Essay On Speed Of Light In A Vacuum

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Essay On Speed Of Light In A Vacuum

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In vacuum. The speed of light

This implied that there must be a separate aether for each of the infinitely many frequencies. The key difficulty with Fresnel's aether hypothesis arose from the juxtaposition of the two well-established theories of Newtonian dynamics and Maxwell's electromagnetism. Under a Galilean transformation the equations of Newtonian dynamics are invariant , whereas those of electromagnetism are not. Basically this means that while physics should remain the same in non-accelerated experiments, light would not follow the same rules because it is travelling in the universal "aether frame".

Some effect caused by this difference should be detectable. A simple example concerns the model on which aether was originally built: sound. The speed of propagation for mechanical waves, the speed of sound , is defined by the mechanical properties of the medium. Sound travels 4. This explains why a person hearing an explosion underwater and quickly surfacing can hear it again as the slower travelling sound arrives through the air. Similarly, a traveller on an airliner can still carry on a conversation with another traveller because the sound of words is travelling along with the air inside the aircraft.

This effect is basic to all Newtonian dynamics, which says that everything from sound to the trajectory of a thrown baseball should all remain the same in the aircraft flying at least at a constant speed as if still sitting on the ground. This is the basis of the Galilean transformation, and the concept of frame of reference. But the same was not supposed to be true for light, since Maxwell's mathematics demanded a single universal speed for the propagation of light, based, not on local conditions, but on two measured properties, the permittivity and permeability of free space, that were assumed to be the same throughout the universe. If these numbers did change, there should be noticeable effects in the sky; stars in different directions would have different colours, for instance.

Thus at any point there should be one special coordinate system, "at rest relative to the aether". Maxwell noted in the late s that detecting motion relative to this aether should be easy enough—light travelling along with the motion of the Earth would have a different speed than light travelling backward, as they would both be moving against the unmoving aether.

This was confirmed by the following first-order experiments, which all gave negative results. The following list is based on the description of Wilhelm Wien , with changes and additional experiments according to the descriptions of Edmund Taylor Whittaker and Jakob Laub : [B 5] [B 1] [B 6]. Besides those optical experiments, also electrodynamic first-order experiments were conducted, which should have led to positive results according to Fresnel. However, Hendrik Antoon Lorentz modified Fresnel's theory and showed that those experiments can be explained by a stationary aether as well: [A 6]. While the first -order experiments could be explained by a modified stationary aether, more precise second -order experiments were expected to give positive results, however, no such results could be found.

The famous Michelson—Morley experiment compared the source light with itself after being sent in different directions, looking for changes in phase in a manner that could be measured with extremely high accuracy. In this experiment, their goal was to determine the velocity of the Earth through the aether. In this case the MM experiment yielded a shift of the fringing pattern of about 0. However, it was incompatible with the expected aether wind effect due to the Earth's seasonally varying velocity which would have required a shift of 0. Therefore, the null hypothesis , the hypothesis that there was no aether wind, could not be rejected. It is obvious from what has gone before that it would be hopeless to attempt to solve the question of the motion of the solar system by observations of optical phenomena at the surface of the earth.

A series of experiments using similar but increasingly sophisticated apparatuses all returned the null result as well. Conceptually different experiments that also attempted to detect the motion of the aether were the Trouton—Noble experiment , [E 21] whose objective was to detect torsion effects caused by electrostatic fields, and the experiments of Rayleigh and Brace , , [E 22] [E 23] to detect double refraction in various media.

However, all of them obtained a null result, like Michelson—Morley MM previously did. These "aether-wind" experiments led to a flurry of efforts to "save" aether by assigning to it ever more complex properties, while only few scientists, like Emil Cohn or Alfred Bucherer , considered the possibility of the abandonment of the aether hypothesis. Of particular interest was the possibility of "aether entrainment" or "aether drag", which would lower the magnitude of the measurement, perhaps enough to explain the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment. However, as noted earlier, aether dragging already had problems of its own, notably aberration. In addition, the interference experiments of Lodge , and Ludwig Zehnder , aimed to show whether the aether is dragged by various, rotating masses, showed no aether drag.

The theory was again modified, this time to suggest that the entrainment only worked for very large masses or those masses with large magnetic fields. This too was shown to be incorrect by the Michelson—Gale—Pearson experiment , which detected the Sagnac effect due to Earth's rotation see Aether drag hypothesis. Another, completely different attempt to save "absolute" aether was made in the Lorentz—FitzGerald contraction hypothesis , which posited that everything was affected by travel through the aether. In this theory the reason the Michelson—Morley experiment "failed" was that the apparatus contracted in length in the direction of travel.

That is, the light was being affected in the "natural" manner by its travel through the aether as predicted, but so was the apparatus itself, cancelling out any difference when measured. FitzGerald had inferred this hypothesis from a paper by Oliver Heaviside. Without referral to an aether, this physical interpretation of relativistic effects was shared by Kennedy and Thorndike in as they concluded that the interferometer's arm contracts and also the frequency of its light source "very nearly" varies in the way required by relativity. Similarly the Sagnac effect , observed by G. Sagnac in , was immediately seen to be fully consistent with special relativity. During the s, the experiments pioneered by Michelson were repeated by Dayton Miller , who publicly proclaimed positive results on several occasions, although they were not large enough to be consistent with any known aether theory.

However, other researchers were unable to duplicate Miller's claimed results. Over the years the experimental accuracy of such measurements has been raised by many orders of magnitude, and no trace of any violations of Lorentz invariance has been seen. A later re-analysis of Miller's results concluded that he had underestimated the variations due to temperature. Since the Miller experiment and its unclear results there have been many more experimental attempts to detect the aether.

Many experimenters have claimed positive results. These results have not gained much attention from mainstream science, since they contradict a large quantity of high-precision measurements, all the results of which were consistent with special relativity. Between and , Hendrik Lorentz developed an electron-aether theory, in which he introduced a strict separation between matter electrons and aether. In his model the aether is completely motionless, and won't be set in motion in the neighborhood of ponderable matter.

Contrary to earlier electron models, the electromagnetic field of the aether appears as a mediator between the electrons, and changes in this field cannot propagate faster than the speed of light. Lorentz noticed that it was necessary to change the space-time variables when changing frames and introduced concepts like physical length contraction [A 7] to explain the Michelson—Morley experiment, and the mathematical concept of local time to explain the aberration of light and the Fizeau experiment.

This resulted in the formulation of the so-called Lorentz transformation by Joseph Larmor , [A 8] [A 9] and Lorentz , , [A 10] [A 11] whereby it was noted by Larmor the complete formulation of local time is accompanied by some sort of time dilation of electrons moving in the aether. As Lorentz later noted , , he considered the time indicated by clocks resting in the aether as "true" time, while local time was seen by him as a heuristic working hypothesis and a mathematical artifice.

He declared simultaneity only a convenient convention which depends on the speed of light, whereby the constancy of the speed of light would be a useful postulate for making the laws of nature as simple as possible. In and [A 14] [A 15] he physically interpreted Lorentz's local time as the result of clock synchronization by light signals. In June and July [A 16] [A 17] he declared the relativity principle a general law of nature, including gravitation. He corrected some mistakes of Lorentz and proved the Lorentz covariance of the electromagnetic equations.

However, he used the notion of an aether as a perfectly undetectable medium and distinguished between apparent and real time, so most historians of science argue that he failed to invent special relativity. Aether theory was dealt another blow when the Galilean transformation and Newtonian dynamics were both modified by Albert Einstein 's special theory of relativity , giving the mathematics of Lorentzian electrodynamics a new, "non-aether" context.

Einstein based his theory on Lorentz's earlier work. Instead of suggesting that the mechanical properties of objects changed with their constant-velocity motion through an undetectable aether, Einstein proposed to deduce the characteristics that any successful theory must possess in order to be consistent with the most basic and firmly established principles, independent of the existence of a hypothetical aether. He found that the Lorentz transformation must transcend its connection with Maxwell's equations, and must represent the fundamental relations between the space and time coordinates of inertial frames of reference. In this way he demonstrated that the laws of physics remained invariant as they had with the Galilean transformation, but that light was now invariant as well.

With the development of the special theory of relativity, the need to account for a single universal frame of reference had disappeared — and acceptance of the 19th-century theory of a luminiferous aether disappeared with it. For Einstein, the Lorentz transformation implied a conceptual change: that the concept of position in space or time was not absolute, but could differ depending on the observer's location and velocity. Moreover, in another paper published the same month in , Einstein made several observations on a then-thorny problem, the photoelectric effect. In this work he demonstrated that light can be considered as particles that have a "wave-like nature". Particles obviously do not need a medium to travel, and thus, neither did light.

This was the first step that would lead to the full development of quantum mechanics , in which the wave-like nature and the particle-like nature of light are both considered as valid descriptions of light. A summary of Einstein's thinking about the aether hypothesis, relativity and light quanta may be found in his originally German lecture "The Development of Our Views on the Composition and Essence of Radiation".

Lorentz on his side continued to use the aether hypothesis. In his lectures of around , he pointed out that what "the theory of relativity has to say He commented that "whether there is an aether or not, electromagnetic fields certainly exist, and so also does the energy of the electrical oscillations" so that, "if we do not like the name of 'aether', we must use another word as a peg to hang all these things upon". He concluded that "one cannot deny the bearer of these concepts a certain substantiality".

In later years there have been a few individuals who advocated a neo-Lorentzian approach to physics, which is Lorentzian in the sense of positing an absolute true state of rest that is undetectable and which plays no role in the predictions of the theory. No violations of Lorentz covariance have ever been detected, despite strenuous efforts. Hence these theories resemble the 19th century aether theories in name only. For example, the founder of quantum field theory, Paul Dirac , stated in in an article in Nature, titled "Is there an Aether? When Einstein was still a student in the Zurich Polytechnic in , he was very interested in the idea of aether. His initial proposal of research thesis was to do an experiment to measure how fast the Earth was moving through the aether.

In , after Einstein completed his foundational work on general relativity , Lorentz wrote a letter to him in which he speculated that within general relativity the aether was re-introduced. In his response Einstein wrote that one can actually speak about a "new aether", but one may not speak of motion in relation to that aether. This was further elaborated by Einstein in some semi-popular articles , , , In Einstein publicly alluded to that new definition for the first time.

In this lecture Einstein stressed that special relativity took away the last mechanical property of the aether: immobility. However, he continued that special relativity does not necessarily rule out the aether, because the latter can be used to give physical reality to acceleration and rotation. This concept was fully elaborated within general relativity , in which physical properties which are partially determined by matter are attributed to space, but no substance or state of motion can be attributed to that "aether" by which he meant curved space-time. A spherical mirror and a spherical lens each have a focal length of cm.

The mirror and the lens are likely to be a both concave b both convex c the mirror is concave and the lens is convex d the mirror is convex and the lens is concave. If the magnification produced by a lens has a negative value, the image will be a virtual and inverted b virtual and erect c real and erect d real and inverted. When the object is placed between f and 2f of a convex lens, the image formed is a at f b at 2f c beyond 2f d between O and f. Which mirroji can produce a virtual, erect and magnified ifhage of an object?

If the image is formed in front of the mirror, then the image distance will be a positive or negative depending on the size of the object b neither positive nor negative c positive d negative. A ray of light is travelling from a rarer medium to a denser medium. While entering the denser medium at the point of incidence, it a goes straight into the second medium b bends towards the normal c bends away from the normal d does not enter at all.

A student does the experiment on tracing the path of a ray of light passing through a rectangular glass slab for different angles of incidence. Light shows the phenomena of reflection, refraction and ………. The speed of light in vacuum is ………. The SI unit of power is ………. A ………. How is it possible for it to work this way? The answer is science. Many may not know, but science, specifically physics, has a lot to do with roller coasters. The roller coaster is actually powered by many types of energy: mechanical, potential, and kinetic.

Discussion 3 For this experiment we measured gravitational acceleration and velocity of a cart getting pushed up a ramp. First we had to make a prediction of how a velocity and acceleration graph would look like with a cart going up the ramp. After that we actually started to do the experiment. We then went to the computer which would help us graph our measurements of each time we did the experiment.

It measured velocity, acceleration, and position of the cart each time. We did the experiment about a couple times until we got a good looking graph, then we recorded it on our lab reports and used it for the rest of our remaining results. Before using that, we took a measurement of the angle of the ramp which turned out to be 4. After that, we then took the graphs we did that were on the computer and we used different tools to find out the acceleration and slope of each specific time in the reading the lab report told us to do. From there after we were done, we then waited till the whole class was done and we all wrote down what our readings were for each measurement.

Our measurements were; 4. Galileo was born in Pisa then part of the Duchy of Florence , Italy in , the first of six children of Vincenzo Galilei, a famous lutenist, composer, and music theorist; and Giulia Ammannati. Galileo was named after an ancestor, Galileo Bonaiuti, a physician, university teacher and politician who lived in Florence from to Galileo Galilei was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution. Galileo conducted several experiments with pendulums.

It is popularly believed that these began by watching the swings of the bronze chandelier in the cathedral of Pisa, using his pulse as a timer. Later experiments are described in his Two New Sciences. Galileo claimed that a simple pendulum is isochronous, i. In fact, this is only approximately true. Galileo also found that the square of the period varies directly with the length of the pendulum. It is said that at the age of 19, in the cathedral of Pisa, he timed the oscillations of a swinging lamp by means of his pulse beats and found the time for each swing to be the same, no matter what the amplitude Statement of the Problem.

Objectives of the Study. Significance of the Study. Scope and Delimitation. Definition of Terms. In sports, athletes need to apply the concepts of Physics. But the application of Physics is not just limited to the machineries but also on how people should move the parts of their body. But there are far more reasons why I believe Physics is a spectator of sports: firstly the physics of ice skating or figure skating which was shown in the movie Ice Princes that I recently watched; second, the physics of playing basketball and lastly, the physics of archery.

To start off, the movie Ice Princess is the perfect example wherein Physics was applied into sports. Which states: An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.

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