Disney Social Responsibility Case Study

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Disney Social Responsibility Case Study



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Disney Case Study

When word first got out that Disney wanted to build another international theme park, officials from more than locations all over the world descended on Disney with pleas and cash inducements to work the Disney magic in their hometowns. But Paris was chosen because of demographics and subsidies. About 17 million Europeans live less than a two-hour drive from Paris. Another million can fly there in the same time or less. From the beginning, cultural gaffes by Disney set the tone for the project. By late , Disney was deep in negotiations with the French government. To the exasperation of the Disney team, headed by Joe Shapiro, the talks were taking far longer than expected. Jean-Rene Bernard, the chief French negotiator, said he was astonished when Mr. The minister of culture announced he would boycott the opening, proclaiming it to be an unwelcome symbol of American cliches and a consumer society.

Shortly after Euro-Disneyland opened, French farmers drove their tractors to the entrance and blocked it. This globally televised act of protest was aimed not at Disney but at the US government, which had been demanding that French agricultural subsidies be cut. Still, it focused world attention upon the loveless marriage of Disney and Paris. Then there were the operational errors. Disney thought that Monday would be a light day for visitors and Friday a heavy one and allocated staff accordingly, but the reality was the reverse. Another unpleasant surprise was the hotel breakfast debacle. Everybody showed up for breakfast. We were trying to serve 2, breakfasts in a seat restaurant at some of the hotels. The lines were horrendous. They wanted bacon and eggs.

The crowds were huge. Disney tried to use the same teamwork model with its staff that had worked so well in America and Japan, but it ran into trouble in France. One former employee was a year old medical student from a nearby town who signed up for a weekend job. We consulted with a diverse advisory board, assembled for this project, to validate the Key Concepts and A Framework for Teaching American Slavery. See Appendix 1 for a list of advisory board members and their affiliations.

Our investigation reveals several discomfiting facts about the ways we teach and learn about American slavery. Young students learn about liberation before they learn about enslavement; they learn to celebrate the Constitution before learning about the troublesome compromises that made its ratification possible. They may even learn about the Emancipation Proclamation before they learn about the Civil War. Yet these early narratives often form the schema by which later learning is acquired, making them difficult to undo.

As Jelani Cobb, professor of journalism at Columbia University, writes:. The sense of history as a chart of increasing bounties enabled tremendous progress but has left Americans—most of us, anyway—uniquely unsuited to look at ourselves as we truly are and at history for what it is. Young children are able to grapple with complex ideas like segregation and oppression. They have a keen moral sensibility and a strong sense of fairness. There is no reason to believe that they should be shielded from the reality and influence of slavery in American history. In fact, research suggests that acknowledging injustice and oppression results in students being more engaged.

While it is true that slavery reached its apex in the South during the years before the Civil War, it is also true that slavery existed in all colonies and in all states when the Declaration of Independence was signed. Slavery was the engine for American economic growth for much of its history. The capital for western canals and railroads came from the North, whose wealth—in textiles, shipping, banking and insurance—was in turn built on the slave-based economy even after slavery was abolished in some states. In our survey of high school seniors, very few 12 percent could correctly answer that slavery was essential to driving the northern economy before the Civil War.

Finally, this way of teaching also reinforces the false notion that racism as derived from slavery was mainly a southern problem, which has implications for understanding racial discrimination outside the South in the century and a half afterward. We often avoid the topics of white supremacy and racist beliefs altogether when talking about slavery, even though slavery required both to persist. For this report, we reviewed 15 sets of state standards, including some that our previous research about teaching the history of the civil rights movement had found especially strong.

None of these standards mention racism or white supremacy in the context of the history of slavery. This language—also found frequently in textbooks—portrays actions without agents, slavery without enslavers, history without choice. It removes culpability while focusing on victimhood—a dangerous proposition for teaching meaningful history. Only half of the teachers we surveyed say that they teach about the development of white supremacy to support slavery, and almost all of the textbooks that we reviewed shy away from this topic.

Just one approaches it, and even then it declares the question undecided, when history is clear on the causal relationship. To be fair, many teachers in our sample are ahead of both textbooks and standards on this issue. Quite a few teachers in our survey say they want to encourage students to confront white supremacy directly. When we asked teachers to tell us about their favorite lesson when teaching about slavery, dozens proudly described classroom simulations.

While simulating democratic processes is a proven practice for good civic education, simulation of traumatic experiences is not shown to be effective, and usually triggers families as well as children. Every year the news brings stories of teachers who get into trouble when families complain about this kind of approach. In particular, families of black students are likely with good reason to complain about slavery simulations. While no parent wants to see their child auctioned off or forced to lie still in conditions meant to simulate the Middle Passage, it is important to recognize that such simulations are disproportionately traumatic for students of color.

Of course, they are inappropriate for any student; simulations cannot begin to convey the horror of slavery and risk trivializing the subject in the minds of students. As Table 1 shows, teachers, textbooks and state standards fail to make these essential connections. None of the textbooks that we reviewed make meaningful connections to the present day, either through showing the influence of African culture or by explicating the persistence of structural racism. None of the state standards documents we reviewed make these connections. How can students develop a meaningful understanding of the rest of U. We can do better than insisting to students that the horror of slavery is over and the good guys won.

White experience is foregrounded in political, economic and social aspects of the history of American slavery. Politically, textbooks cover the run-up to the Civil War in terms of the major political compromises and conflicts between abolitionists and enslavers, but tend to leave out the perspective of enslaved people. Socially, we learn about differences between the lived experiences of white people in for example colonial times, or between planters and small farmers, but the experiences of the enslaved are portrayed as relatively undifferentiated.

The enslaved are also voiceless, with very few exceptions given to original historical documents and artifacts in textbooks and in classrooms. Of course, it is difficult to find authentic accounts of slavery from the perspective of the enslaved, but it is not impossible by any stretch of the imagination. Table 1 summarizes our findings, organized by Key Concept. We have attempted, as much as possible, to make our research findings commensurable; to that end, we have standardized measurements on a point scale so that readers can see the relative extent to which different resources covered the relevant Key Concepts. Slavery defined the nature and limits of American liberty; it influenced the creation and development of the major political and social institutions of the nation; and it was a cornerstone of the American prosperity that fueled our industrial revolution.

It is the present. We carry our history with us. We are our history. The persistent and wide socioeconomic and legal disparities that African Americans face today and the backlash that follows every African-American advancement trace their roots to slavery and its aftermath. The scars of slavery and its legacy are seen in our system of mass incarceration, in police violence against black people, and in our easy acceptance of poverty and poor educational opportunities for people of color.

Learning about slavery is essential if we are ever to bridge the racial differences that continue to divide our nation. Now is the time to change the way that we teach and learn about the history of American slavery. They are also quite raw, as the reaction to the Black Lives Matter movement and the struggle to take down Confederate monuments have revealed. Bargaining with black bodies is not an acceptable way to conduct politics, yet it risks becoming normalized. As The New York Times editorial board wrote:. Only when our history is faced squarely can removing Confederate monuments be properly understood, as a small but significant step toward ending the celebration of treason and white supremacy, if not toward ameliorating their effects.

As journalist and political analyst Linda J. It has pervaded history textbooks for hundreds of years. To understand the present, we must map the past. Bridging racial divides requires both truth and reconciliation. To tell the truth, teachers must be educated about the history of slavery. The last several decades have witnessed an explosion of new scholarship on slavery and abolition, scholarship that uncovers the institution from the perspective of the enslaved and reveals a world of creativity and resilience that also puts race at the center of American history.

Unfortunately, little of this new knowledge has made its way into K—12 classrooms. Textbooks have not kept up with emerging scholarship, and remain bound to the same old narratives and limited primary sources. Reconciliation requires honest conversations about the nature of white privilege and its persistence despite emancipation, Reconstruction and the civil rights movement. Ultimately, teaching the truth about slavery and the doctrine of white supremacy will be just one step in the right direction, but an essential one. Teachers need well-constructed tools, well-curated materials, guidance and professional development to deal with this sensitive and charged topic. More importantly, they need the courage that can only come with a national call to teach this history.

This section details the findings of the four ways we collected information for this report: a survey of high school seniors; a survey of teachers; a review of selected state standards; and a review of popular textbooks. Where possible, we have quoted teachers who set aside their valuable time to give us their perspectives. Student Survey American high school students do not know much about American slavery. We reached this conclusion after conducting a first-of-its-kind study. In early December , Teaching Tolerance contracted with Survey USA , a highly rated national polling firm, to conduct an online survey of 1, American high school seniors.

We chose seniors because they have completed nearly 12 years of education, including U. We asked them what they knew about the history of slavery, using items developed by an expert test-item developer and aligned to our 10 Key Concepts. The items were reviewed by university faculty who are subject-matter experts. A complete list of the survey items can be found in Appendix 2. The 18 items and their answers were randomized for survey takers, so that 20 percent of respondents saw the first answer choice first, 20 percent saw the second answer choice first, and so on.

To encourage students to answer using their own knowledge rather than consulting other sources, the survey instructions asked students not to use search engines while completing the quiz. The responses as a whole were dismal, even on very easy items. In no case did more than 67 percent of students identify the correct answer to a given question. Mean time to complete the survey was 6 minutes and 30 seconds. Students who completed the survey in 3 minutes or less performed consistently and materially worse than did others. Students who took 7 or more minutes to complete the survey occasionally and in a minority of instances performed better than did those closer to the mean.

Suburban respondents consistently outperformed urban and rural respondents. No other meaningful regional differences were observed. The most shocking finding of this survey is that only 8 percent of high school seniors can identify slavery as the cause of the Civil War. Almost half of the respondents 48 percent said tax protests were the cause; it is possible that they confused the Civil War with the Revolutionary War, but that is its own particular problem, given that all of the other questions in the survey were about slavery in some form.

That gap shows just how resistant students are to identifying slavery as the central cause of the Civil War. Some factual errors were surprising. Only 32 percent of students correctly identified the 13th Amendment as the formal end to slavery in the United States, with slightly more 35 percent choosing the Emancipation Proclamation instead. By comparison, only 18 percent chose the correct answer: increased restrictions on enslaved people and expansion of southern militias. Fewer than half of students 46 percent could correctly identify the Middle Passage as the journey across the Atlantic from Africa to North America. Teacher Survey In January , Teaching Tolerance conducted a survey of K—12 teachers to assess their attitudes and perceived self-efficacy related to teaching the history of American slavery.

Teachers surveyed were not just Teaching Tolerance affiliates; we also reached out to social studies teachers not aligned with Teaching Tolerance to boost response count and to avoid some of the self-selection problems that might arise with surveying only teachers already predisposed to think about social justice issues. Nevertheless, the majority 90 percent of responses came from teachers affiliated with Teaching Tolerance. The 1, respondents came from across the country.

Most 72 percent say that they teach about slavery in their curriculum. What Is Taught The survey asked teachers what aspects of slavery they teach. Table 3 reports the percentages of teachers who say that they teach about a particular aspect of American slavery. These aspects correspond, in large part, to the Key Concepts. Clearly, curriculum scope needs to be improved to more fully capture the history, nuance and importance of slavery in the Americas. It is worth noting that these self-reported accounts do not measure the quality, substance or extent of the coverage given to topics.

We also asked teachers to tell us about the language they use when they talk about slavery in the classroom. This terminology is increasingly used in contemporary scholarship in the field, but has not yet fully trickled down to K— What Teachers Believe and Know The survey also asked teachers to react to a series of statements about their comfort level, general knowledge and access to support regarding the teaching of slavery.

Table 4 shows those results. Almost all teachers 97 percent agree that learning about slavery is essential to understanding American history and claim 92 percent they are comfortable talking about slavery in their classroom. The majority 58 percent are dissatisfied with what textbooks offer, and a large number 39 percent say their state offers little or no support for teaching about slavery. Almost all teachers performed well on the knowledge questions in this part of the survey.

Responses to the last question informed our curation of original historical documents now on our website. A few trends, however, emerged. The curriculum standard is the Civil War. My main instructional goal then is to help students understand on a basic level how slavery came to be, why it was unique in the United States, how it became entrenched here, how it impacted so many parts of life during its existence and how it continues to play a very real role in current events today.

Many teachers want students to understand that Africans traveled to what came to be known as the Americas prior to slavery. Some make sure to teach about African kingdoms. Others are very conscious of the students they serve, like this New Jersey teacher:. I have several goals. The first is to understand that African-American history is essential to American history. It is a tough topic, but there is no American history without it. Slavery shaped how this country was built, the foundational documents, and the roots of it can still be seen today. There is still racial tension. I want my students to know that as horrible as it was, there were people who stood up and fought against slavery and fought for civil rights, black and white people.

History has many ugly parts, but there were good people who tried to make things right. I want my students to know that Africans were part of the slave trade. I want them to know that people did try to stop it. I want them to know that their history I teach in a school with almost all African-American and Hispanic students is not the ugliness of slavery. Their history is rich and full of people who took the opportunity to make their lives better and African Americans are essential to our history.

A Virginia teacher finds the subject necessary as early as second grade. Favorite Lessons We also asked teachers to describe their favorite lesson. Many say they enjoy using original historical documents, citing Frederick Douglass, Olaudah Equiano and slave narratives collected by the Works Progress Administration during the s. By far the single most popular topic is the Underground Railroad, which dovetails with a number of teachers mentioning that lessons teaching resistance to slavery are their favorites.

People like Frederick Douglass, John Brown, Harriet Tubman and Nat Turner have stories that compel children to see how strong and determined the human spirit can be. Some, like this Pennsylvania teacher, say their favorite lessons put human faces on the evils of slavery:. My students are over 99 percent white. They, like many people, seem immune to statistics and generalizations about the horrors of slavery. Some teachers find joy in making connections to the present, especially through music and food. They describe intentionally connecting African-American culture across the centuries to enhance student appreciation. Several, including a teacher from Rhode Island, one from Louisiana and one from Ohio, like making connections to local history.

Debate emerged in the responses about age appropriateness. One California teacher says she takes great care with her second-graders:. I think it is about teaching the building up to it with second-graders. There needs to be a great culture that is accepting of each other in order first. My favorite lessons consist of sharing about Harriet Tubman and how phenomenal she was. We learn her story in small groups and read a few whole-group stories as well. We are able to connect other events to the events of slavery soon after, as we learn about other Difference Makers like Fred Koramatsu, for example. But ultimate justice prevailed when people worked together and got their voices heard. We learn that bad things happened before we were born and that it has had an effect on the world at that time and in the future of that event for example on other events that happened later when some other Difference Makers like Terrence Roberts, Martin Luther King Jr.

We also learn that those horrible events were in the past, but it is up to us to shape the future. We can work to make sure everyone is treated kindly and equitably. In the past, Teaching Tolerance has warned about the danger of classroom simulations, and they are particularly dangerous in this context. A Florida teacher describes their simulation this way:. Lights in the room are turned off. We also put butcher paper over the tables so they cannot see. A discussion follows between the two groups of students as to how they felt and why things were done this way. Another teacher has students clean cotton while the teacher randomly gives out awards.

Others have students role-play as enslaved people and enslavers. Least Comfortable Aspects Finally, we asked teachers to tell us the aspects of slavery that they least like to teach about. Some say that they are comfortable teaching all aspects of slavery and even wish they had more time to cover the subject. But you cannot help the truth. However, most identify at least one facet that makes them uncomfortable. The most common include the abject cruelty of slavery and accompanying abuse, particularly sexual abuse.

The sheer inhumanity of slavery can make it difficult to teach. It is hard for students to understand how someone could do that, and communicating what makes it possible is difficult. Teachers say they struggle to communicate a nuanced view of slavery. Teaching about the violent and dehumanizing experiences of enslaved people on slave ships and on plantations is especially difficult. I struggle with being honest and direct about historical truths WHILE not demoralizing or terrifying students. Here, as is evident in the answers to other questions, teachers wrestle with teaching slavery to elementary school students. Many who responded to the survey are elementary school teachers, and they teach about slavery although they say that it is difficult.

This North Carolina teacher discusses working with students in different grades:. It is tricky with elementary school students to discuss slavery because invariably some students are terrified that slavery ever happened in the country where they live, and that it happened to people who look like them. I have to watch for signs of children being under stress because they are scared of the brutality. The fifth-graders generally can talk about it and study more in depth, and the fourth-graders, too, but sometimes it is too overwhelming to go beyond the surface with third grade.

Nearly all elementary teachers agree that teaching slavery is complicated and difficult. This California educator makes a case for teaching slavery in early elementary by focusing on resistance:. I think it would be a lot easier to just not teach it to be honest. However, I add teaching it in because I realize the significance of understanding early on that it was not okay. That it was unimaginable and yet it happened. We need to learn just how important it is to be kind, considerate and to stand up for ourselves and others no matter how uncomfortable it might be. Overall, the teachers we surveyed find teaching slavery to be difficult but essential.

Although some use troubling teaching practices, the majority are quick to recommend original historical documents, rich audiovisual supplements and other resources. It is clear, however, that teachers need more comprehensive support if they are to teach the essential dimensions of the history of American slavery. State Standards We did not conduct a comprehensive review of all state content standards for this project; in this way, this report differs from the Teaching the Movement reports, which examined the state of civil rights movement education state by state. Instead, we chose to look at coverage of slavery in the 10 states that scored well in the report for their coverage of the civil rights movement: Alabama, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Virginia, South Carolina, Oklahoma, North Carolina and New York.

We assumed that these states would provide the best examples of coverage of slavery. We found a puzzling and patchwork coverage of slavery. Many states reserve slavery for later grades. Taken as a whole, the documents we examined—both formal standards and supporting documents called frameworks—mostly fail to lay out meaningful requirements for learning about slavery, the lives of the millions of enslaved people or how their labor was essential to the American economy for more than a century of our history. There are exceptions. In addition to user-generated promotion, these sites also offer advertisements within individual user communities and categories.

Platforms like LinkedIn create an environment for companies and clients to connect online. Blogs can be updated frequently and are promotional techniques for keeping customers , and also for acquiring followers and subscribers who can then be directed to social network pages. Online communities can enable a business to reach the clients of other businesses using the platform. To allow firms to measure their standing in the corporate world, sites enable employees to place evaluations of their companies. There are also specific corporate standards that apply when interacting online. Blogging website Tumblr first launched ad products on May 29, These posts can be one or more of the following: images, photo sets, animated GIFs, video, audio, and text posts.

For the users to differentiate the promoted posts to the regular users' posts, the promoted posts have a dollar symbol on the corner. On May 6, , Tumblr announced customization and theming on mobile apps for brands to advertise. Social media marketing involves the use of social networks , consumer's online brand-related activities COBRA and electronic word of mouth eWOM [77] [78] to successfully advertise online. Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter provide advertisers with information about the likes and dislikes of their consumers. A good service would result in a positive review which gets the hotel free advertising via social media.

However, a poor service will result in a negative consumer review which can potentially harm the company's reputation. These small groups rotate around social networking accounts that are run by influential people opinion leaders or "thought leaders" who have followers of groups. The types of groups followers are called: [82] reference groups people who know each other either face-to-face or have an indirect influence on a persons attitude or behaviour ; membership groups a person has a direct influence on a person's attitude or behaviour ; and aspirational groups groups which an individual wishes to belong to.

Marketers target influential people , referred to as influencers , on social media who are recognized as being opinion leaders and opinion-formers to send messages to their target audiences and amplify the impact of their message. A social media post by an opinion leader can have a much greater impact via the forwarding of the post or "liking" of the post than a social media post by a regular user. They can review products and services for their followings, which can be positive or negative towards the brand.

OL's and OF's are people who have a social status and because of their personality, beliefs, values etc. Owned social media channels are an essential extension of business' and brands in today's world. Brand must seek to create their brand image on each platform, and cater to the type of consumer demographics on each respective platform.

In contrast with pre-Internet marketing, such as TV ads and newspaper ads, in which the marketer controlled all aspects of the ad, with social media, users are free to post comments right below an online ad or an online post by a company about its product. Companies are increasing using their social media strategy as part of their traditional marketing effort using magazines, newspapers, radio advertisements, television advertisements. Since in the s, media consumers are often using multiple platforms at the same time e. Heath wrote about the extent of attention businesses should give to their social media sites.

It is about finding a balance between frequently posting but not over posting. There is a lot more attention to be paid towards social media sites because people need updates to gain brand recognition. Therefore, a lot more content is need and this can often be unplanned content. There is two general ways of doing so. The first is where each sector approves the plan one after another, editor, brand, followed by the legal team Brito, Sectors may differ depending on the size and philosophy of the business. The second is where each sector is given 24 hours or such designated time to sign off or disapprove. If no action is given within the hour period the original plan is implemented.

Planned content is often noticeable to customers and is un-original or lacks excitement but is also a safer option to avoid unnecessary backlash from the public. Although the second route can be significantly shorter it also holds more risk particularly in the legal department. Unplanned content is an 'in the moment' idea, "a spontaneous, tactical reaction. The content could be trending and not have the time to take the planned content route. If a company sends out a Tweet or Facebook message too hurriedly, the company may unintentionally use insensitive language or messaging that could alienate some consumers. The main difference between planned and unplanned is the time to approve the content.

Unplanned content must still be approved by marketing managers, but in a much more rapid manner e. Sectors may miss errors because of being hurried. When using unplanned content Brito says, "be prepared to be reactive and respond to issues when they arise. The plan involves breaking down the issue into topics and classifying the issue into groups. Colour coding the potential risk "identify and flag potential risks" also helps to organise an issue.

The problem can then be handled by the correct team and dissolved more effectively rather than any person at hand trying to solve the situation. Traditional advertising techniques include print and television advertising. The Internet has already overtaken television as the largest advertising market. Social networking sites don't always have ads. In exchange, products have entire pages and are able to interact with users. Television commercials often end with a spokesperson asking viewers to check out the product website for more information. While briefly popular, print ads included QR codes on them. These QR codes can be scanned by cell phones and computers , sending viewers to the product website. Advertising is beginning to move viewers from the traditional outlets to the electronic ones.

For example, with newspapers, readership over the years has shown a decline. However, readership with newspapers is still fiercely loyal to print-only media. The Internet and social networking leaks are one of the issues facing traditional advertising. Video and print ads are often leaked to the world via the Internet earlier than they are scheduled to premiere. Social networking sites allow those leaks to go viral , and be seen by many users more quickly. The time difference is also a problem facing traditional advertisers. When social events occur and are broadcast on television, there is often a time delay between airings on the east coast and west coast of the United States.

Social networking sites have become a hub of comment and interaction concerning the event. This allows individuals watching the event on the west coast time-delayed to know the outcome before it airs. The Grammy Awards highlighted this problem. Viewers on the west coast learned who won different awards based on comments made on social networking sites by individuals watching live on the east coast. All the advertisement and promotion put into the event was lost because viewers didn't have a reason to watch. Social media marketing provides organizations with a way to connect with their customers.

However, organizations must protect their information as well as closely watch comments and concerns on the social media they use. An example of a social media mishap includes designer Kenneth Cole 's Twitter mishap in When Kenneth Cole tweeted, "Millions are in uproar in Cairo. Rumor has they heard our new spring collection is now available online at [Kenneth Cole's website]". In during Hurricane Sandy, Gap sent out a tweet to its followers telling them to stay safe but encouraged them to shop online and offered free shipping. The tweet was deemed insensitive, and Gap eventually took it down and apologized. Examples include a YouTube video of a Domino's Pizza employee violating health code standards, which went viral on the Internet and later resulted in felony charges against two employees.

In , Max Factor, MAC and other beauty brands were forced to rush to disassociate themselves from Kuwaiti beauty blogger and Instagram 'influencer' Sondos Alqattan after she criticised government moves to improve conditions for domestic workers. The code of ethics that is affiliated with traditional marketing can also be applied to social media. A sensitive topic about social media professionals is the subject of ethics in social media marketing practices, specifically: the proper uses of, often, very personal data. Social networking websites are becoming wise to these practices, however, and are effectively weeding out and banning offenders. In addition, social media platforms have become extremely aware of their users and collect information about their viewers to connect with them in various ways.

Social-networking website Facebook Inc. Some people may react negatively because they believe it is an invasion of privacy. On the other hand, some individuals may enjoy this feature because their social network recognizes their interests and sends them particular advertisements pertaining to those interests. Consumers like to network with people who share their interests and desires. Managers invest in social media to foster relationships and interact with customers. Since social media marketing first came into being, strategists and marketers have been getting smarter and more careful with the way they collect information and distributing advertisements. With the presence of data collecting companies, there is no longer a need to target specific audiences. This can be seen as a large ethically gray area.

For many users, this is a breach of privacy, but there are no laws that prevent these companies from using the information provided on their websites. Companies like Equifax, Inc. Facebook later revealed that they purchased the information in order to create a more efficient advertising service. Facebook had an estimated He proposed the Privacy Bill of Rights, which would protect the average user from having their private information downloaded and shared with third party companies.

The proposed laws would give the consumer more control over what information companies can collect. This involves tracking the volume of visits, leads, and customers to a website from the individual social channel. Google Analytics [] is a free tool that shows the behavior and other information, such as demographics and device type used, of website visitors from social networks. This and other commercial offers can aid marketers in choosing the most effective social networks and social media marketing activities.

The end goal of any marketing effort is to generate sales. Although social media is a useful marketing tool, it is often difficult to quantify to what extent it is contributing to profit. ROI can be measured by comparing marketing analytic value to contact database or CRM and connect marketing efforts directly to sales activity. Several customers are turning towards social media to express their appreciation or frustration with brands, product or services. Therefore, marketers can measure the frequency of which customers are discussing their brand and judge how effective their SMM strategies are. There has been an increase in social media marketing in sport, as sports teams and clubs recognise the importance of keeping a rapport with their fans and other audiences through social media.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Use of social media platforms and websites to promote a product or service. Main article: Social media. The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.

See also: Return on investment. Journal of Business Research. The International Journal of Management Education. ISSN Retrieved 7 February Information Systems Research. JSTOR CiteSeerX Retrieved March 17, Archived from the original on May 27, International Journal of Mobile Marketing. Retrieved 8 June

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