Revolutionary War Diary Report
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Major Battles of the Revolution
But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Now, officials from the Anne Frank House in A car pulled up outside a narrow brick building in central Amsterdam, around 10 a. High up in the Annex of Prinsengracht, eight Jews had been hiding since Members of the Gestapo emerged from the car and made their way inside, where they arrested On July 18, , Otto Frank learned the awful truth. He already knew that his wife, unlike himself, had perished inside the walls of Auschwitz, and now survivors of the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp returned to Amsterdam with the news that his two teenaged daughters, Margot On August 4, , police in Nazi-occupied Amsterdam raided a warehouse and arrested eight Jews who were hiding in an annex disguised behind a bookcase.
Among those captured was Anne Frank, a year-old schoolgirl who had spent over two years living in the cramped safehouse with Anne Hutchinson was an influential Puritan spiritual leader in colonial Massachusetts who challenged the male-dominated religious authorities of the time. Through the popularity of her preaching, Hutchinson defied the gender roles in positions of power and gathered When the United States Treasury began investigating Capone for income Usually, the upper floors of the office building at Prinsengracht were silent.
But on August 4, , they came to terrible life. Miep Gies never forgot the sounds. Facing economic, social, and political oppression, thousands of German Jews wanted to flee the Third Reich but found few countries willing to accept them. Live TV. This Day In History. History Vault. Dekhrouhi followed in and respectively. This controversy polarized the Armenian community of Lebanon. As a result, in the context of the Lebanese civil strife of , an armed conflict erupted between supporters the ARF and opponents Hunchakians, Ramgavars of Zareh.
Prior to the Lebanese Civil War of —90, the party was closely allied to the Phalangist Party of Pierre Gemayel and generally ran joint tickets with the Phalangists, especially in Beirut constituencies with large Armenian populations. In the midst of the Lebanese civil war, the shadowy guerrilla organization Justice Commandos of the Armenian genocide emerged and carried out assassinations from to The guerrilla organization has sometimes been linked to the Dashnaks. Ethnic Armenians are allocated six seats in Lebanon's member National Assembly. The Lebanese branch of the ARF has usually controlled a majority of the Armenian vote and won most of the ethnic Armenian seats in the National Assembly. A major change occurred in the parliamentary election of The ARF called for a boycott of the Beirut elections.
Relations soured further when on 5 August by-election in the Metn district, which includes the predominantly Armenian area of Bourj Hammoud, ARF decided to support Camille Khoury , the candidate backed by opposition leader Michel Aoun 's Free Patriotic Movement against Phalangist leader Amine Gemayel and subsequently won the seat. In the Lebanese general elections , the ARF won 2 seats in parliament which it holds presently.
In June , a new Lebanese government was formed where ARF party members were appointed to two ministerial positions, including Ministry of Industry, as part of the March 8 alliance. This system is unofficially still living. Even when they didn't take part as such in elections, Armenian parties such as Dashnak exerted an influence on them. It contributed to organizing a social and cultural framework aimed at preserving the Armenian identity.
When independence was achieved in , the ARF soon became one of the major and most active political parties , rivaled mainly by the Pan-Armenian National Movement. Subsequently, on 28 December , President Levon Ter-Petrosyan in a famous television speech banned the ARF, which was the nation's leading opposition party, along with Yerkir , the country's largest daily newspaper. Throughout the evening, government security forces arrested leading ARF figures, and police seized computers, fax machines, files and printing equipment from ARF offices. In addition to Yerkir , government forces also closed several literary, women's, cultural, and youth publications.
Gerard Libaridyan, an historian and close adviser of Ter-Petrosyan, collected and presented the evidence against the defendants. He later stated in an interview that he was unsure if the evidence was true, inviting the notion that the party was banned because of its increasing chances of winning seats in the July parliamentary elections. The ban on the party was lifted, however, less than a week after Ter-Petrosyan fell from power in February and was replaced by Robert Kocharyan , who was backed by the Dashnaks. In , the ARF was not part of but had a cooperation agreement in place with the governing coalition, which consisted of two parties in the government coalition , the Republican Party and Prosperous Armenia Party.
The Country of Law party was also a member of the governing coalition until it pulled out in May With 16 of the seats in the National Assembly of Armenia , the Armenian Revolutionary Federation is the major socialist party in Armenia and the third-largest party in parliament. In , the ARF announced that it would nominate its own candidate to run for president of Armenia in the February presidential election. In an innovation on 24—25 November , the ARF conducted a non-binding Armenia-wide primary election. They invited the public to vote to advise the party which of two candidates, Vahan Hovhannisyan and Armen Rustamyan , they should formally nominate for president of Armenia in the subsequent official election.
What characterized it as a primary instead of a standard opinion poll was that the public knew of the primary in advance, all eligible voters were invited, and the voting was by secret ballot. Nearly , people voted in makeshift tents and mobile ballot boxes. Vahan Hovhannisyan received the most votes and was subsequently nominated for the presidential election by the ARF Supreme Council in a secret ballot. Due to the signature of the so-called Zurich Protocols the ARF left the coalition and became an opposition party once again in , but relations with other factions in the Armenian opposition have remained frosty.
ARF then reentered Sargsyan's cabinet in February , obtaining three ministerial posts: Ministry of Economy, Local Government and Education; also as a result of what was defined as a "long-term political cooperation" agreement with the Republican Party, ARF also got to appoint the regional governors of Aragatsotn and Shirak Provinces. After the Nagorno-Karabakh clashes, the ARF helped the Ministry of Defense of Armenia in setting up a volunteer reserve battalion , made up mostly of party members.
This unit, made up of experienced commanders and soldiers, some of them veterans from the Nagorno-Karabakh war , is one of the newest units of the Armenian military. It traces back its heritage from the Shushi independent battalion of the previous war, and is simply called the "ARF battalion". Following the start of the Armenian Velvet Revolution, ARF broke its coalition with the Republican Party and moved into opposition; later on, the party supported Nikol Pashinyan 's new cabinet. The ARF also gained popularity by intensifying its social aid programs to those in need in Armenia , especially in the rural areas. The party has provided aid to locals during the COVID pandemic , mainly thanks to various donation made by members of the Armenian diaspora.
Along with the other parties in the coalition, the ARF currently supports former prime minister Vazgen Manukyan as their candidate for prime minister. The "Homeland Salvation Movement" has attempted to force Pashinyan's resignation through the organization of mass protests. In the s, the party usually garnered some 10 to 15 percent of the vote in national elections. In January , the Dashnaktsutiun won the parliamentary election and governed as the ruling party during the entirety of the Nagorno-Karabakh war. It aided the Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army by sending armed volunteers to the front lines and supplying the army with weapons, food, medicine and moral support. After deciding not to run in the second parliamentary elections, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation ran in the elections and won 9 of the 33 seats in the National Assembly of Nagorno Karabakh.
Following the March elections , the party won 3 seats in the National Assembly. The principal founders of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation were nationalist,  socialists, and Marxist elements were omnipresent in the introductory section of the party's first program written by Rosdom , entitled "General Theory". It denounced the Ottoman regime and the unbearable conditions of life for its Armenians and advocated changing the regime in power and securing more rights through revolution and armed struggle.
The ARF had and still has socialism within its political philosophy. Its program expresses the entire, multifaceted make-up of the Armenian revolutionary movement, including its national-liberation, political, and social-economic aspects. Despite subsequent modifications, the above-mentioned principles and tendencies continue to characterize the ideological world of the Dashnaktsutiun, and its approach toward issues has remained unchanged. In recent decades, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation reasserted itself ideologically and reformulated the section of its program called "General Theory", adapting it to current concepts of socialism, democracy and rights of self-determination.
The ARF is often accused of having a present strategy that does not differ from the one used during the time of the Ottoman Empire. Its tactics are viewed as still being aimed at convincing Western governments and diplomatic circles to sponsor the party's demands. The party is also generally pro-European and supports the European integration of Armenia. The party is in favor of Armenia's continued political association and economic integration with the European Union. The ARF is considered the foremost organization in the Armenian diaspora , having established numerous Armenian schools, community centers, Scouting and athletic groups, relief societies, youth groups, camps, and other organs throughout the world.
Starting in late December of , a small group of former and punished ARF members widely believed to be loyalists of Viken "Alex" Hovsepian , the convicted terrorist leader of a failed bomb plot,  began to assert that they represent the organization in the Western United States and are not subject to the decisions of the ARF's highest body, the Bureau. The Bylaws explicitly allow the Bureau to dissolve any Central Committee and appoint one for a temporary term until new and duly organized elections can be held.
Within days of it being dissolved, a minority of the former Central Committee haphazardly called a "regional convention" in violation of not only California organizational laws but also prevailing COVID-related state and county health orders. This illegitimate meeting claimed to elect a new Central Committee in the Western United States, despite the fact that the meeting lacked the required two-thirds quorum, was not sanctioned or attended by the ARF Bureau, did not invite all the Gomidehutyuns chapters of the ARF in the Western Region, only gave two days' notice to those whom it did invite, and was not in compliance with California state organizational laws requiring ample notice for such meetings.
Furthermore, the meeting was called at the peak of the COVID Pandemic in Los Angeles, California against state and county orders in effect at the time, which barred any such public gatherings. Though the ARF Bureau attempted to resolve the issue amicably, the rogue group continued to insist that it will not hand over control of the ARF's and its subsidiary Armenian Cultural Foundation's assets over to the legitimately appointed Central Committee. To attempt to substantiate its claims, the rogue group provided a falsified version of the ARF's Bylaws to the courts, which purport to claim that the ARF Bureau has no authority to dissolve and appoint a Central Committee. This, despite the fact that the real ARF Western United States Bylaws are a well-established fact, in circulation among all members and bodies of the organization.
While the legal ownership of the ARF's assets were under litigation, the rogue group continued to exercise control over some properties and assets. As such, the rogue group illegally installed fake Gomidehs chapter executives in some of the ARF chapters in the Western United States, handing over physical control over some of the chapters' buildings to the illegitimate chapter executives.
An attempt was made by representatives of the rogue group to illegally occupy another center in La Crescenta, California. One of the representatives of the rogue group was even caught on surveillance video attempting to run over a volunteer with his car. ARF and its affiliate organizations worldwide publish 12 newspapers: 4 daily and 8 weekly. Also, there are two TV channels, including one online. Two radio stations are aired everyday, including one online.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Armenian political party. Political party in Armenia. Armenian Revolutionary Federation. Armenian nationalism    United Armenia [a]   Social market economy   Pro-Russian     Historical: Democratic socialism    Revolutionary socialism  Anti-communism    until the late s  [ failed verification ]. Politics of Armenia Political parties Elections. Politics of Artsakh Political parties Elections. See also: Young Turk Revolution. Main article: First Republic of Armenia. See also: Armenian diaspora. Main article: Armenian Revolutionary Federation in Lebanon. See also: United Armenia. Modern Armenia: People, Nation, State.
Transaction Publishers. ISBN Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 7 September Azerbaijan Since Independence. Armonk, New York: M. Drawn equally to nationalism, the ARF New York. Open Society Institute. Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutiun, a nationalist Armenian party Retrieved 11 June The Dashnaktsutiun Party, which has a major following within the diaspora, states as its goals: "The creation of a Free, Independent, and United Armenia. The borders of United Armenia shall include all territories designated as Armenia by the Treaty of Sevres as well as the regions of Artzakh [the Armenian name for Nagorno-Karabakh], Javakhk, and Nakhichevan". Kalamazoo, Michigan: Western Michigan University. The party made it abundantly clear that historical justice will be achieved once ethnic Armenian repatriate to united Armenia, which in addition to its existing political boundaries would include Western Armenian territories Eastern Turkey , Mountainous Karabagh and Nakhijevan in Azerbaijan , and the Samtskhe-Javakheti region of the southern Georgia, bordering Armenia.
Archived from the original on 9 November Retrieved 10 December Yerkir in Armenian. Archived from the original on 24 August Transitions Online. Archived from the original on 4 July The Armenian Revolutionary Federation Dashnaktsutyun , another major opposition party, said joining the EEU is critical for Armenia's national security. Archived from the original on 31 January Retrieved 28 September Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
Archived from the original on 7 September Armenian Revolutionary Federation, ARF: For almost nine years they have been party, ally or auxiliary to the neo-liberal capitalist authorities in the Third Republic of Armenia. They deny, avoid, and deviate from the socialist roots that are so indispensable for the survival and development of our people, nation and state for the sake of pragmatism, real-politik, the result of which is degeneration.
They also reinforce neo-liberalism in Armenia. A Century of Tsarist Rule". Franz Steiner Verlag. JSTOR Armenia in Crisis: The Earthquake. Wayne State University Press. Although socialism played an important part in party ideology in its early years, the ARF after became an outspoken nationalist critic of Soviet Armenia. Suppressed or expelled from Soviet Armenia, the Dashnaks became the most visible and resonant anti-Communist opposition group in the Armenian diaspora for the next seventy years. One Piece Wiki Explore. Spin-Offs Video Games. Explore Wikis Community Central. Register Don't have an account?
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