Science Kids Research Paper
Article Google Scholar Smith, M. Copyright note: How Does Hamlet Affect The Theme Of King Hamlet Ming Dynasty Research Paper was produced by the authors. Article Google Scholar Wammes, J. The Unsatisfactory: The Stopping Of The Jays Treaty One, 8 11 life cycle of a plastic bag, e Forgot your password? Article Google Scholar Lindsey, R. By this view, elaboration involves making information more integrated Ming Dynasty Research Paper organized Ming Dynasty Research Paper existing knowledge structures.
How to Write a Research Paper for Kids - Episode 2 - Making a Plan
Metrics details. The science of learning has made a considerable contribution to our understanding of effective teaching and learning strategies. However, few instructors outside of the field are privy to this research. In this tutorial review, we focus on six specific cognitive strategies that have received robust support from decades of research: spaced practice, interleaving, retrieval practice, elaboration, concrete examples, and dual coding. We describe the basic research behind each strategy and relevant applied research, present examples of existing and suggested implementation, and make recommendations for further research that would broaden the reach of these strategies.
Education does not currently adhere to the medical model of evidence-based practice Roediger, However, over the past few decades, our field has made significant advances in applying cognitive processes to education. In particular, a review published 10 years ago identified a limited number of study techniques that have received solid evidence from multiple replications testing their effectiveness in and out of the classroom Pashler et al. This is the case in spite of multiple recent academic e. In this tutorial review, we present the basic science behind each of these six key principles, along with more recent research on their effectiveness in live classrooms, and suggest ideas for pedagogical implementation. The target audience of this review is a educators who might be interested in integrating the strategies into their teaching practice, b science of learning researchers who are looking for open questions to help determine future research priorities, and c researchers in other subfields who are interested in the ways that principles from cognitive psychology have been applied to education.
While the typical teacher may not be exposed to this research during teacher training, a small cohort of teachers intensely interested in cognitive psychology has recently emerged. These teachers are mainly based in the UK, and, anecdotally e. The teachers who form part of this network frequently discuss cognitive psychology techniques and their applications to education on social media mainly Twitter; e.
In general, the teachers who write about these issues pay careful attention to the relevant literature, often citing some of the work described in this review. These informal writings, while allowing teachers to explore their approach to teaching practice Luehmann, , give us a unique window into the application of the science of learning to the classroom. By examining these blogs, we can not only observe how basic cognitive research is being applied in the classroom by teachers who are reading it, but also how it is being misapplied, and what questions teachers may be posing that have gone unaddressed in the scientific literature. Throughout this review, we illustrate each strategy with examples of how it can be implemented see Table 1 and Figs.
Spaced practice schedule for one week. This schedule is designed to represent a typical timetable of a high-school student. The schedule includes four one-hour study sessions, one longer study session on the weekend, and one rest day. Notice that each subject is studied one day after it is covered in school, to create spacing between classes and study sessions. Copyright note: this image was produced by the authors. In the blocked version, students answer four multiplication problems consecutively. In the interleaved version, students answer a multiplication problem followed by a division problem and then an addition problem, before returning to multiplication. For an experiment with a similar setup, see Patel et al. Each color represents a different homework topic.
Interleaving involves alternating between topics, rather than blocking. Spacing involves distributing practice over time, rather than massing. Copyright note: this image was produced by the authors, adapted from Rohrer Concept map illustrating the process and resulting benefits of retrieval practice. Retrieval practice involves the process of withdrawing learned information from long-term memory into working memory, which requires effort. This produces direct benefits via the consolidation of learned information, making it easier to remember later and causing improvements in memory, transfer, and inferences. Retrieval practice also produces indirect benefits of feedback to students and teachers, which in turn can lead to more effective study and teaching practices, with a focus on information that was not accurately retrieved.
Copyright note: the image of the plane was downloaded from Pixabay. Three examples of physics problems that would be categorized differently by novices and experts. The problems in a and c look similar on the surface, so novices would group them together into one category. Experts, however, will recognize that the problems in b and c both relate to the principle of energy conservation, and so will group those two problems into one category instead.
Copyright note: the figure was produced by the authors, based on figures in Chi et al. Example of how to enhance learning through use of a visual example. Students might view this visual representation of neural communications with the words provided, or they could draw a similar visual representation themselves. Copyright note: this figure was produced by the authors. Viewing a word will automatically evoke verbal representations related to its component letters and phonemes. Words representing objects i. Copyright note: this figure was produced by the authors and is based on Aylwin ; Fig. The benefits of spaced or distributed practice to learning are arguably one of the strongest contributions that cognitive psychology has made to education Kang, The effect is simple: the same amount of repeated studying of the same information spaced out over time will lead to greater retention of that information in the long run, compared with repeated studying of the same information for the same amount of time in one study session.
The benefits of distributed practice were first empirically demonstrated in the 19 th century. Since then, hundreds of studies have examined spacing effects both in the laboratory and in the classroom Kang, Spaced practice appears to be particularly useful at large retention intervals: in the meta-analysis by Cepeda, Pashler, Vul, Wixted, and Rohrer , all studies with a retention interval longer than a month showed a clear benefit of distributed practice. This theory posits that memories have both retrieval strength and storage strength. Whereas retrieval strength is thought to measure the ease with which a memory can be recalled at a given moment, storage strength which cannot be measured directly represents the extent to which a memory is truly embedded in the mind.
When studying is taking place, both retrieval strength and storage strength receive a boost. However, the extent to which storage strength is boosted depends upon retrieval strength, and the relationship is negative: the greater the current retrieval strength, the smaller the gains in storage strength. Teachers can introduce spacing to their students in two broad ways. One involves creating opportunities to revisit information throughout the semester, or even in future semesters. This does involve some up-front planning, and can be difficult to achieve, given time constraints and the need to cover a set curriculum. However, spacing can be achieved with no great costs if teachers set aside a few minutes per class to review information from previous lessons.
The second method involves putting the onus to space on the students themselves. Of course, this would work best with older students — high school and above. Because spacing requires advance planning, it is crucial that the teacher helps students plan their studying. For example, teachers could suggest that students schedule study sessions on days that alternate with the days on which a particular class meets e. It important to note that the spacing effect refers to information that is repeated multiple times, rather than the idea of studying different material in one long session versus spaced out in small study sessions over time.
However, for teachers and particularly for students planning a study schedule, the subtle difference between the two situations spacing out restudy opportunities, versus spacing out studying of different information over time may be lost. Future research should address the effects of spacing out studying of different information over time, whether the same considerations apply in this situation as compared to spacing out restudy opportunities, and how important it is for teachers and students to understand the difference between these two types of spaced practice. It is important to note that students may feel less confident when they space their learning Bjork, than when they cram. Students tend to cram for exams rather than space out their learning.
Ideas for how to apply spaced practice in teaching have appeared in numerous teacher blogs e. A-levels in particular determine what subject students study in university and which programs they are accepted into, and thus shape the path of their academic career. Now, teachers who follow cognitive psychology are advocating a shift of priorities to spacing learning over time across the 3 years, rather than teaching a topic once and then intensely reviewing it weeks before the exam Cox, a ; Wood, For example, some teachers have suggested using homework assignments as an opportunity for spaced practice by giving students homework on previous topics Rose, However, questions remain, such as whether spaced practice can ever be effective enough to completely alleviate the need or utility of a cramming period Cox, b , and how one can possibly figure out the optimal lag for spacing Benney, ; Firth, There has been considerable research on the question of optimal lag, and much of it is quite complex; two sessions neither too close together i.
In a large-scale study, Cepeda, Vul, Rohrer, Wixted, and Pashler examined the effects of the gap between study sessions and the interval between study and test across long periods, and found that the optimal gap between study sessions was contingent on the retention interval. Thus, it is not clear how teachers can apply the complex findings on lag to their own classrooms. A useful avenue of research would be to simplify the research paradigms that are used to study optimal lag, with the goal of creating a flexible, spaced-practice framework that teachers could apply and tailor to their own teaching needs. However, one teacher who found this tool helpful also wondered whether the more sophisticated plan was any better than his own method of manually selecting poorly understood material from previous classes for later review Lovell, It seems teachers would greatly appreciate a set of guidelines for how to implement spacing in the curriculum in the most effective, but also the most efficient manner.
While the cognitive field has made great advances in terms of understanding the mechanisms behind spacing, what teachers need more of are concrete evidence-based tools and guidelines for direct implementation in the classroom. Moreover, researchers need to evaluate the effectiveness of these tools in a real classroom environment, over a semester or academic year, in order to give pedagogically relevant evidence-based recommendations to teachers.
Another scheduling technique that has been shown to increase learning is interleaving. Interleaving occurs when different ideas or problem types are tackled in a sequence, as opposed to the more common method of attempting multiple versions of the same problem in a given study session known as blocking. Interleaving as a principle can be applied in many different ways. One such way involves interleaving different types of problems during learning, which is particularly applicable to subjects such as math and physics see Fig. For example, in a study with college students, Rohrer and Taylor found that shuffling math problems that involved calculating the volume of different shapes resulted in better test performance 1 week later than when students answered multiple problems about the same type of shape in a row.
The proposed explanation for the benefit of interleaving is that switching between different problem types allows students to acquire the ability to choose the right method for solving different types of problems rather than learning only the method itself, and not when to apply it. Do the benefits of interleaving extend beyond problem solving? The answer appears to be yes.
Interleaving can be helpful in other situations that require discrimination, such as inductive learning. Kornell and Bjork examined the effects of interleaving in a task that might be pertinent to a student of the history of art: the ability to match paintings to their respective painters. Birnbaum, Kornell, Bjork, and Bjork proposed the discriminative-contrast hypothesis to explain that interleaving enhances learning by allowing the comparison between exemplars of different categories. They found support for this hypothesis in a set of experiments with bird categorization: participants benefited from interleaving and also from spacing, but not when the spacing interrupted side-by-side comparisons of birds from different categories.
Another type of interleaving involves the interleaving of study and test opportunities. But interleaving as an educational strategy ought to be presented to teachers with some caveats. Research has focused on interleaving material that is somewhat related e. When advising students how to study independently, teachers should thus proceed with caution. Since it is easy for younger students to confuse this type of unhelpful interleaving with the more helpful interleaving of related information, it may be best for teachers of younger grades to create opportunities for interleaving in homework and quiz assignments rather than putting the onus on the students themselves to make use of the technique.
An important point to consider is that in educational practice, the distinction between spacing and interleaving can be difficult to delineate. When they write about interleaving, teachers often extend the term to connote a curriculum that involves returning to topics multiple times throughout the year e. However, cognitive psychologists have not examined the effects of structuring the curriculum in this way, and open questions remain: does repeatedly circling back to previous topics throughout the semester interrupt the learning of new information? What are some effective techniques for interleaving old and new information within one class?
And how does one determine the balance between old and new information? While tests are most often used in educational settings for assessment, a lesser-known benefit of tests is that they actually improve memory of the tested information. Testing was shown to strengthen memory as early as years ago Gates, , and there has been a surge of research in the last decade on the mnemonic benefits of testing, or retrieval practice. Practicing retrieval has been shown to improve the application of knowledge to new situations e.
How does retrieval practice help memory? Figure 3 illustrates both the direct and indirect benefits of retrieval practice identified by the literature. The act of retrieval itself is thought to strengthen memory Karpicke, Blunt, et al. For example, Smith et al. Importantly, both overt and covert retrieval practice improved memory over control groups without retrieval practice, even when feedback was not provided. The fact that bringing information to mind in the absence of feedback or restudy opportunities improves memory leads researchers to conclude that it is the act of retrieval — thinking back to bring information to mind — that improves memory of that information.
The benefit of retrieval practice depends to a certain extent on successful retrieval see Karpicke, Lehman, et al. For example, in Experiment 4 of Smith et al. Yet retrieval led to superior memory later compared to the restudy control. However, if retrieval success is extremely low, then it is unlikely to improve memory e. On the other hand, if retrieval-based learning situations are constructed in such a way that ensures high levels of success, the act of bringing the information to mind may be undermined, thus making it less beneficial. For example, if a student reads a sentence and then immediately covers the sentence and recites it out loud, they are likely not retrieving the information but rather just keeping the information in their working memory long enough to recite it again see Smith, Blunt, et al.
Kornell, Klein, and Rawson , however, found that it was the retrieval attempt and not the correct production of information that produced the retrieval practice benefit — as long as the correct answer was provided after an unsuccessful attempt, the benefit was the same as for a successful retrieval attempt in this set of studies. From a practical perspective, it would be helpful for teachers to know when retrieval attempts in the absence of success are helpful, and when they are not.
There may also be additional reasons beyond retrieval benefits that would push teachers towards retrieval practice activities that produce some success amongst students; for example, teachers may hesitate to give students retrieval practice exercises that are too difficult, as this may negatively affect self-efficacy and confidence. In addition to the fact that bringing information to mind directly improves memory for that information, engaging in retrieval practice can produce indirect benefits as well see Roediger et al. For example, research by Weinstein, Gilmore, Szpunar, and McDermott demonstrated that when students expected to be tested, the increased test expectancy led to better-quality encoding of new information. Practicing retrieval is a powerful way to improve meaningful learning of information, and it is relatively easy to implement in the classroom.
For example, requiring students to practice retrieval can be as simple as asking students to put their class materials away and try to write out everything they know about a topic. Retrieval-based learning strategies are also flexible. Instructors can give students practice tests e. In one study, Weinstein et al. Weinstein and colleagues also manipulated the placement of the questions. For some students, the questions were interspersed throughout the module, and for other students the questions were all presented at the end of the module. Initial success on the short-answer questions was higher when the questions were interspersed throughout the module. However, on a later test of learning from that module, the original placement of the questions in the module did not matter for performance.
As with spaced practice, where the optimal gap between study sessions is contingent on the retention interval, the optimum difficulty and level of success during retrieval practice may also depend on the retention interval. Both groups of students who answered questions performed better on the delayed test compared to a control group without question opportunities during the module. Thus, the important thing is for instructors to provide opportunities for retrieval practice during learning. Based on previous research, any activity that promotes the successful retrieval of information should improve learning. A common theme seems to be an emphasis on low-stakes Young, and even no-stakes Cox, testing, the goal of which is to increase learning rather than assess performance.
In fact, one well-known charter school in the UK has an official homework policy grounded in retrieval practice: students are to test themselves on subject knowledge for 30 minutes every day in lieu of standard homework Michaela Community School, The utility of homework, particularly for younger children, is often a hotly debated topic outside of academia e. Whereas some research shows clear links between homework and academic achievement Valle et al. Perhaps amending homework to involve retrieval practice might make it more effective; this remains an open empirical question. One final consideration is that of test anxiety. While retrieval practice can be very powerful at improving memory, some research shows that pressure during retrieval can undermine some of the learning benefit.
For example, Hinze and Rapp manipulated pressure during quizzing to create high-pressure and low-pressure conditions. On the quizzes themselves, students performed equally well. However, those in the high-pressure condition did not perform as well on a criterion test later compared to the low-pressure group. Thus, test anxiety may reduce the learning benefit of retrieval practice. Eliminating all high-pressure tests is probably not possible, but instructors can provide a number of low-stakes retrieval opportunities for students to help increase learning. Elaboration involves connecting new information to pre-existing knowledge.
Anderson , p. The common thread in all the definitions is that elaboration involves adding features to an existing memory. One possible instantiation of elaboration is thinking about information on a deeper level. The leves of processing framework has, however, received a number of criticisms Craik, And if we are not able to actually measure depth, then the argument can become circular: is it that something was remembered better because it was studied more deeply, or do we conclude that it must have been studied more deeply because it is remembered better? By this view, elaboration involves making information more integrated and organized with existing knowledge structures. By connecting and integrating the to-be-learned information with other concepts in memory, students can increase the extent to which the ideas are organized in their minds, and this increased organization presumably facilitates the reconstruction of the past at the time of retrieval.
Elaboration is such a broad term and can include so many different techniques that it is hard to claim that elaboration will always help learning. There is, however, a specific technique under the umbrella of elaboration for which there is relatively strong evidence in terms of effectiveness Dunlosky et al. This might involve students simply saying out loud what steps they need to perform to solve an equation. According to the authors, this approach could scale well to real classrooms.
Ultimately, the greatest potential benefit of accurate self-explanation or elaboration is that the student will be able to transfer their knowledge to a new situation Rittle-Johnson, However, a few teachers have blogged about elaboration more generally e. This strategy in particular may benefit from a more open dialog between researchers and teachers to facilitate the use of elaborative interrogation in the classroom and to address possible barriers to implementation.
In terms of advancing the scientific understanding of elaborative interrogation in a classroom setting, it would be informative to conduct a larger-scale intervention to see whether having students elaborate during reading actually helps their understanding. How long should students persist to find the answers? When is the right time to have students engage in this task, given the levels of expertise required to do it well Clinton et al.
Without knowing the answers to these questions, it may be too early for us to instruct teachers to use this technique in their classes. Finally, elaborative interrogation takes a long time. Is this time efficiently spent? Or, would it be better to have the students try to answer a few questions, pool their information as a class, and then move to practicing retrieval of the information? Providing supporting information can improve the learning of key ideas and concepts. Specifically, using concrete examples to supplement content that is more conceptual in nature can make the ideas easier to understand and remember. Words that are more concrete are both recognized and recalled better than abstract words Gorman, ; e.
Following from this, providing concrete examples during instruction should improve retention of related abstract concepts, rather than the concrete examples alone being remembered better. Concrete examples can be useful both during instruction and during practice problems. Having students actively explain how two examples are similar and encouraging them to extract the underlying structure on their own can also help with transfer. In a laboratory study, Berry demonstrated that students performed well when given concrete practice problems, regardless of the use of verbalization akin to elaborative interrogation , but that verbalization helped students transfer understanding from concrete to abstract problems.
One particularly important area of future research is determining how students can best make the link between concrete examples and abstract ideas. However, care must be taken when selecting the examples. LeFevre and Dixon provided students with both concrete examples and abstract instructions and found that when these were inconsistent, students followed the concrete examples rather than the abstract instructions, potentially constraining the application of the abstract concept being taught.
Responses indicated that some issues were related to understanding the overarching topic rather than the component parts, and to the use of informal colloquialisms that did not clearly follow from the material being taught. Both of these issues could have potentially been addressed through the inclusion of a greater number of relevant concrete examples. One concern with using concrete examples is that students might only remember the examples — especially if they are particularly memorable, such as fun or gimmicky examples — and will not be able to transfer their understanding from one example to another, or more broadly to the abstract concept.
However, there does not seem to be any evidence that fun relevant examples actually hurt learning by harming memory for important information. However, two important caveats need to be highlighted. The second issue is that novices often notice and remember the surface details of an example rather than the underlying structure. Gick and Holyoak tried to get students to apply a rule from one problem to another problem that appeared different on the surface, but was structurally similar.
They found that providing multiple examples helped with this transfer process compared to only using one example — especially when the examples provided had different surface details. More work is also needed to determine how many examples are sufficient for generalization to occur and this, of course, will vary with contextual factors and individual differences. That is, if an example is not concrete enough, it may be too difficult to understand. On the other hand, if the example is too concrete, that could be detrimental to generalization to the more abstract concept although a diverse set of very concrete examples may be able to help with this. In fact, in a controversial article, Kaminski, Sloutsky, and Heckler claimed that abstract examples were more effective than concrete examples.
Later rebuttals of this paper contested whether the abstract versus concrete distinction was clearly defined in the original study see Reed, , for a collection of letters on the subject. This ideal point along the concrete-abstract continuum might also interact with development. Finding teacher blog posts on concrete examples proved to be more difficult than for the other strategies in this review. One optimistic possibility is that teachers frequently use concrete examples in their teaching, and thus do not think of this as a specific contribution from cognitive psychology; the one blog post we were able to find that discussed concrete examples suggests that this might be the case Boulton, A useful direction for future research would be to establish how teachers are using concrete examples in their practice, and whether we can make any suggestions for improvement based on research into the science of learning.
For example, if two examples are better than one Bauernschmidt, , are additional examples also needed, or are there diminishing returns from providing more examples? And, how can teachers best ensure that concrete examples are consistent with prior knowledge Reed, ? Indeed, it is well-understood that more information can be conveyed through a simple illustration than through several paragraphs of text e. Figure 6 provides a concrete example of this, illustrating how information can flow through neurons and synapses. In the memory literature, this is referred to as the picture superiority effect , and dual coding theory was developed in part to explain this effect.
Dual coding follows from the notion of text being accompanied by complementary visual information to enhance learning. In this theory, a code corresponds to a modal or otherwise distinct representation of a concept—e. Clark and Paivio provide a thorough review of dual coding theory and its relation to education, while Paivio provides a comprehensive treatise on dual coding theory. Broadly, dual coding theory suggests that providing multiple representations of the same information enhances learning and memory, and that information that more readily evokes additional representations through automatic imagery processes receives a similar benefit.
Paivio and Csapo suggest that verbal and imaginal codes have independent and additive effects on memory recall. To take advantage of dual coding, verbal information should be accompanied by a visual representation when possible. Given that pictures are generally remembered better than words, it is important to ensure that the pictures students are provided with are helpful and relevant to the content they are expected to learn. McNeill, Uttal, Jarvin, and Sternberg found that providing visual examples decreased conceptual errors. However, McNeill et al. Thus, it is important to consider that images used in teaching are clear and not ambiguous in their meaning Schwartz, Along similar lines, Wammes, Meade, and Fernandes demonstrated that generating drawings can provide memory benefits beyond what could otherwise be explained by visual imagery, picture superiority, and other memory enhancing effects.
This indicates that motoric processes can improve memory similarly to visual imagery, similar to memory differences for concrete vs. When teachers combine visuals and words in their educational practice, however, they may not always be taking advantage of dual coding — at least, not in the optimal manner. Other teachers argued that this was not dual coding Beaven, ; Williams, , because there were no longer two different representations of the information. The first teacher maintained that dual coding was preserved, because this laboratory report with pictures was to be used alongside the original, fully verbal report Turner, b.
This particular implementation — having students replace individual words with pictures — has not been examined in the cognitive literature, presumably because no benefit would be expected. In any case, we need to be clearer about implementations for dual coding, and more research is needed to clarify how teachers can make use of the benefits conferred by multiple representations and picture superiority. While this idea is pervasive and individuals often subjectively feel that they have a preference, evidence indicates that the learning styles theory is not supported by empirical findings e.
Genuine educational environments present many opportunities for combining the strategies outlined above. Spacing can be particularly potent for learning if it is combined with retrieval practice. The additive benefits of retrieval practice and spacing can be gained by engaging in retrieval practice multiple times also known as distributed practice; see Cepeda et al. Interleaving naturally entails spacing if students interleave old and new material. Concrete examples can be both verbal and visual, making use of dual coding. In addition, the strategies of elaboration, concrete examples, and dual coding all work best when used as part of retrieval practice. And when interleaving different problem types, students should be practicing answering them rather than just looking over worked examples.
But while these ideas for strategy combinations have empirical bases, it has not yet been established whether the benefits of the strategies to learning are additive, super-additive, or, in some cases, incompatible. Thus, future research needs to a better formalize the definition of each strategy particularly critical for elaboration and dual coding , b identify best practices for implementation in the classroom, c delineate the boundary conditions of each strategy, and d strategically investigate interactions between the six strategies we outlined in this manuscript.
Aleven, V. An effective metacognitive strategy: learning by doing and explaining with a computer-based cognitive tutor. Cognitive Science, 26 , — Article Google Scholar. Anderson, J. A spreading activation theory of memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22 , — Arnold, K. Test-potentiated learning: distinguishing between direct and indirect effects of tests.
PubMed Google Scholar. Aylwin, S. Imagery and affect: big questions, little answers. Thompson, D. Richardson Eds. New York: International Library of Psychology. Google Scholar. Baldassari, M. The mnemonic effect of humor in a speech. Every mistake leads to learning. Finally, making playtime joyful can be done in many ways, including incorporating elements of surprise. Source: Penn State. You must be logged in to post a comment. Sign in Join. Sign in. Log into your account. Sign up. Password recovery. Recover your password. In addition, branch libraries are part of a larger library system. Although your neighborhood library may be physically tiny, it has access to all the resources of the whole city or county library system.
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Never forget, the goal of your searching is to find information to answer the research questions you asked about your topic. Don't stop looking until you have sources that will answer your questions!Article Google Scholar Dunlosky, Concept Of Masculinity. However, if Case Study: Spanking And Disciplining Children success is extremely low, then it is unlikely to improve memory e. The Unsatisfactory: The Stopping Of The Jays Treaty, A. Ming Dynasty Research Paper examples can be both verbal and visual, making use Ming Dynasty Research Paper dual coding.