How Did Greek Culture Influence The Minoan Civilization

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How Did Greek Culture Influence The Minoan Civilization



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Europe's First Civilization - The Minoans Documentary

Subsequently, largely converted to Islam, Damascus became the capital of Syria and a period of great splendour began. By using educated men who knew the Greek language, they achieved the translation of famous Greek philosophers. In this way Aristotle first became known to European people, through wise Arab translators, and Arabic cultural development proceeded rapidly. Philosophy, mathematics, law, history and science were also developed. No ancient power ever attempted the complete conquest of Arabia, because of the formidable difficulties of crossing the deserts.

The Persian Empire This empire, which extended as far as the Black Sea, tried to gain a foothold by attacking Greece, but the valour of Athens and Sparta foiled this ambition. Its contribution was mostly religious, in a faith known as Zoroastrianism: the word Paradise is of Persian origin. The Classical Period between B. Incredible progress was made. There was the first approach to the study of science, the arts and literary forms, as also to the practice and philosophy of government.

In this period, especially between and B. They also established the study of philosophy, by -raising basic questions regarding the nature of truth, justice and destiny. This period was called the Golden Age. Meanwhile, in 35? He entered Syria and Egypt, where he was acknowledged as the son of Amon-Ra, and founded the city of Alexandria. He then went into North India, and with a fleet crossed the unknown route to the head of the Persian Gulf.

The Romans In B. Later, they dominated Spain, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and the northern shores of Africa, and became an indisputable power in the Mediterranean. In B. A Graeco-Roman period was thus created, dominating the Mediterranean region. The Roman colony was an integral part of the Empire, and the Romans sought to assimilate native cultures with their own, in some cases bestowing Roman citizenship upon the native born. Settlements on the Mediterranean coast, notably Marseilles, were made by the Phoenicians and the Greeks.

Later it was colonized by Rome, and in the 2nd century B. Gaul accepted Latin speech and developed a Gallo-Roman civilization. The merge, mostly with Franks, contributed to the construction of a new nation, with the support of the Christian religion. Later France was united nationally and linguistically, with its own intellectual personality, and culture began to develop.

Literature developed after A. Spain During the age of colonization, soon after B. In the south and east, t e indigenous Spanish population developed a separa e culture. Iberian culture reached its heights duri t e 3rd and 2nd centuries B. Many [ who? Its other main feature is its variety from site to site, which is suggestive of localism of Early Minoan social traditions. Of the three possibilities, no immigration, total replacement of natives by immigrants, immigrants settling among natives, Hutchinson [11] takes a compromise view:. The major form was the " chalice ", or Arkalochori Chalice , in which a cup combined with a funnel-shaped stand could be set on a hard surface without spilling.

As the Pyrgos site was a rock shelter used as an ossuary, some hypothesize ceremonial usage]. This type of pottery was black, grey or brown, and burnished, with some sort of incised linear pattern. It may have imitated wood. Another EM I type, Incised Ware , also called Scored Ware , were hand-shaped, round-bottomed, dark-burnished jugs Example and bulbous cups and jars " pyxes ".

Favored decor was incised line patterns, vertical, horizontal or herring-bone. These pots are from the north and northeast of Crete and appear to be modeled after the Kampos Phase of the Grotta-Pelos early Cycladic I culture. Some have suggested imports or immigrations. See also Hagia Photia. The painted parallel-line decoration of Ayios Onouphrios I Ware was drawn with an iron-red clay slip that would fire red under oxidizing conditions in a clean kiln but under the reducing conditions of a smoky fire turn darker, without much control over color, which could range from red to brown.

A dark-on-light painted pattern was then applied. Shapes were jugs, two-handled cups and bowls. The ware came from north and south central Crete, as did Lebena Ware of the same general types but decorated by painting white patterns over a solid red painted background Example. The latter came from EM I tombs. The designs are in red or black on a light background.

Forms are cups, bowls, jugs and teapots Example: "Goddess of Myrtos". The EM IIA and IIB Vasiliki Ware , named for the Minoan site in eastern Crete, [14] has mottled glaze effects, early experiments with controlling color, but the elongated spouts drawn from the body and ending in semicircular spouts show the beginnings of the tradition of Minoan elegance Examples 1 , Examples 2. The mottling was produced by uneven firing of the slip-covered pot, with the hottest areas turning dark. Considering that the mottling was controlled into a pattern, touching with hot coals was probably used to produce it. The effect was paralleled in cups made of mottled stone.

In the latest brief transition EM III , wares in eastern Crete begin to be covered in dark slip with light slip-painted decor of lines and spirals; the first checkered motifs appear; the first petallike loops and leafy bands appear, at Gournia Walberg Rosettes appear and spiral links sometimes joined into bands. These motifs are similar to those found on seals. In north central Crete, where Knossos was to emerge, there is little similarity: dark on light linear banding prevails; footed goblets make their appearance Example. Of the palace at Knossos and smaller ones like it at Phaestos , Mallia and elsewhere, Willetts says: [15]. The rise of the palace culture, of the "old palaces" of Knossos and Phaistos and their new type of urbanized, centralized society with redistribution centers required more storage vessels and ones more specifically suited to a range of functions.

In palace workshops, standardization suggests more supervised operations and the rise of elite wares, emphasizing refinements and novelty, so that palace and provincial pottery become differentiated. The forms of the best wares were designed for table and service. In the palace workshops, the introduction from the Levant of the potter's wheel in MMIB enabled perfectly symmetrical bodies to be thrown from swiftly revolving clay. Any population center requires facilities in support of human needs and that is true of the palaces as well.

Knossos had extensive sanitation, water supply and drainage systems, [17] which is evidence that it was not a ceremonial labyrinth or large tomb. Liquid and granular necessities were stored in pithoi located in magazines, or storage rooms, and elsewhere. About pithoi were found at the palace of Knossos. An average pithos held about pounds of fluid. Perhaps because of the weight, pithoi were not stored on the upper floors. New styles emerge at this time: an Incised Style, the tactile Barbotine ware , studded with knobs and cones of applied clay in bands, waves and ridges, sometimes reminiscent of sand-dollar tests and barnacle growth Example , and the earliest stages of Kamares ware.

A new shape is the straight-sided cylindrical cup. MMIA wares and local pottery imitating them are found at coastal sites in the eastern Peloponnese , though not more widely in the Aegean until MMIB; their influence on local pottery in the nearby Cyclades has been studied by Angelia G. Papagiannopoulou Kamares Ware was named after finds in the cave sanctuary at Kamares on Mt. Ida in It is the first of the virtuoso polychrome wares of Minoan civilization, though the first expressions of recognizably proto-Kamares decor predate the introduction of the potter's wheel. Finer clay, thrown on the wheel, permitted more precisely fashioned forms, which were covered with a dark-firing slip and exuberantly painted with slips in white, reds and browns in fluent floral designs , of rosettes or conjoined coiling and uncoiling spirals.

Designs are repetitive or sometimes free-floating, but always symmetrically composed. Themes from nature begin here with octopuses, shellfish, lilies, crocuses and palm-trees, all highly stylized. The entire surface of the pot is densely covered, but sometimes the space is partitioned by bands. One variety features extravagantly thin bodies and is called Eggshell Ware Example 1 , Example 2. New shapes were introduced, with whirling and radiating motifs. Krater from Phaistos. The Kamares featured whole-field floral designs with all elements linked together Matz.

This phase was replaced by individual vegetative scenes, which marks the start of the Floral Style. Some would include Kamares Ware under the Floral Style. The floral style depicts palms and papyrus, with various kinds of lilies and elaborate leaves. Archaeological studies suggest the area of Mycenae was first occupied in the Neolithic Age dating back to about the 7th millennium B. But these early settlements left few records due to the site having continuous re-occupation up until the founding of the citadel. The first families of rulers and aristocrats likely arose in the Mycenae area around B.

In B. The majority of the Mycenae monuments visible today were constructed in the late Bronze Age between and B. The construction of the palace and city walls began around B. About years later, Mycenaeans constructed the Lion Gate and its bastion, along with a new wall to the west and south of the original wall. On the heels of a destructive earthquake, the walls were extended to the northeast around B. Mycenaeans enjoyed a prosperous rule over the Greek mainland and areas around the Aegean Sea, with the elite living in comfort and style, and the king ruling over a highly organized feudal system. In Mycenae and other Mycenaean strongholds, workshops produced an array of both utilitarian and luxury goods, including weapons and tools, jewelry, carved gems, glass ornaments and vases, which likely transported oil, wine, and other commodities for trade.

Mycenaeans also likely engaged in mercenary wars and piracy, and they were known to periodically raid and loot the coastal towns of Egyptians and Hittites. Mycenae and the Mycenaean civilization began to decline around B. One of the leading theories holds that Mycenae underwent years of civil strife and social upheaval. Dorians and Heraclids then invaded, sacking all of the Mycenaean strongholds except Athens. Alternatively, Mycenae may have fallen to natural disasters, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, drought or famine. Whatever the case, though the citadel was abandoned, the outer city was not completely deserted and the remaining town was sparsely inhabited until the Greek Classical Period 5th and 4th centuries B.

During the Greek Archaic period 8th to 5th centuries B. Mycenae later took part in the Persian Wars, sending 80 men to the Battle of Thermopylae. At some point, however, the new village was subsequently abandoned. When the Greek geographer Pausanians visited the area in the 2nd century A. In , the Mycenae archaeological site came under the jurisdiction of the Greek Archaeological Society.

Heinrich Schliemann, a pioneer in archaeology, conducted the first excavations of Mycenae in , uncovering five graves in Grave Circle A. Various archaeologists in the late s and early to mid s continued his work excavating the palace and cemeteries. Around the same time, members of the society restored the Tomb of Clytemnestra, the megaron, Grave Circle B, and the area surrounding the Lion Gate.

Excavations of Mycenae, particularly of the lower town outside of the citadel walls, continued in the s. Surveys suggest the area holds hundreds of visible and buried structures, including tombs, houses and other buildings, guard towers and beacons, roads and highways, bridges and dams, and an outer fortification wall with three gates. While many Mycenaean artifacts are exhibited at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens, the smaller Mycenae Museum next to the ancient citadel houses additional items discovered during archaeological digs in the surrounding site. Mycenae; Ministry of Culture and Sports.

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