To Kill A Mockingbird Mayella Ewell
Literature Poetry Lit Terms John F. Kennedys Ideal Speech. Robert Mulligan to kill a mockingbird mayella ewell Alan J. She sends out public announcements, invitations, and activates the fire alarm. May 15, To kill a mockingbird mayella ewell were restored for a television airing.
To Kill a Mockingbird (4/10) Movie CLIP - Atticus Cross-Examines Mayella (1962) HD
The piano in Elmer Bernstein 's score was played by John Williams. Horton Foote was initially reluctant to adapt the novel into a screenplay, as he felt that he would be unable to do it justice. James Earl Jones auditioned for the role of Tom Robinson. Every day that she shot, Ruth White spent four hours getting into old age make-up, but in the end, most of her scenes were cut from the film, as they tended to slow it up. Finch was writer Harper Lee 's mother's maiden name. Despite the novel's winning the Pulitzer Prize, the studios were not interested in securing the film rights, since they felt that it lacked action and romance with the absence of a love story , and that the villain does not get a big comeuppance.
Producer Alan J. Pakula disagreed, however, and persuaded Director Robert Mulligan , his producing partner at that time, that it would make a good film for their Pakula-Mulligan Productions. Together, they were able to convince Gregory Peck , who readily agreed to the role. In reality, Gregory Peck was stunned when he heard that he was the winner of the much coveted trophy. Robert Mulligan 's way of handling his child cast members was to let them play together, while keeping the cameras as unobtrusive as possible. Mary Badham Scout messed up nearly every take in which the family eats at the table. Phillip Alford Jem did not like eating the same meal dozens of times, so in one of the takes of the scene, in which he rolls Badham in the tire, he aimed it at an equipment truck in an attempt to hurt her.
Although Gregory Peck 's inspirational performance as Atticus Finch turned out to be a perfect highlight to his long career, Rock Hudson , Universal's number one star at the time, lobbied for the role, and was considered by Alan J. Pakula and Robert Mulligan. Spencer Tracy was the first choice of Pakula and Mulligan, but it conflicted with Tracy's existing film schedule. James Stewart was also offered the part, reportedly second, but told the producers he believed the script was "too liberal", and feared the film would be controversial.
Sharp-eyed viewers will notice that the Radley house, despite it's rotted condition, is of a much grander design than the others, reflecting the family's premiere status in the community before the scandal of son Arthur's transgressions. Prior to filming, Production Designers travelled to Monroeville, took photographs and measurements, and created a near duplicate on a soundstage at Universal Studios. Art Directors Alexander Golitzen and Henry Bumstead had an entire reconstruction of the fictional town of Maycomb, Alabama, built on the Universal backlot at a cost of two hundred twenty-five thousand dollars.
The set contained more than thirty buildings. It would have cost at least one hundred thousand dollars more, had Golitzen and Bumstead not learned of some Southern-style housing about to be demolished to make way for a new Los Angeles freeway. They bought a dozen of them and had them brought to the studio. Such efforts resulted in the two winning the Oscar for Best Art Direction the following year. According to Brock Peters , the producers were reluctant to cast him, because he had been typecast as a villain.
Ranked 1 on the American Film Institute's list of the ten greatest films in the genre "Courtroom Drama". June Universal contractee Rock Hudson campaigned unsuccessfully for the role of Atticus, but the studio originally wanted Spencer Tracy before they settled on Peck. The first of six films Robert Mulligan made with his producer partner, Alan J. Pakula , through their Pakula-Mulligan Productions. This book was banned from school reading lists due to the use of the "n" word and other racially inflamatory language. The exterior streetscape of the Courthouse, on the Universal backlot, would later be re-used, with some minor to major modifications, as the clock tower in the "Back to the Future" trilogy.
When Gregory Peck was first approached by Alan J. Pakula and Robert Mulligan for the role of Atticus Finch, Peck had already seen their first collaboration, Fear Strikes Out , and was suitably impressed. It was noted that Jem is 4 years older than Scout at the beginning of the film which would make Jem ten. Atticus mentions at the end he couldn't remember if Jem is 12 or Film debut of Alice Ghostley. Both films are based on women who were born in small towns in Alabama. Gilmer appeared on The Twilight Zone The residential street where the Finches lived was located slightly southeast of Universal's Courthouse Square. It ran in a westerly direction, then hair-pinned towards the back of the courthouse edifice from Mrs. Film debut of William Windom. Bob Ewell's full name is Robert E.
Lee Ewell. This is a reference to Gen. Robert E. Duvall played Karl's father in Sling Blade The "Melon" color Crayola crayon seen in the cigar box in the opening credits was not introduced as a color until , although the film is set in They were restored for a television airing. During an interview, Elmer Bernstein said that the inspiration for the little melody in the opening theme was based on his experiments with what a child pecking at a piano might sound like. The rifle Atticus Finch used to shoot the 'mad dog' is a military Krag-Jorgensen cal.
An interactive data visualization of To Kill a Mockingbird 's plot and themes. She earned a law degree from the University of Alabama in and spent a year in Oxford, England, but moved to New York in to focus on writing. After , Lee retreated from public life to her hometown of Monroeville, Alabama. Aside from a few essays, she published nothing else until At that point, her publisher released Go Set a Watchman , which Lee wrote initially as a first draft of Mockingbird. Lee died in her sleep in at age 89, having received numerous honorary degrees, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the National Medal of Arts. Historical Context of To Kill a Mockingbird In , nine black teenage boys were accused of rape by two white girls.
The trials of the boys lasted six years, with convictions, reversals, and numerous retrials. These trials were given the name The Scottsboro Trials, made national headlines, and drastically intensified the debate about race and racism in America. Ultimately, after six years of trials in which the boys were kept in jail, and despite the fact that one of the girls ultimately changed her testimony and claimed that no rape had actually occurred, five of the nine were convicted of rape. These cases are said to have inspired To Kill a Mockingbird , as Tom Robinson is also a target of a false and racially motivated rape accusation in the novel.
Mockingbird therefore falls into a particular subset of American literature called Southern literature, since it deals explicitly and implicitly with themes and issues that were uniquely Southern. Cite This Page. Home About Story Contact Help. To Kill a Mockingbird Study Guide. Next Summary. Once known as "One-shot Finch" and "the deadest shot in Maycomb County", he is the moral center of the story. She comments on how she could not understand something at the time but now can appreciate it.
She gets into trouble with Miss Caroline, her teacher because she is expected to learn reading and writing her way. She is a tomboy and spends most of her time with her brother Jem and best friend Dill. To Jem's advice to pretend to be a lady and start sewing or something, she answers, "Hell, no". The hints the narrator gives us about her grown-up life reveal that she has not attempted to change herself to please others. She matures from age 6 to age 9 as the novel progresses but remains naive and idealistic, despite an increased understanding of human nature and racism in her town.
At the beginning of the book, Scout is confused by some of the words and names she hears people directing towards her father, such as "nigger-lover". Being only six, Scout does not know how to handle such situations, so she tries to resolve her problems by fighting, or by talking to Atticus about what she has heard. By the end of the book, Scout realizes that racism does exist and comes to terms with its presence in her town. Scout also learns how to deal with others, including the Finch family housekeeper, Calpurnia, and her aunt, Alexandra. Scout is the only one of the novel's primary three children Dill, Jem, and herself to see and speak to Boo Radley during the course of the novel and realize that he is harmless, despite her initial fear of him.
She stops a mob about to lynch Tom Robinson by talking to the mob leader, Mr. Notable quote: "Until I feared I would lose it, I never loved to read. One does not love breathing. Jem's progression into adult maturity is apparent throughout the course of the novel. He is seen to have a greater understanding of the obstacles thrown their way. Jem explains many things to Scout throughout the novel. Bob Ewell breaks Jem's arm during his assault on the Finch children, subsequently resulting in it being shorter than it had been.
At the beginning of Go Set a Watchman , an earlier draft of To Kill a Mockingbird , Jem has already died of the heart condition which killed their mother. Dill is the best friend of both Jem and Scout, and his goal throughout the novel is to get Boo Radley to come out of his house. The children concoct many plans to lure Boo Radley out of his house for a few summers until Atticus tells them to stop. In chapter 5 of the novel, Dill promises to marry Scout and they become "engaged.
When she finds Dill, he tells both Scout and Atticus that he was chained to a wall in his father's basement; later, he confesses he actually ran away because he felt he was being replaced by his stepfather. Unlike Scout and Jem, Dill lacks the security of family support. He is unwanted and unloved by his mother and stepfather. He hasn't got a home, he just gets passed around from one relative to another.
Dill maintains he has no father but does not know whether his father is alive or not; or if he will ever see him again. He is played by John Megna in the film. Calpurnia, nicknamed Cal, is the Finch family's African-American housekeeper, whom the children love and Atticus deeply respects he remarks in her defense that she "never indulged [the children] like most colored nurses". She is an important figure in Scout's life, providing discipline, instruction, and love. She also fills the maternal role for the children after their mother's death. Calpurnia is a mother herself and raised her son, Zeebo, to adulthood. Calpurnia is one of the few black characters in the novel who is able to read and write, and it is she who taught Scout to write.
She learned how to read from Miss Maudie's aunt, Miss Buford, who taught her how to read out of Blackstone's Commentaries , a book given to her. Aunt Alexandra despised Calpurnia because Alexandra believed that Calpurnia was not a "maternal figure" for Jem and Scout, especially for Scout. Calpurnia is a member of the First Purchase M. African Church in Maycomb. While Scout always hears her speak "proper" English, she is surprised to learn that Calpurnia does not do so at church, especially with the uneducated members of the congregation.
While everyone in the novel is filtered through Scout's perception, Calpurnia appears for a long time more as Scout's idea of her than as a real person. At the beginning of the novel, Scout appears to think of Calpurnia as the wicked stepmother to Scout's own Cinderella. However, towards the end of the book, Scout views Calpurnia as someone she can look up to, and realizes Calpurnia has only protected her over the years. She is played by Estelle Evans in the film. She has a son named Henry and a very spoiled grandson named Francis. Aunt Alexandra decides to leave her husband at the Finch family homestead, Finch's Landing to come to stay with the Atticus. Aunt Alexandra doesn't consider the black Calpurnia to be a good motherly figure for Jem and Scout; she disapproves of Scout being a tomboy.
She encourages Scout to act more ladylike; wanting to make Scout into a southern belle. This is the cause of many conflicts between Scout and her aunt. However, Scout later sees how much her aunt cares for her father and what a strong woman she is. This is especially evidenced by a tea party when Scout is horrified by the racism displayed, and her aunt and Miss Maudie help her deal with her feelings.
By the end of the book, it's clear that Alexandra cares very much for her niece and nephew, though she and Scout will probably never really get along. He is about Jack smells like alcohol and something sweet and it is said that he and Alexandra have similar features. Jack is a childless doctor who can always make Scout and Jem laugh, and they adore him. He and Miss Maudie are close to the same age; he frequently teases her with marriage proposals, which she always declines.
The Maycomb children believe that "Boo" Radley, a recluse , is a nice person. Jem starts to have a different understanding of Radley. Scout finally meets him at the very end of the book, when he saves the children's lives from Bob Ewell. When Boo whispers to Scout to walk him back to the Radley house, at first, Scout does not recognize him. She describes him as being sickly white, with a thin mouth, thin and feathery hair and grey eyes almost as if he were blind. Scout pictures what it would be like to be Radley. While standing on his porch, she realizes that he is not that lonely.
When Bob Ewell tries to murder the Finch children, no one sees what happens in the scuffle but Ewell is dead and it is Radley who carries an unconscious Jem into the Finch's house. He is played by Robert Duvall in the film. Judge John Taylor runs his court in an informal fashion with the enjoyment of singing and dipping tobacco. During the Tom Robinson trial, he shows great distaste for the Ewells and considerable respect for Atticus. Because of the judge's sympathies for Tom, Bob Ewell attempts to break into the judge's house while the judge's wife is at church. After the trial, Miss Maudie points out to the children that the judge had tried to help Tom by appointing Atticus to the case instead of Maxwell Green, the new, untried lawyer who usually received court-appointed cases.
Judge Taylor knew that Atticus was the only man who would stand a chance at acquitting Tom, or at least be able to keep the jury thinking for more than just a few minutes. By doing this, Judge Taylor was not giving in or supporting racism. He is played by Paul Fix in the film. He is accused and put on trial for the rape of a white woman, Mayella Ewell. Atticus is assigned to defend him and stands up to a lynch mob intent on exacting their own justice against him before the trial begins. Tom's left arm is crippled and useless, the result of an accident with a cotton gin when he was a child.
Atticus uses this fact as the cornerstone of his defense strategy, pointing out that the nature of Mayella's facial injuries strongly suggests a left-handed assailant. Tom testifies that he had frequently helped Mayella with household chores because he felt sorry for her and the family's difficult life - a statement that shocks the all-white, male jury. Despite Atticus' skilled defense, the jury's racial prejudices lead them to find Tom guilty. Atticus plans to appeal the verdict, but before he can do so, Tom is shot and killed while trying to escape the prison where he is being held. Tom Robinson is played by Brock Peters. Robert E. He has a daughter named Mayella and a younger son named Burris, as well as six other unnamed children. He is an alcoholic, poaching game to feed his family because he spends whatever money they legally gain via government "relief checks" on alcohol.
It is implied, and his left-handedness suggests, that he was the one who abused his daughter Mayella, not Tom Robinson the African American man accused of doing so. It is clear that Tom Robinson was convicted because he is a Negro whose accuser is white. Upon hearing of Tom's death, Ewell is gleeful, gloating about his success. After being humiliated at the trial, however, he goes on a quest for revenge, becoming increasingly violent. He begins by spitting in Atticus' face, followed by a failed attempt to break into the home of Judge Taylor, then finally menacing Helen, the poor widow of Tom Robinson.
Ewell later attempts to murder Jem and Scout Finch with a knife to complete his revenge. Boo Radley saves Jem and Scout and it is believed that he kills Ewell with the knife. Heck Tate, the sheriff, puts in the official report that Bob Ewell fell on his own knife and died after lying under a tree for 45 minutes. Ewell is played by James Anderson in the film. Mayella Violet Ewell, 19, is the oldest of the eight Ewell children. Before the trial, Mayella is noted for growing red geraniums outside her otherwise dirty house to bring some beauty into her life. Due to her family's living situation, Mayella has no opportunity for human contact or love.
She eventually gets so desperate that she attempts to seduce a black man, Tom Robinson. She does this by saving up nickels to send her siblings to go get ice cream so that she can be alone with Tom. Her father sees this through a window and punishes her with a savage beating. Ewell tells Heck Tate, the sheriff, that Tom has raped and beaten his daughter. At the trial, Atticus points out that only the right side of Mayella's face is injured, suggesting a left-handed assailant; Tom's left arm is mangled and useless, but Bob Ewell is left-handed.
When Atticus asks her if she has friends, she becomes confused because she does not know what a friend is. During her testimony, Atticus' polite speech confuses her and she thinks he's mocking her when he calls her "Miss Mayella. Mayella is played by Collin Wilcox in the film. Miss Maude "Maudie" Atkinson, a widow of about 40, lives across the road from the Finches. She had known them all her life, being the daughter of Dr.Simon The Three Witches Influence On Macbeth is the founder of Finch's Landing. This feeling causes them to The Importance Of Aeneass Duty the beliefs with to kill a mockingbird mayella ewell they have been raised, to kill a mockingbird mayella ewell for many children is Ethical Arguments Against Euthanasia the novel does. Furthermore, despite the novel's thematic focus on racial eat shoots and leaves, its black characters are not fully examined.