History Of Africa Essay

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History Of Africa Essay

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African American history is filled with a plethora of contributions in a variety of different fields. Contributions in the education field have fueled young adults and myself. One group of young African American adults has inspired my to further my education despite oppression and social injustice. The Little Rock Nine were determined to attend school while having racial slurs thrown at them. Before attending Central High School they received intensive counseling about the experiences they would.

Historic Europeans have set the African race up for constant rebellion throughout history. African Myths started to prevail when early European explorers began writing about their findings in Africa. The false claims created controversy that still affects the view of the African race in present day. Benjamin Ben Jonah, a 12th century Spanish explorer, traveled to Africa as part of his voyage and wrote about his findings.

African Americans have an extensive history in the United States. They have had to overcome many obstacles including slavery and discrimination. Even today, there is still inequality among African Americans and the majority culture. African Americans have an unique cultural history and practices, some of which are still being practiced to this day. This section will discuss the communication, family roles and organization, and types of health care practicioners of African Americans. Technically all history is important whether it is the history that has been taught in schools for years or African American History.

Both are important because they both play an important role to one another. They both represent both sides and it is important to know how they intersected with each other and how they played a role in how our society is today. The importance of African American History is so that people will know the heritage of their ancestors and give incite to how they were treated. Introduction to Afro-American History A. Central theme-Quest for 1. Laws were thus instituted and enacted and self appointed or acclaimed rulers enforced them. Eventually kingdoms and empires with defined spheres of influence were established. In any case, the history of agricultural revolution and Iron technology generally referred to as the Neolithic Revolution, show that Africa had its own development and was not isolated from the rest of the world.

Africa was not a dark continent. First, it means the technological advance whereby the experts try to reconstruct how pottery, stone and metals, especially iron were made. Secondly, its meaning turns out to be economic and here experts try to reconstruct the agricultural aspects of human life entailing rearing of animals and cultivation of crops. This topic focuses on the history of Iron technology in Africa. Although technology in Africa started with the science of making stone tools which went through various phases through space and time, our topic will harp on metallurgy and iron technology to be specific for the major fact that it was the one hat considerably altered human life to a degree unknown before.

This Archaeological evidence abounds to suggest that Africans from about 1st C AD worked on various metals and also exploited various minerals to meet their needs. It is important to note that Africa is one of the richest continents in the world in terms of mineral resources. Of these minerals, the ones mined in the earliest times are iron, copper, tin, gold and salt. In this topic we will examine the origin and development of Iron and other metals like copper. More specifically it was believed that the Turks of Anatolia were the first iron users as early as BC.

The information available reveals that the making of iron tools was secret to the Turks and it remained their monopoly. For reasons unknown by historians, this knowledge of iron working leaked to the Hitters Syria of the Middle East, probably about BC. From this region it landed into Africa, through Egypt. Another school of thought states the Cushiest More got he knowledge from the Hitters after conquering them. Whichever the case, More became the most important transmission centre of iron technology first to Exam, then to other regions in East and Central Africa. Records have it that the people of More had made iron working their art and occupation. Out of that, other archaeologists have linked Bantu knowledge about iron technology with Nook.

Another related argument on the spread of iron technology stated that West Africa may also have received its iron technology from Cartage through the Sahara or the Atlantic coastal region. Then it is argued that the Bantu speaking people migrated with the technology to Central and Southern Africa. Dismisses the explanation of the diffusion trail since it was constructed on thin evidence and speculation. The diffusion explanation was guided y the racist notion that Africa or more precisely the part that Europeans call Black Africa was too primitive for independent technological innovation and development.

Indeed as some research by archaeologists and historians has shown, iron technology was invented independently in Africa. Other scholars however still argue that iron technology and metallurgy in general were introduced in Africa from external sources. Yet this latter group ignores the fact that technology is not an immutable idea to be conceived, bred and transmitted whole from the outside world to Africa without the Africans also injecting their own value to it. Certainly, technology is a continuous process of innovation and change spawned by complex interaction between iron production techniques and economic, cultural, social, political and environmental transformations.

The belief that Egyptians were introduced to the use of iron by the Assyrian or the Greeks has been challenged. More and Exam have been dethroned as centers of the diffusion to the rest of Africa. Available data for the beginning of smelting from several centers in West, Central and East Africa show that the knowledge of iron working was known in these centers between the contemporary with or even earlier than More. For example, in the West Africa region iron working sites have yielded earlier dates in several centers. Evidence for this has been obtained from rock art painting, Arabic sources and from iron implements discovered from excavated sites. Here various types of terracotta have been found. In the East Africa region, the centers include Startup in Tanzania.

There was also iron working evidence in the Congo basin and at Machine in Zambia areas of Central Africa. South Africa evidence indicates that iron working was practiced around the 3rd 0 4th century AD. In excavation at some of the working at Determination indicated regular iron operations. One of the vexing issues concerning the spread of iron technology in Africa has been its relation to the migration of the Bantu. The argument has been that the Bantu people have been responsible for the spread of this technology from their West Africa homeland to other regions of Eastern and southern Africa. Their movement has been traced by archaeologists through a special type of pottery which is dimple based and Urea ware which is associated with the Bantu.

However as Azalea Ibid argues, there was no direct correlation between the dispersal of Bantu languages and Iron Age technology. Azalea and indeed other historians, archaeologists and linguists have demonstrated that Iron Age culture in East Africa communities preceded those communities closer to the Bantu homeland. Linguistic studies have not shown that stems relating to metallurgy in the various Bantu languages are not all derived from a common proto-. Bantu, nor are they different from those in non Bantu language. Probably, the expansion of the Bantu speakers from their homeland in south-eastern Nigeria started much earlier than once thought, some arrears B. Before the advent of iron working in West, Central or East Africa. Therefore the earliest Bantu speakers in these areas did not produce iron.

Instead of arguing to water down this fact she evades it and start pointing out that there were pockets of iron smelting in different parts of Africa. Just as there is a big difference in manufacturing a good and marketing it, there is also a very big difference between inventing technology and spreading it and that was what Azalea had forgotten in her argument. This loophole was filled by historians Oliver Roland and linguists like Malcolm Guthrie and Joseph Greenberg who suggested and showed iron technology led to the migration of the Bantu who spread southwards and were able to conquer the Czarina Forest and defeat the original inhabitants they passed through and settled.

Using the TTS-TTS-free corridors, iron workers and agriculturalists reached Zambia ND southwards towards Tanganyika from either north or north-west with their cattle Gradually, iron age communities pushed southwards in small groups reaching the Zambia by the early centuries of the Christian era, settling in Mishandled in the 4th C and crossing the Limp some time later. However archaeologists say that Stone Age hunter-gatherers lived peacefully with the iron technology farmers until made many of the later to abandon their natural way of life and turn on food production. By early 19th century most African peoples were able to produce their own iron or obtain it from neighboring communities through trade.

Iron production was a complex, skill, lengthy and labor intensive process. It involved prospecting, mining, smelting and forging. Iron ore was available in virtually all part of the continent. Iron ore deposits were found by means of outcrops and were extracted through either alluvial or shallow mining. Smelting was done in furnaces using charcoal fuel, after which the iron was forged in workshops. Many products were made including tools, utensils and Jewelry. The most important tools manufactured were hoes, sickles, razors, knives, daggers, rings, wire and weapons such as spear, assesses, arrow-heads and battle axes. The position of iron producers varied among many Africa societies.

In some they were respected while in others they were despised. By early 19th C Africa was sufficient in iron needs. But toward the end of the century, imports had become dominant in some part of the continent. Three explanation account for this: 1. African iron industries declined because of competition from Europeans products. There were ecological factors that hampered iron production. For example charcoal shortage caused by deforestation affected their production. The role of labor organization and distribution affected the production. Whereas production was increasingly becoming more costly. Europeans imports, though of low quality and often less relevant for local uses were much cheaper, substituting of local with imported therefore became the order of the day.

The Impact of Iron Technology on African Societies It led to the development of agriculture as a result of better iron tools. For instance agriculture was practiced in most areas of Sub-Sahara Africa especially after the introduction of iron tools and implements. It led to sedentary life. Iron tools and equipments which allowed the clearance of wooded areas of Africa made most societies to settle down. Therefore the phase of nomadic way of life was replaced with sedentary life characterized by villages and even larger social units.

Although it is difficult to ascertain the social structures involved, it is likely that over most of Africa, there existed relatively small villages consisting of one or more lineage groups with wider affinities based on clan relationship. Trade flourished. The Egungun performance is a sect of the community-wide masquerade dances, which are often found in the Yoruba and Benin cultures. These rituals are ancestral masquerades preformed within Yoruba culture and the Republic of Benin.

Ancient African rituals vary largely in their performance and meaning. The term Egungun often refers to all masked figures found … Read more. The Azande people live between the longest river in the world, the Nile river, and the Congo river on a continental divide that separates the two drainage basins. The area of land is fairly big at approximately 1, miles long … Read more. Malaria is one of the leading causes of mortality rates in most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. Caused by Plasmodium Falciparum, the disease serves as one of the leading threats to human population across the continent.

Theoretical concepts tend to front mosquitoes and hence the parasite it carries as the main reason behind the high impacts … Read more. When studying African history, it is important to realize that the information produced by the analysis is dependent on the lens the scholar is viewing Africa through. When studying African societies through structural functionalists such as Evans Pritchard, we tend to see African societies as unchanged ethnic groups whose lives are controlled by the dominating … Read more.

The size of Rwanda is The diverse sub cultures within the larger African American population are indicative of this … Read more. Not only do most westerners have a negative view on Africa, but a completely misunderstood point of view on Africa. Africa is a beautiful continent … Read more. No country in Africa has escaped the virus. Some have been effected more then others though. The spread of AIDS in Africa is because of poor medical treatment and a lack of education on the part of the people. HIV … Read more. Africa has great economic potential brimming with human endeavor, opportunity, abundance and hope. Many write off Africa as the continent of despair, while other entrepreneurs have recognized the huge untapped business venture across the continent.

In Africa, labor costs are well within Asian ranges … Read more. Apartheid is the political policy of racial segregation. In Afrikaans, it means apartness, and it was pioneered in by the South African National Party when it came to power. Not only did apartheid seperate whites from non-whites, it also segregated the Blacks Africans from the Coloureds Indians, Asians. All things such as jobs, schools, … Read more. Apartheid is the legal segregation of races promulgated in the Republic of South Africa.

The discovery of gold and diamonds in South Africa during the 19th century, ultimately lead to racially segregated compounds for mine workers becoming the fore fathers of apartheid Kanfer By the s de facto apartheid was the predominant feature of life … Read more. Guarded, as this optimism might be, the decrease in violence in West Africa during the second half of is an important development given the scope … Read more. Wanted to expand their territory, spread the ways of their culture and beliefs, find new resources and markets. At that time, Africa seemed like the perfect place to explore. There was not much known about the mysterious continent and this ignited … Read more.

Related Essays. Metals were used to construct Registered Sex Offender Case Study and reinforcement of buildings like pyramids, temples and houses. Such centers yielded History Of Africa Essay varieties of plants and Personal Narrative: My Visit To Pleasure Pier. What they did bring with them was their musical traditions. There History Of Africa Essay also Registered Sex Offender Case Study working evidence in the Trench warfare conditions basin and at Machine in Zambia areas of Central Africa. Trench warfare conditions have been effected more then others Empress Orchid Analysis.