Causes Of Hitlers Rise To Power

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Causes Of Hitlers Rise To Power



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Initial rise of Hitler and the Nazis - The 20th century - World history - Khan Academy

Political and economic instability, coupled with voter dissatisfaction with the status quo, benefitted the Nazi Party. Before the onset of the Great Depression in Germany in —, the National Socialist German Workers' Party or Nazi Party for short was a small party on the radical right of the German political spectrum. In the Reichstag parliament elections of May 2, , the Nazis received only 2. During —, the mood in Germany was grim. The worldwide economic depression had hit the country hard, and millions of people were out of work.

The unemployed were joined by millions of others who linked the Depression to Germany's national humiliation after defeat in World War 1. Many Germans perceived the parliamentary government coalition as weak and unable to alleviate the economic crisis. Widespread economic misery, fear, and perception of worse times to come, as well as anger and impatience with the apparent failure of the government to manage the crisis, offered fertile ground for the rise of Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party. Hitler was a powerful and spellbinding orator who, by tapping into the anger and helplessness felt by a large number of voters, attracted a wide following of Germans desperate for change. Nazi electoral propaganda promised to pull Germany out of the Depression.

The Nazis pledged to restore German cultural values, reverse the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles , turn back the perceived threat of a Communist uprising, put the German people back to work, and restore Germany to its "rightful position" as a world power. Hitler and other Nazi propagandists were highly successful in directing the population's anger and fear against the Jews; against the Marxists Communists and Social Democrats ; and against those the Nazis held responsible for signing both the armistice of November and the Versailles treaty, and for establishing the parliamentary republic. Hitler and the Nazis often referred to the latter as "November criminals.

Hitler and other Nazi speakers carefully tailored their speeches to each audience. For example, when speaking to businessmen, the Nazis downplayed antisemitism and instead emphasized anti-communism and the return of German colonies lost through the Treaty of Versailles. When addressed to soldiers, veterans, or other nationalist interest groups, Nazi propaganda emphasized military buildup and return of other territories lost after Versailles.

Nazi speakers assured farmers in the northern state of Schleswig-Holstein that a Nazi government would prop up falling agricultural prices. Pensioners all over Germany were told that both the amounts and the buying power of their monthly checks would remain stable. To dissolve the parliament, the president used Article 48 of the German constitution. But from the start, the terms of the treaty caused anger, hate, and revulsion across German society. Versailles was called a diktat , a dictated peace.

The German Empire from was split up, the military carved to the bone, and huge reparations demanded. The treaty caused turmoil in the new, highly troubled Weimar Republic , but, although Weimar survived into the s, it can be argued that key provisions of the Treaty contributed to the rise of Adolf Hitler. The Treaty of Versailles was criticized at the time by some voices among the victors, including economists such as John Maynard Keynes.

Some claimed the treaty would simply delay a resumption of war for a few decades, and when Hitler rose to power in the s and started a second world war, these predictions seemed prescient. In the years after World War II, many commentators pointed to the treaty as being a key enabling factor. Others, however, praised the Treaty of Versailles and said the connection between the treaty and the Nazis was minor. Yet Gustav Stresemann, the best-regarded politician of the Weimar era, was constantly trying to counter the terms of the treaty and restore German power. At the end of World War I, the Germans offered an armistice to their enemies, hoping negotiations could take place under the "Fourteen Points" of Woodrow Wilson.

However, when the treaty was presented to the German delegation, with no chance to negotiate, they had to accept a peace that many in Germany saw as arbitrary and unfair. The signatories and the Weimar government that had sent them were seen by many as the " November Criminals. Some Germans believed this outcome had been planned. In the later years of the war, Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff had been in command of Germany. In the years after the war, Hindenburg claimed the army had been "stabbed in the back. He wishes to pursue a deflationary policy to counter economic depression.

It is the start of a slippery slope for failing German democracy, and the start of a period of rule by Article 48 decrees. September Boosted by the rising unemployment rate, the decline of center parties, and a turn to both left and right extremists, the NSDAP wins Hitler joins. January: Hitler is welcomed by a group of industrialists; his support is broadening and gathering money. March Hitler comes a strong second in the presidential elections; Hindenburg just misses out on the election on the first ballot.

April Hindenburg defeats Hitler at the second attempt to become president. June The SA ban is revoked. August Papen offers Hitler the post of vice-chancellor, but Hitler refuses, accepting nothing less than being chancellor. November 6: In another election, the Nazi vote shrinks slightly. November Hitler turns down more government offers, wanting nothing less than to be chancellor. December 2: Papen is forced out, and Hindenburg is influenced into appointing the general, and prime right-wing manipulator, Kurt von Schleicher, chancellor. January Schleicher is outmaneuvered by Papen, who persuades Hindenburg than Hitler can be controlled; the latter is made chancellor , with Papen vice-chancellor.

February 6: Hitler introduces censorship. February With elections looming, the Reichstag is set on fire by a communist. February Citing the attack on the Reichstag as evidence of a mass communist movement, Hitler passes a law ending civil liberties in Germany. March During the "Day of Potsdam," the Nazis open the Reichstag in a carefully stage-managed act which tries to show them as heirs of the Kaiser. March Hitler passes the Enabling Act; it makes him a dictator for four years. June During the "Night of the Long Knives," dozens are killed as Hitler shatters the power of the SA, which had been challenging his goals. July 3: Papen resigns. August 2: Hindenburg dies.

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