Aversive Racism Theory

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Aversive Racism Theory

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PSY 2510 Social Psychology: Overt, Modern, Aversive, \u0026 Implicit Racism

These upward comparisons often focus on the desire to improve our current status or level of ability. We might compare ourselves to someone better off and look for ways that we can achieve similar results. This takes place when we compare ourselves to others who are worse off than us. Such downward comparisons are often centered on making ourselves feel better about our abilities or traits. We might not be great at something, but at least we are better off than someone else. People compare themselves to those who are better when they want inspiration to improve, and they compare themselves to those who are worse when they want to feel better about themselves.

According to Festinger, people rely on these comparisons with other people to accurately assess their own abilities, traits, and attitudes. In cases where your comparisons are not effective, you might find yourself getting into situations that are too difficult or complex for your current skill levels. For example, when you compare yourself to your friends you might feel that you are pretty physically fit.

So, you might sign up for a marathon believing that you have the ability to finish with no problem. When race day arrives, you might find yourself surrounded by people who are much more athletic than you and realize that your initial assessment of your abilities was overly optimistic. When we can, we may put these comparisons to the test in real-world settings. For example, if you want to assess your skill as a basketball player, you might start by playing a game with your friends or practice shooting free throws.

Once you have a good understanding of what you are capable of, you might then begin comparing your performance to other people that you know. You might immediately think of a friend who plays on his school's basketball team. This is an example of upward social comparison. In comparison to him, your performance is not nearly as skilled. At first you may feel discouraged by the gap between your ability levels. But you might also realize that you can eventually achieve a similar skill level with a little practice. In this case, the upward social comparison may make you more motivated to improve upon your abilities. You might then compare your abilities to a friend who couldn't make a basket to save his life. In comparison, your performance is much better.

This is an example of downward social comparison. Some comparisons might make you feel inadequate and less likely to pursue a goal, while others give you confidence and help boost your self-esteem. Social comparison not only plays a role in the judgments that people make about themselves but also in the way that people behave. As you compare yourself to others, consider how both upward and downward social comparison might influence your self-belief , confidence, motivation, and attitude, and watch out for negative feelings that might emerge as a result of this process. Ever wonder what your personality type means?

Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. Festinger L. A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations. Kesici S, Erdogan A. Friedrich Tiedemann was one of the first people to scientifically contest racism. In , using craniometric and brain measurements taken by him from Europeans and black people from different parts of the world , he refuted the belief of many contemporary naturalists and anatomists that black people have smaller brains and are thus intellectually inferior to white people, saying it was scientifically unfounded and based merely on the prejudiced opinions of travelers and explorers. German ethnographer Adolf Bastian promoted the idea known as "psychic unity of mankind", the belief in a universal mental framework present in all humans regardless of race.

Rudolf Virchow , an early biological anthropologist criticized Ernst Haeckel 's classification of humanity into "higher and lower races". The two authors influenced American anthropologist Franz Boas who promoted the idea that differences in behavior between human populations are purely cultural rather than determined by biological differences. After the end of seclusion in the s, Japan signed unequal treaties , the so-called Ansei Treaties , but soon came to demand equal status with the Western powers. Correcting that inequality became the most urgent international issue of the Meiji government. In that context, the Japanese delegation to the Paris peace conference proposed the clause in the Covenant of the League of Nations. The equality of nations being a basic principle of the League of Nations, the High Contracting Parties agree to accord, as soon as possible, to all alien nationals of States Members of the League equal and just treatment in every respect, making no distinction, either in law or in fact, on account of their race or nationality.

After Makino's speech, Lord Cecil stated that the Japanese proposal was a very controversial one and he suggested that perhaps the matter was so controversial that it should not be discussed at all. Greek Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos also suggested that a clause banning religious discrimination should also be removed since that was also a very controversial matter. That led to objections from a Portuguese diplomat, who stated that his country had never signed a treaty before that did not mention God, which caused Cecil to remark perhaps this time, they would all just have to a take a chance of avoiding the wrath of the Almighty by not mentioning Him. Australian Prime Minister Billy Hughes clarified his opposition and announced at a meeting that "ninety-five out of one hundred Australians rejected the very idea of equality.

Hughes had entered politics as a trade unionist and, like most others in the working class, was very strongly opposed to Asian immigration to Australia. The exclusion of Asian immigration was a popular cause with unions in Canada, the US, Australia, and New Zealand in the early 20th century. The Chinese delegation, which was otherwise at daggers drawn with the Japanese over the question of the former German colony of Tsingtao and the rest of the German concessions in Shandong Province , also said that it would support the clause.

However, one Chinese diplomat said at the time that the Shandong question was far more important to his government than the clause. British Prime Minister David Lloyd George found himself in an awkward situation since Britain had signed an alliance with Japan in , but he also wanted to hold the British Empire 's delegation together. Although the proposal received a majority 11 out of 16 of votes, the chairman, the proposal was still problematic for the segregationist US President Woodrow Wilson , who needed the votes of segregationist Southern Democrats to succeed in getting the votes needed for the US Senate to ratify the treaty. Strong opposition from the British Empire delegations gave him a pretext to reject the proposal.

Opposition to racism revived in the s and s. At that time, anthropologists such as Franz Boas , Ruth Benedict , Margaret Mead , and Ashley Montagu argued for the equality of humans across races and cultures. Eleanor Roosevelt was a very visible advocate for minority rights during this period. Anti-capitalist organizations like the Industrial Workers of the World , which gained popularity during —, were explicitly egalitarian. In the s Springfield, Massachusetts , invoked The Springfield Plan to include all persons in the community. Beginning with the Harlem Renaissance and continuing into the s, many African-American writers argued forcefully against racism. The struggles against racial segregation in the United States and South African apartheid saw increased articulation of ideas opposed to racism of all kinds.

During the Civil Rights Movement , Jim Crow laws were repealed in the South and blacks finally re-won the right to vote in Southern states. Martin Luther King Jr. Anti-racism has taken various forms such as consciousness-raising activities aimed at educating whites about the ways they may perpetuate racism, enhancing cross-cultural understanding between racial groups, countering "everyday" racism in institutional settings, and combating extremist right-wing neo-Nazi and neo-Fascist groups.

When people of color experience racial microaggressions, it causes harm to their mental and physical health which can lead to many negative consequences in a work environment, learning environment, and to their overall sense of self-worth. White allies and bystanders are people who can help victims of racial discrimination. Antiracist microinterventions can be a tool used to act against racial discrimination.

Microintervention strategies provide the tools needed to confront and educate racial oppressors. Specific tactics include: revealing the hidden biases or agendas behind acts of discrimination, interrupting and challenging oppressive language, educating offenders, and connecting with other allies and community members are ways to act against discrimination. Microagressions can be conscious acts where the perpetrator is aware of their racist actions or microagressions can be hidden and metacommunicated without the perpetrator's awareness. Regardless of whether microagressions are conscious or unconscious behaviors, the first antiracist intervention is to name the ways it is harmful for a person of color. Calling out an act of discrimination can be empowering because it provides language for people of color to bring awareness to their lived experiences and justifies internal feelings of discrimination.

Antiracist strategies also include confronting the racial microaggression by outwardly challenging and disagreeing against the microaggression that harms a person of color. Microinterventions such as a verbal expression of "I don't want to hear that talk" and physical movements of disapproval are ways to confront microaggressions. Microinterventions are not used to attack others about their biases, but instead they are used to allow the space for an educational dialogue. Educating a perpetrator on their biases can open up a discussion about how the intention of a comment or action can have a damaging impact. For example, phrases such as "I know you meant that joke to be funny, but that stereotype really hurt me" can educate a person on the difference between what was intended and how it is harmful to a person of color.

Antiracist microintervention strategies give the tools for people of color, white allies, and bystanders to combat against microaggressions and acts of discrimination. Egalitarianism has been a catalyst for feminist , anti-war , and anti-imperialist movements. Henry David Thoreau 's opposition to the Mexican—American War , for example, was based in part on his fear that the U. Thoreau's response was chronicled in his famous essay " Civil Disobedience ", which in turn helped ignite Gandhi 's successful campaign against the British in India. As James Loewen notes in Lies My Teacher Told Me : "Throughout the world, from Africa to Northern Ireland , movements of oppressed people continue to use tactics and words borrowed from our abolitionist and civil rights movements.

Some of these uses have been controversial. Critics in the United Kingdom , such as Peter Hain , stated that in Zimbabwe , Robert Mugabe had used anti-racist rhetoric to promote land distribution , whereby privately held land was taken from white farmers and distributed to black Africans see: Land reform in Zimbabwe. Roman Catholic bishops stated that Mugabe framed the land distribution as a way to liberate Zimbabwe from colonialism, but that "the white settlers who once exploited what was Rhodesia have been supplanted by a black elite that is just as abusive. The phrase "Anti-racist is a code word for anti-white", coined by high-profile white nationalist Robert Whitaker, is commonly associated with the topic of white genocide , a white nationalist conspiracy theory which states that mass immigration , integration , miscegenation , low fertility rates and abortion are being promoted in predominantly white countries in order to deliberately turn them minority-white and hence cause white people to become extinct through forced assimilation.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Beliefs, actions, movements, and policies adopted or developed to oppose racism. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Racial Equality Proposal. Main article: White genocide conspiracy theory. Retrieved Penguin Group. ISBN Rutgers University Press. Eerdmans Publishing. Jim Crow Stories. Segregation in the U. Radical History Review. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Bibcode : RSPT..

JSTOR The Descent of Man. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0- 1. Documents on the League of Nations.

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