Weimar Regime During 1924-1930 Analysis

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Weimar Regime During 1924-1930 Analysis



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Weimar Republic - Early years 1919-1924

A second topic is the development of new technologies for environmentally friendly electronic modules that are easy to recycle. Especially new methods for the realization of microvias are under investigation with emphasis of thermal properties and manufacturing technology. Furthermore, modern analytic facilities at the ZMN allow testing by ultrasonic and x-ray inspection systems. The groups combines electrical power engineering and materials science to system knowledge for the technological use of the related electro-physical processes. Further development of the division is supported by new materials, components, appliance systems and control techniques on one hand, and on the other, it is essentially required by material, micro, environment and recycling technology.

The equipment and processes utilized in the division's teaching and research are highly energy intensive and specific, thus the theoretical, numerical and experimentalconsiderations are very important. Hence the group's business is to install and design the technical equipment, to develop materials due to its laboratory purpose and to measure its properties. It is able to create magnetic flux densities up to 5 Tesla.

At present, studies are accomplished concerning the crystallisation of Bariumhexaferrite BaFe12O19 , which is known to crystallise out of amorphous flakes of the glass system BaO-B2O3-Fe2O3 in the magnetic field. Another objective covers the research on BaFe12O19 crystals directly out of the melt. The combination of the CFM and HTO devices besides further equipment provide a wide range use in material development glass and metal melts, glass-ceramics, influences of alloy microstructures and in magneto hydrodynamics.

There is scope of collaboration with companies. Please contact Dr. Bernd Hamann. While their respective methods and applications appear to be quite different, they share common problems in measurement data acquisition, sensor interface design, signal processing, parameter identification, data analysis and information extraction. The Electronic Measurement Research Laboratory is currently conducting several research projects that lie in the crossroad of these disciplines. The main goal is to apply advanced digital signal processing and RF circuit design methods for solving leading edge measurement problems in mobile radio and RF sensing.

Reiner S. The solar-energy components are analyzed by using an out-door test facility. The focus is laid on optical and Raman spectroscopy as well as mass spectrometry. Increasingly, technologically important inorganic nanoparticle materials prepared 19 with the nanoparticle beam apparatus LUCAS are investigated in close collaboration with other departments of the IMN and co-operation partners from other universities. Here, especially the catalytic and magnetic properties are of interest. Furthermore, this department focusses on the analysis of liquid metals and the development of new adaptive materials which have low or negative thermal coefficients. These materials are produced by sputtering of thin films or by electrochemical or electrophoresis methods.

Samples of different materials, such as deposited layers and post annealed layers, are also provided from other groups of the university, as well as from industrial partners. The studies combine a social science oriented media and communication perspective with expertise from media technology and media economy so called "three-pillar-model of media education in Ilmenau". It focuses on two main research questions: How should media products be designed to meet the users' needs and interests? What psychological effects do different media have? The integration of the department into the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering reflects the significance of materials science engineering.

The research areas in the department cover metallic, non-metallic, inorganic, and composite materials. The focus of the research is the improvement of available conventional materials, the development of new materials and the creation of innovative material approaches. It is expected that in the near future the technological breakthrough in the area of micro- and nano- electronic systems will play a key role in our society. Micro- and nanoelectronic systems become possible when combining functional micro- and nano- techniques in a miniaturized setup. It is conceivable that by joining individual nanoelectronic components by connection techniques, system architectures and signal processing concepts, the development of complex products is made possible.

The goal of our division is to push the advancement of microand nanoelectronic systems by combining different single nanotechniques utilizing system technologies. Ivo W. Wurmus retired end of after 14 years of successful work and Prof. Martin Hoffmann took over responsibility for the department. The department will continue in working in silicon-based micro-electro-mechanical systems MEMS. On the other hand, the focus is put on the system integration of MEMS based on wafer-level technologies and planar processes for mechanical functionalities.

For the next decade a strong and continuous increase of applications and turn-over is expected along with a spread of applications. But not all challenges are already solved. MEMS are characterized by a complex system integration of mechanics with driving electronics as known from mechatronics, but usually they combine 25 all these functional blocks in wafer-level-processed components. This results in very compact subsystems with low single-die assembly effort. System integration is still one of the major road blocks for microsystems in new fields of application: The package becomes often part of the system function e. Most commercially available micro- systems aim for mass markets and are supplied by large companies.

Our aim is the research for new concepts that allow the cost-efficient development and production of micro-sub-systems even in small and medium quantities. Currently, piezoelectric aluminium nitride is investigated for this application. Four different principles can be offered in design, fabrication and test: electrostatic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric and thermo-mechanical actuation. Also microfluidics is an important part of the research.

Focal points are the calculation and modelling of lumped passive elements and transmission line devices and the enhancement and optimisation of technological processes. More layers with smaller structures will lead to a higher degree of integration. Methods for fine line structuring and approaches to control the shrinking behaviour of ceramic materials are under development. The whole equipment for design, screen printing, tape punching, lamination, firing and assembling of PCBs, hybrid circuits and LTCC-modules is available. Manufacturing of complex microelectronic systems requires hybrid technologies of components, which cannot be integrated into the semiconductor chip by monolithic methods.

The LTCC- Low Temperature Cofired Ceramics- technology offers new solutions by a variety of materials tapes, inks and a nearly unlimited number of layers. Furthermore new solutions for sensor and mechatronic applications are thinkable. Characterization of material parameters up to higher limits than provided by suppliers in view of working temperature, frequencies, environmental pollution conditions, stress or others. The outstanding potentialities of the group of Nanotechnology are based on the expertise in the fabrication of organic devices and systems as well as on the epitaxy of wide band gap semiconductors. Further more the scientific progress is based on the long lasting knowledge in micro- and nanotechnology for processing electronic as well as optical devices.

The development and realization of novel devices is supported by a modern and state of the art analytical infrastructure for structural, electronic, as well as optical characterization of semiconducting materials and nanostructures. The goal is the design, development and realization of novel device concepts for nano-electronic and -sensor devices, which is strongly motivated by the fabrication of smart materials and their application in the analysis of nanostructures and nano-quantities.

Especially, the research projects related to the use of microoptical components for the optimization and integration of optical systems are closely linked to the IMN. Specific research projects in this context are dealing with: - microoptics for optical tweezers; - applied spectral imaging; - holographic lithography and digital holography; - integrated optical-fluidic microsystems for biotechnology Funding for these projects is provided through the German DFG and European Science foundation ESF , the European Community 6th FP, Interreg III C programme , the German ministry for Education and Research BMBF as well as the state of Thuringia.

The device is going to move peristaltically similarly to the motion of an earthworm. It will enter the natural canals inside the human body e. The device is being hollow and carrying a hollow tube being its back linking to the outside. The surgeon is able to insert endoscopic tools towards the top of the device and location of surgery. The development of the device requires research in the following topics: The properties of the surrounding tissue define the environment of PADeMIS, so studies of the anatomical and material conditions are made.

Material tests are performed to investigate the long time dependency of this material and to examine the constitutive law, which is used in finite element simulations of the deformations of the worm segments leading to locomotion. Also a silicone prototyping facility is being constructed to produce the device. Additionally, a control system is being set up.

Faculty and Staff: Dr. Petra Meier 31 32 Department for Physical Chemistry and Microreaction Technology The research work of the Department for Physical Chemistry and Microreaction Technology is focussed on the development of methods for the miniaturization of chemical and biological processes by use of microfluidics and microreactors. One important motivation for this work is the improvement of environmental compatibility of laboratory processes by minimization of the consumption of chemicals and other ressources in research, development and education. One part of the research work is addressed to the generation and modification of micro and nanoparticles by use of microreactors.

So, the formation of metal nanoparticles by reduction of metal compounds under micro fluidic conditions and the generation of polymer nanoparticles in a micro flow-through emulsion polymerization are under investigation. A second part of research work deals with microfluidics for biomolecular and cell applications. These part includes research on micro flow-through PCR for DNA characterization, the generation and manipulation of micro fluid segments and the application of this technique for biological screening experiments.

The work of the group is strongly supported by the DBU up to now. This support, the fruitful cooperation with several partners from industry and research are gratefully acknowleged, partially the cooperation with the IPHT Jena. The use of simulation tools shows possibilities for loss reduction in power semiconductors, parallel and series cascading and give the possibility to predefine the thermal conditions.

Microcontrollers and digital signal processors in combination with programmable logic act as control unit for electrical drives, distributed energy sources and other power electronic systems. The department examines EMI-effects and its mechanism. Extensive research collaboration with industrial partners as well as with BMBF, the DFG and the Thuringian Ministry of Culture and Education provides the basis for a well-founded and practically oriented education for students.

Johannes Wilden, four years ago. A completely new laboratory building was set up, including all new equipment and state-of-the-art machinery. Today, approximately 20 engineers and technicians as well as a large number of students form a highly competent team for co-operative projects in coating, cutting, joining as well as chipping technologies. The current focus of research is on the analysis and understanding of scale effects in materials. As miniaturisation moves from micro- to nano- dimensions, material properties and effects clearly must be considered to fully understand the phenomena observed and improve process conditions and reliability. For instance, with high 35 precision milling, the cutting depth is of the same order of magnitude as the grain size of the material treated.

While conventional theories fail to properly describe such a process, suitable consideration of scale effects allows to derive and develop new production systems. In the field of coating and joining processes scale effects allow reducing working temperature, so that sensitive materials can be joined with a very low heat input. The department is member of the Institute for Information Technology and of the Institute for Micro- and Nanotechnologies. Correspondingly, the research projects of the RF and Microwave Department are focused on interdisciplinary concepts to use new functionality and new materials in high-frequency related applications.

The work of the four groups includes the investigation of basic operation principles, device simulation, device design and optimisation, fabrication, and characterisation. Polymer and wide bandgap devices are fabricated in-house, while other devices, such as SiGe HBTs, are fabricated in the facilities of partners in the semiconductor industry. Semicron, Atmel. By establishing our department, the TU Ilmenau realized these wishes and demands. One part of teaching in the department for the History of Technology and Economy conveys the nowadays historical views. These historical analyses make it possible for experts and non-experts to understand the more complex technical systems as well as the connection of the technical systems with the development of the human society.

In case of the TU Ilmenau, such a treatment of the history of technology is only possible through a wide understanding of technology technology as sociotechnological system and a very integrative research and teaching relevant to the present day. Tasks in teaching and research consequently are the investigation into origin and development of modern fields of technology and industry and the innovation processes within. Focus on research is the study of media presentation of technological, scientific and economic facts.

The acceptance and reflection of technology are two aspects which have influence on all studies. For these topics some content analysis studies were carried out. Other research projects focus on special communication in engineering, technology and industry and its difficulties between experts and users. Also processes of knowledge transfer are content of research work, especially in case of communication about high technology. Research interests also are knowledge transfers through manuals and operating instructions, above all for consumer devices in the field of communication e.

TV, home cinema equipment, DVD recorder, cell phone and questions of usability. Another research takes place in the field of using content management systems CMS for creating websites for small museums: here the questions is, how CMS can be explained to users, which are in most cases laymen, that they are able to use the systems without any problems. Research work is also done in the field of media history and technical history. Since , the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG supported two projects of the chair, a comparative study of the radio set industry in western and eastern Germany between and the second half of the s and a study about the development of the telecommunication technology areas of the Deutsche Post between and the s.

The Department of Technical Physics is involved in research and teaching in numerous areas of surface science such as functional biointerfaces, surface functionalization, semiconducting surfaces and tribology using advanced surface analytical techniques. The main focus of this research is to investigate the possibilities of controlling the fundamental elements of condensed matter on an atomic scale: atoms and molecules on solid surfaces. The ability to produce structures atom by atom or molecule by molecule would allow the creation of a large array of specialized materials and functional structures; this is the long-term goal of nanotechnology.

It is already possible to mani- pulate single atoms, for example, by using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope to influence the position of adsorbed atoms or to investigate chemical reactions of single molecules. The full potential of surface sensitive techniques offers promising possibilities for future research. In this context, our group investigates organic- inorganic interfaces, the mechanical contact between macroscopic and microscopic solid surfaces including biological systems , as well as the growth and characterization of carbon layers, specifically C60 -molecules and carbon nanotubes.

These materials are promising for the use as high temperature and high frequency electronic devices, as well as for sensor applications. Furthermore, electrical contacts such as those based on metal carbides and epitaxially grown insulating layers have a strong influence on device performance. Recently we started investigations on the electronic, vibronic and geometric structure of room temperature ionic liquids as well as their tribological properties. Ionic liquids are an interesting class of materials which have a very low vapour pressure but are still in the liquid phase at around room temperature. Their special properties make them good candidates for many applications.

Furthermore a growing field of our research is the pyrolysis of carbon containing biopolymers. The investigation of fundamental processes during the pyrolysis of lignin and cellulose containing compounds is one of the main topics here, with the aim to develop a new material for bipolar plates in fuel cells. Research in tribology covers three major areas: Tribology of nanopositioning friction, wear and lubrication of bearings and couplings used in nanopositioning ; Microtribology adhesion, friction and lubrication of the Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems ; and Tribochemistry interaction of lubricants and lubricant additives with contacting surfaces.

Additionally, several analytical measurements are performed by our group within collaborative studies with a variety of researchers inside and outside the TU Ilmenau as well as for companies. These are pursued by combining analytical and numerical approaches. Optical experiments at low temperature with excitation energy close to the fundamental band gap at low excitation density show light emission primarily out of localized exciton states. Ultra-fast experiments using femtosecond lasers and experiments with high spatial and high spectral resolution Near-field Optical Scanning Microscopy provide complementary information on the localized quantum states.

In the last decade, a detailed theoretical understanding of the localized quantum states as a basis for a description of the ultra-fast excitation kinetics and the related energy relaxation processes was obtained. A comprehensive overview by the group leader was published as contribution Excitons in semiconductor nanostructures to the Solid State Physics series Vol. Ehrenreich and F. Spaepen, Academic Press, San Diego, Zimmermann and V.

Takagahara, Elsevier Science, Oxford, Recent work in the group addresses the spin- dependent exchange splitting of exciton states and a more detailed description of the electromagnetic field in near-field experiments. It was recently suggested that this competition leads to so-called partial localization. Different electrons within the same shell behave differently: Some orbitals are fully occupied, thereby increasing the local moments. These hopping processes involve only few orbitals, selected such that large atomic moments exist before and after the hopping. It is interesting to see which of the widely used approximation methods for many-particle systems Hartreee-Fock, GutzwillerAnsatz,.. Quantum chemistry of conjugated polymers Conjugated polymers and copolymers, as well as their blends with fullerene derivates are an intriguing class of materials.

They find application in a broad variety of devices, such as light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic cells, field effect-transistors, and sensors. Charge and excitation transport in these materials - and finally the device performance are crucially influenced by the morphology on the nanometer scale. The latter results from self- organized processes, which in turn reflect in part the underlying chemical structure. Thus for a directed design of appropriate molecules, a theoretical modeling of the polymer conformations based on quantum chemical calculations is very much called for.

We applied quantum-chemical methods, e. Following a multi-scaling approach, we used these results as input parameters for Monte-Carlo simulation of these polymers within a bead model. Additionally, we developed the so-called line-dipole approximation in order to simulate the excitation transport on and between polymer chains efficiently. This enabled us to compare our calculations with results from femtosecond-resolved optical spectroscopy. Many-particle physics Faculty and Staff: Systems of strongly interacting electrons on lattices with geometric frustration have received considerable interest in recent years. The arguably most spectacular prediction in this field is the existence of quasi-particles, i.

This poses several questions of fundamental interest. Unfortunately, quantum Monte Carlo techniques can not be used due to Prof. However, several important issues can only be resolved if the system size is sufficiently large so that two quasi-particles can be considered as spatially separated. The many-particle physics activities are pursued mostly in collaboration with the Max-PlanckInstitute for Physics of Complex Systems. As part of the Regional Innovation System, it offers ideal conditions for technology oriented innovative companies and start-ups. It provides all the basic technology and equipment — including special gear, laboratories and clean room.

With the help of fittings and equipment, the center supports the efficient implementation process, starting from research results and the product idea right up to pilot series production. By means of this innovative equipment, it is possible to prepare wafers by various corrosion, polishing and cleaning treatments and to make them available for fabrication again. The technology is designed for wafers of mm height. Nanolay AG, a start-up offering wafer re-claim technology, is settled in the APZ and employs more than 15 staffers due to the favorable order situation.

The APZ building The Application Center assists its lessees in rising up a new business within an optimal infrastructure: Offices, laboratories and a clean room stand for a premium high-tech surrounding. The ZMN is specialized on doing scientific activities, whereas the APZ is concentrated on their commercial implementation. This generates some positive effects: Due to the proximity of both devices, the transfer of know-how is guaranteed as well as the utilization of research findings in the commercial sector.

In copublished brochures and leaflets the conjoint offers are to be found. The booth will be situated in the area of microtechnology in hall As it measures with a precision of nanograms, it serves for the comparison measurement between very precise weights, e. The utilization of the infrastructure of APZ constitutes a successful example for the development of high technology. Design and equipment of the rooms represent ideal conditions for the improvement of the highly complex measurement systems. Tetekera provides three-dimensional laser shaping ablation of various materials. The Tetekera owner and executive secretary Torsten Thelemann also occupies a part time position as a scientific coworker in a junior researcher group from TU Ilmenau.

Many departments like mechanical and electrical engineering, computer science and natural sciences work together. While about m2 are classified as clean room class 10,, the remaining space of m2 is classified as class 1, or even as low as class in the lithography area. Outside the clean room there are facilities for different technologies, such as the printing of circuit boards, a laser lab for the trimming and cutting of specimens addressing the packaging applications of devices. Furthermore, the central application lab offers security standard S1 for handling of genetically modified organisms which addresses the construction of large and sophisticated complete systems for biological, medical, and pharmaceutical research.

Additional analytical devices on the nanoscopic scale which require a very low level of vibration are located in the basement of the building. This covers the costs for the basic operation of the building and the equipment contained within. The specific expenditures are listed in detail in figure 1. They amount to Fig. Figure 2 gives an overview of the different sources of funding for the year of The overall research costs in the time period from to amount to Figure 4 gives an overview of funding agencies and the sizes of their shares.

Figure 5 provides an overview for the currently targeted amounts spent on other different issues. In until October funding of 3. Scharff, T. Weber, and L. Carta-Abelmann Department of Chemistry For the construction of donor-acceptor polymeric solar cells the donor polymer has to be combined with soluble fullerenes mostly in blends. Besides of the well known side-chain substituted fullerenes, like PCBM 1- 3-methoxycarbonyl propylphenyl[6,6]C61 , we present new soluble fullerenes on the basis of C60 and C70 together with dimers and oligomers of these fullerenes.

The use of C60 and C70 -derivatives in cooperation with optically excited conjugated polymers and the observation of a highly increased photoconductivity of such systems is the basis for the well known polymeric solar cells up to now. Efficient charge transfer from donor to acceptor components, effective charge transport and charge injection into the electrodes are important parameters for design and optimization of fullerene based acceptor materials. Since the semiconducting polymers are mainly processed from solution, the search for new fullerene derivatives has to be concentrated on the solubility of these compounds and their electron acceptor behavior.

For this reason we developed a range of fullerene derivatives with decreased symmetry compared to C60 Fig. Our main purpose is to increase the anisotropic properties of the polymeric matrix. Electrochemical data were measured and give us valuable information for the relative position of LUMO levels of these materials Fig. To find suitable donor-acceptor pairs the knowledge of these values is of great importance. We synthesized fullerene dimers C; Fig. The isolation of the product was performed by preparative HPLC and the characterization by Raman measurements.

Under the same conditions a further reaction of the purified dimers with IBr leads to the formation of short C60 -polymer-chains Fig. Otherwise the solubility in organic solvents of the derivatives is increased and due to the decreased symmetry in the C70 derivatives, we expect an anisotropic effect of these materials in the polymer blends. Conjugated C60 or C70 -chain-polymers with up to 12 connected monomer packages can also be produced by activation in an UV reactor under argon atmosphere.

Therefore a C60 or C70 solution of toluene was filled into the reactor and irradiated for 60 minutes. A further increase of the anisotropic properties is expected by combining more fullerene molecules in oligomeric and polymeric materials based on fullerenes Fig. As a conclusion it can be said that it is possible to produce one dimensional polymer chains using two different methods. First, the synthesis of onedimensional C60 -chains can be done by photo polymerization using an UV-reactor under argon atmosphere.

Second, we showed that it is possible to polymerize C60 by another preparation route, using normal pressure and only moderately elevated temperatures by converting the monomer unit several times with the interhalogen compound IBr and treating the brominated product with polar organic solvents. Preliminary results indicate that further chemical modification reactions leads to substituted C molecules Fig. Zhokhavets1, H. Hoppe1, G. Gobsch1, M. At present, bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells based on organic materials are being intensively investigated in order to increase their efficiency [].

In thin film bulk heterojunction solar cells, the absorption of sun light and the transport of the generated charge carriers depend on structural and optical properties of the conjugated polymerfullerene blend. The size and orientation of polymer crystallites in untreated and annealed films for different mixing ratios were determined. The XRD results were compared with absorption coefficients, which were determined by spectral ellipsometry on the same films.

We demonstrate a clear correlation between the P3HT crystallinity and the optical properties of the blend films. The angle between film surface and incident beam was fixed at 0. The detector scans at the angle 2q in a plane defined by the incident beam and the surface normal [11,12]. The spectral resolution was 3 nm 0. The anisotropic dielectric function DF of the films and the film thickness were obtained from the Multiple Sample Analysis as described in []. In our work we analyzed simultaneously three samples prepared from the same solution, but using slightly different spin frequencies, which results in a slightly different film thickness.

The anisotropic DF of the films was obtained by a point-by-point fit of the ellipsometric data using an anisotropic layer optical model. The surface roughness was neglected in the analysis. The film thickness was not affected by the annealing. Finally, from the DF the absorption coefficients were calculated. The untreated samples show basically no crystallinity. In comparison with the literature [11,12,17], it can be concluded, that the detected peak originates from the polymer crystallites with orientation backbone parallel and side chains perpendicular to the substrate, as shown in the inset in figure 1. In all cases no crystallites with or orientation were detected. We obtain an L of about 10 nm for all annealed samples.

The mixing ratio results in the highest crystallinity of all investigated blends Fig. The optical absorption coefficients of P3HT in the blend films having mixing ratios and are shown in Fig. The P3HT absorption coefficients of the annealed samples are larger than those of untreated samples over the whole spectral range. Especially in the energy region below 2. Due to crystallization of P3HT, the interaction between the P3HT molecules becomes stronger which leads to a coplanarization of the thiophene rings [19].

We believe this to be the origin of increased optical absorption in visible region. Brabec, N. Sariciftci, J. Hummelen: Adv. Hoppe and N. Sariciftci: Organic Photovoltaics, edited by S. Sun and N. Coakley, M. McGehee: Chem. Spanggaard, F. Krebs: Sol. Energy Mater. Cells 83 Padinger, R. Rittberger, N. Sariciftci: Adv. Chirvase, J. Parisi, J. Hummelen, V. Dyakonov: Nanotechnology 15 Al-Ibrahim, O. Ambacher, S. Sensfuss, G. Gobsch: Appl. Hoppe, N. Arnold, D. Meissner, N. Sariciftci: Thin Solid Films Kim, S. Choulis, J.

Nelson, D. Bradley, S. Cook, J. Durrant: Appl. Yang, J. Loos, S. Veenstra, W. Verhees, M. Wienk, J. Kroon, M. Michels, R. Janssen: Nano Lett. Erb, S. Raleva, U. Zhokhavets, G. Gobsch, B. Spode, O. Ambacher: Thin Solid Films Aasmundtveit, E. Samuelsen, M. Guldstein, C. Steinsland, O. Flornes, C. Fagermo, T. Seeberg, L. Pettersson, O. Feidenhans'l, S. Ferrer: Macromolecules 33 Zhokhavets, R. Goldhahn, G. Gobsch, W. Schliefke, Synth. Pettersson, F. Carlsson, O. Arwin: Thin Solid Films Tammer, A. Monkman, Adv. Prosa, M. Winokur, Macromolecules 25 Erb, U. Gobsch, S. Raleva, B. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, C. Brabec: Adv. Beenken, H.

Lischka: J. Zhokhavets, T. Erb, G. Gobsch, M. Ambacher: Chem. Pradarutti1, G. Riehemann1, G. Notni1, S. Nolte2, V. Lebedev3, O. Ambacher3, and A. Coherent THz emission can be obtained from semiconductor surfaces after excitation by ultrafast laser pulses. Here, narrow bandgap semiconductors have attracted much attention due to the high absorption and the electron mobility. Up to date, InAs was found to have the highest emission efficiency [1].

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