident foreign population. However, it has been claimed that many of these workers often work at reduced pay and are required to undertake significant amounts of overtime in order to make up for labor shortages. As trainees, labor standards law and minimum wage legislation has on occasion been ignored by unscrupulous employers. As of November 20, , all foreigners entering Japan must be biometrically registered photograph and fingerprints on arrival; this includes people living in Japan on visas as well as permanent residents, but excludes people with special permanent resident permission, diplomats, and those under Shinto and Buddhism are Japan's two major religions.

They have co-existed for more than a thousand years. However, most Japanese people generally do not exclusively identify themselves as adherents of one religion, but rather incorporate various elements in a syncretic fashion. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Social makeup of Japan. Main article: Aging of Japan. Main article: Ethnic groups of Japan. Main article: Marriage in Japan. Further information: Family policy in Japan. Household consumption grew at a 4. But companies will need to gather detailed market intelligence on where the most promising consumer markets are. Third, African economies are also well positioned to benefit from rapidly accelerating technological change that can unlock growth and leapfrog the limitations and costs of physical infrastructure in important areas of economic life.

East Africa is already a global leader in mobile payments. Reinforcing the positive outlook for growth is a continuing rise in infrastructure investment. Spending on infrastructure has doubled over the past decade, and now stands at 3. Foreign investors have taken note of such positive fundamentals. Large companies in utilities, transportation and healthcare have achieved double-digit revenue growth in local currency terms between and Despite the continued potential of African economies, policy-makers undoubtedly will need to grapple with significant challenges ahead. In , Africa as a whole was running a small current-account surplus of 0. As we write this, several African countries are in talks for financial assistance, including Angola with the IMF and Nigeria with the Chinese government.

Political instability is also more prevalent. The number of violent incidents measured by the Uppsala Conflict Data Program has jumped from in to in The challenges in some parts of the region have taken their toll. Five years ago, most of Africa was booming — 25 of the top 30 economies had accelerated their growth from the previous decade. We have measured three aspects of stability: macroeconomic stability, economic diversification, and political and social stability. Three distinct groups of countries emerges from this analysis.

This group includes countries such as Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria and Zambia, all of which have clear potential but need to diversify their economies away from resources, to improve their security, or stabilize their macro-economies. The imperative now is for policy-makers and businesses to work together to accelerate economic reforms and strengthen the fundamentals that underpin growth.

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