Cincher Research Paper
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A corset is a support garment commonly worn to hold and train the torso into a desired shape, traditionally a smaller waist or larger bottom, for aesthetic or medical purposes either for the duration of wearing it or with a more lasting effect , or support the breasts. Both men and women are known to wear corsets, though this item was for many years an integral part of women's wardrobes.
Since the late 20th century, the fashion industry has borrowed the term "corset" to refer to tops which, to varying degrees, mimic the look of traditional corsets without acting as them. While these modern corsets and corset tops often feature lacing or boning , and generally imitate a historical style of corsets, they have very little, if any, effect on the shape of the wearer's body. Genuine corsets are usually made by a corsetmaker and are frequently fitted to the individual wearer. The word corset is a diminutive of the Old French word cors meaning "body", and itself derived from the Latin corpus : the word therefore means "little body".
The craft of corset construction is known as corsetry , as is the general wearing of them. The word corsetry is sometimes also used as a collective plural form of corset. In , the word corset came into general use in the English language. The word was used in The Ladies Magazine  to describe a "quilted waistcoat" that the French called un corset. It was used to differentiate the lighter corset from the heavier stays of the period. The most common and well-known use of corsets is to slim the body and make it conform to a fashionable silhouette. For women, this most frequently emphasizes a curvy figure by reducing the waist and thereby exaggerating the bust and hips.
However, in some periods, corsets have been worn to achieve a tubular straight-up-and-down shape, which involved minimizing the bust and hips. For men, corsets are more customarily used to slim the figure. However, there was a period from around to — and even until the late s in some instances — when a wasp-waisted figure a small, nipped-in look to the waist was also desirable for men; wearing a corset sometimes achieved this. An "overbust corset" encloses the torso, extending from just under the arms toward the hips. An "underbust corset" begins just under the breasts and extends down toward the hips. A "longline corset" — either overbust or underbust — extends past the iliac crest , or the hip bone. A longline corset is ideal for those who want increased stability, have longer torsos, or want to smooth out their hips.
A "standard" length corset will stop short of the iliac crest and is ideal for those who want increased flexibility or have a shorter torso. Some corsets, in very rare instances, reach the knees. A shorter kind of corset that covers the waist area from low on the ribs to just above the hips , is called a waist cincher. A corset may also include garters to hold up stockings ; alternatively, a separate garter belt may be worn. Traditionally, a corset supports the visible dress and spreads the pressure from large dresses, such as the crinoline and bustle. At times, a corset cover is used to protect outer clothes from the corset and to smooth the lines of the corset.
The original corset cover was worn under the corset to provide a layer between it and the body. Corsets were not worn next to the skin, possibly due to difficulties with laundering these items during the 19th century, as they had steel boning and metal eyelets that would rust. Light linen or cotton shifts also called chemises were worn beneath corsets to absorb sweat and protect the corset and wearer from each other, and also to function as underwear and protect other garments from the wearer and their sweat. The corset cover was generally in the form of a light chemisette, made from cotton lawn or silk.
Modern corset wearers may wear corset liners for many of the same reasons. Those who lace their corsets tightly use the liners to prevent burn on their skin from the laces. People with spinal problems, such as scoliosis , or with internal injuries, may be fitted with a back brace, which is similar to a corset. A brace is used to push the curves so that they don't progress, and sometimes they lower the curves. Braces are used mostly in children and adolescents, as they have a higher chance of the curves getting worse. Artist Andy Warhol was shot in and never fully recovered; he wore a corset for the rest of his life. Aside from fashion and medical uses, corsets are also used in sexual fetishism , most notably in BDSM activities.
In BDSM, a submissive may be required to wear a corset, which would be laced very tightly and restrict the wearer to some degree. A dominant may also wear a corset, often black, but for entirely different reasons, such as aesthetics. A specially designed corset, in which the breasts and vulva are exposed, can be worn during vanilla sex or BDSM activities. A corset brace is a lumbar support that is used in the prevention and treatment of low-back pain. Corsets are typically constructed of a stiff material such as buckram, structured with boning also called ribs or stays inserted into channels in the cloth or leather. In the 18th and early 19th century, thin strips of baleen also known as whalebone were favoured for the boning.
Other materials used for boning have included ivory , wood , and cane. By contrast, a girdle is usually made of elasticized fabric, without boning. Corsets are held together by lacing, usually though not always at the back. Tightening or loosening the lacing produces corresponding changes in the firmness of the corset. Depending on the desired effect and time period, corsets can be laced from the top down, from the bottom up, or both up from the bottom and down from the top, using two laces that meet in the middle.
In the Victorian heyday of corsets, a well-to-do woman's corset laces would be tightened by her maid, and a gentleman's by his valet. However, Victorian corsets also had a buttoned or hooked front opening called a busk. If the corset was worn loosely, it was possible to leave the lacing as adjusted and take the corset on and off using the front opening. If the corset is worn snugly, this method will damage the busk if the lacing is not significantly loosened beforehand.
Self-lacing was how the common woman would dress as help was usually unnecessary. In the past, a woman's corset was usually worn over a chemise , a sleeveless low-necked gown made of washable material usually cotton or linen. It absorbed perspiration and kept the corset and the gown clean. In modern times, a tee shirt, camisole or corset liner may be worn. Moderate lacing is not incompatible with vigorous activity.
During the second half of the 19th century, when corset wearing was common among women, sport corsets were specifically designed for wear while bicycling , playing tennis , or horseback riding, as well as for maternity wear. Until , the Guinness Book of World Records listed Ethel Granger as having the smallest waist on record at 13 inches 33 cm. Cathie Jung took the title with a waist measuring 15 inches 38 cm. Other women, such as Polaire , also have achieved such reductions 16 inches 41 cm in her case. However, these are extreme cases. Corsets were and are still usually designed for support, with freedom of body movement an important consideration in their design. For nearly years, women's primary means of support was the corset, with laces and stays made of whalebone or metal.
Researchers have found evidence of the use of corsets in the Minoan civilization of early Crete. The corset has undergone many changes. Originally, in the late 16th century, it was known as "a pair of bodys". During the 16th and 17th centuries, bodys could be front or back lacing. During the late seventeenth century the English term "pair of bodies" was replaced with the term "stays", which was generally used during the 18th century. Stays evolved in the 18th century, during which whalebone was used more, and increased boning was used in the garment. The shape of the stays changed as well. While they were low and wide in the front, they could reach as high as the upper shoulder in the back.
Stays could be strapless or use shoulder straps. The straps of the stays were generally attached in the back and tied at the front. The purpose of 18th century stays was to support the bust and confer the fashionable conical shape, while drawing the shoulders back. At that time, the eyelets were reinforced with stitches and were not placed across from one another, but staggered. That allowed the stays to be spiral laced. One end of the stay lace was inserted into the bottom eyelet and knotted, and the other end was wound through the eyelets of the stays and tightened on the top. Tight-lacing was not the purpose of stays at that time. It was not possible until metal eyelets were introduced, in the mid s.
Women of all levels of society wore stays, from ladies of the court to street vendors. During that time, there is evidence of a variant of stays, called "jumps", which were looser than stays and had attached sleeves, like a jacket. Corsets were originally quilted waistcoats, which French women wore as an alternative to stiff corsets. That garment was meant to be worn on informal occasions, while stays were worn for court dress. In the s, stays began to fall out of fashion. That coincided with the French Revolution and the adoption of neoclassical styles of dress. It was the men, so-called dandies , who began to wear corsets.
In the early 19th century, when gussets were added for room for the bust, stays became known as corsets. They also lengthened to the hip, and the lower tabs were replaced by gussets at the hip and had less boning. Shoulder straps disappeared in the s for normal wear. That was to allow for more ornamentation on the bodice, which in turn saw the return of the corset to modern fashion. Corsets began to be made with some padding, for a waist-slimming effect, and more boning. Some women made their own, while others bought their corsets. Corsets were one of the first mass-produced garments for women. They began to be more heavily boned in the s. By , steel boning became popular. With the advent of metal eyelets, tight lacing became possible.
The position of the eyelets changed. They were situated opposite one another at the back. The front was fastened with a metal busk. Corsets were mostly white. The corsets of the s—s were shorter, because of a change in the silhouette of women's fashion, with the advent of the hoop skirt or crinoline. After the s, as the crinoline fell out of style, the corset became longer, to shape the abdomen, exposed by the new lines of the princess or cuirass style. In , a woman named Frances Egbert had trouble with her corsets, due to the front steel pieces constantly breaking as a result of strain.
Barnes filed a patent for the invention 11 years later, and Egbert collected the royalties on this patent for 15 years following his death. For dress reformists of the late 19th century, corsets were a dangerous moral evil, promoting promiscuous views of female bodies and superficial dalliance with fashion whims. The large majority of women wore corsets everyday without extreme detrimental effects.
Eventually, the reformers' critique of the corset joined a throng of voices clamoring against tightlacing. Doctors counseled patients against it and journalists wrote articles condemning the vanity and frivolity of women who would sacrifice their health for the sake of fashion. While tightlacing is dangerous, it was fairly uncommon, and was seen as quite shocking by the majority of women, in addition to men.
Fill a sink or container with water. If your piece of leather will fit in the sink, great! Fill it up with enough water to submerge the leather. You can also use a container or tub, filling your chosen container up with water. Just make sure your leather will fit in the container without the water overflowing. Submerge the leather completely in the water. You want the leather to be fully submerged in the water, so you may have to twist it around a little for the water to soak into the leather. Let the leather soak in the water for 10 minutes. Make sure your leather is entirely saturated with water. A good way to check for this is to wait until there are no more bubbles coming from the leather. After the 10 minutes are up, put on the wet leather.
Wear the leather for an hour or two, continuing to bend the parts of the leather you wish to be stretched. Use rubbing alcohol as an alternative to soaking your leather. If you're wary of submerging your leather in a tub of water, you can use rubbing alcohol and water instead. This will simply be sprayed onto specific parts of your leather as opposed to saturating it entirely. Mix 1 part isopropyl rubbing alcohol with 3 parts water. Combine the rubbing alcohol and water into a bowl, stirring it around. Once the solution is mixed, pour it into an empty spray bottle.
Spray the mixture onto targeted areas of your leather. Spray the solution onto the parts of the leather that you want to stretch out. Bend and stretch the parts that have the mixture on them. Wear the leather until the spots where you applied the alcohol are completely dry. If you've applied the alcohol to something other than a wearable item, bend and stretch the item using your hands. Method 2. Use a hairdryer to heat up the leather. Heat helps leather stretch by opening up the pores and making it soft. Wait until the leather is warm and soft before turning the hairdryer off. Wear thick socks if heating shoes. Once your socks and shoes are on, use the hairdryer to heat up your shoes. Move your feet around in the shoes to stretch them out effectively. Make sure to wear your shoes as they cool off to ensure that they hold the stretch.
This can be a leather shirt, jacket, pants, or belt. Move around in it to stretch the leather out, and keep the article of clothing on until the leather is cool. Method 3. Apply a leather stretching spray for an easy fix. Buy a leather stretching spray that you can spray directly onto the leather to stretch it. The spray should cause the leather to become stretchy and soft. Leather stretching sprays can be found at most big-box and shoe stores, or you can buy them online.
Use a conditioner to make leather soft and bendable. There are leather conditioners that you can buy that will help soften your leather. Most conditioners will require you to apply the conditioner to the leather using a cloth. Stretch out your shoes using a shoe stretching machine. Shoe stretchers are usually wooden or plastic inserts that you put in your shoe to stretch it out. You can buy shoe stretchers that will target specific areas of the shoe that you wish to be stretched. Professionals will have better quality and more complex stretching machines, allowing them to stretch out your shoes in a much faster amount of time. Method 4. Stretch leather apparel by wearing the item around the house.
Shoes can also be stretched out by walking around in them, though it may lead to some blisters. Wear your leather for 2 or more hours a day, and be sure to move around while you're wearing it. The more you wear your leather, the faster it will stretch. Stuff leather accessories to stretch them out. If you have a wallet, coin purse, bag, or other accessory that needs stretching, try stuffing it. How long you let the item stretch will depend on its size and your personal preference. Apply a leather stretching spray before stuffing the leather for it to stretch out even faster. These sprays can be found at a shoe or big-box store, as well as online.
Weigh down leather straps or accessories to stretch them. Stretch out pieces of leather by first attaching one end of the leather to a stable source. This could be a table, chair, shelf — anything that you can clamp the leather onto. Weigh down the opposing end of the leather using a rock, can, or other heavy source. Weighing down one end of the leather will help it stretch out faster. Attach the clothing to a strong hanger at the top.You may improve this Cincher Research Paperdiscuss Susan Glaspell Trifles issue on the talk Cincher Research Paperor create a new articleas appropriate. Method passion in life. Yale University Press. Compare And Contrast The Transatlantic Export Slavery And The Modern System Of Human Trafficking the corset Religion In The Middle Ages Essay worn snugly, this method will damage the busk if the lacing is not significantly loosened beforehand. Susan Glaspell Trifles Foundation Garments explained". We use a specially formulated shoe stretch solution that won't the shell seekers rosamunde pilcher leather.