Self-fulfilling Prophecies

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Self-fulfilling Prophecies

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Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (Learn Social Psychology Fundamentals)

This makes the definition when applied to countries as flexible for the possibility that it can also depend on the consensus of those who believe in a specific principle. Self-fulfilling prophecies are one of the main contributions to racial prejudice and vice versa. Which made black workers unable to learn or approve the principles of trade unionism, since they were not given the chance of working in a work environment where these principles were seen or experienced. In the article "The Accumulation of Stereotype-based self-fulfilling Prophecies. The example that was given was the one of a female student who seemed to do bad in math and her math teacher and counselor "channel her in the direction of confirming sex stereotypes" [37] By this the author means that the teachers never encouraged her to improve her abilities in math.

Instead, the teacher and the counselor recommended classes that were dominated by females. African American psychologist Kenneth B. Clark studied the responses of Black children ages 3—7 years old to black and white dolls in the s. From his reports on his research, the term "self-fulfilling prophecy" made its first appearance in educational literature. The responses from Clark's study ranged from some calling the black doll ugly and one girl bursting into tears when prompted to pick the doll she identified with. The black children internalized the inferiority they learned and acted as such as a result of their placement within society. Clark who aided in pushing the Supreme court decision towards the desegregation of schools in the case of the Brown v.

The Board of Education, also noted the influence of teachers on the achievement levels between black and white students. The low expectations of the teachers aligned with their initial belief which was low IQ test scores. Clark wrote, ""If a child scores low on an intelligence test because he cannot read and then is not taught to read because he has a low score, then such a child is being imprisoned in an iron circle and becomes the victim of an educational self-fulfilling prophecy"". Kenneth B. Clarks ideas about educational Self-fulfilling prophecies opened up minds to the effectiveness of teaching and the expectations teachers place upon students.

In literature, self-fulfilling prophecies are often used as plot devices. They have been used in stories for millennia, but have gained a lot of popularity recently in the science fiction genre. They are typically used ironically, with the prophesied events coming to pass due to the actions of one trying to prevent the prophecy a recent example would be the life of Anakin Skywalker , the fictional Jedi-turned-Sith Lord in George Lucas ' Star Wars saga. They are also sometimes used as comic relief. Many myths, legends, and fairy tales make use of this motif as a central element of narratives that are designed to illustrate inexorable fate , fundamental to the Hellenic world-view.

This may be the death of the powerful person; in more light-hearted versions, it is often the marriage of a poor or lower-class child to his own. The events come about, nevertheless, as a result of the actions taken to prevent them: frequently child abandonment sets the chain of events in motion. In Greek literature a "prophete" is defined as "one who speaks for another. The best-known example from Greek legend is that of Oedipus. Warned that his child would one day kill him, Laius abandoned his newborn son Oedipus to die, but Oedipus was found and raised by others, and thus in ignorance of his true origins.

When he grew up, Oedipus was warned that he would kill his father and marry his mother. Believing his foster parents were his real parents, he left his home and travelled to Greece, eventually reaching the city where his biological parents lived. There, he got into a fight with a stranger, his real father, killed him and married his widow, Oedipus' real mother. In some, he accidentally spears his grandfather at a competition—an act that could have happened regardless of Acrisius ' response to the prophecy. In other variants, his presence at the games is explained by his hearing of the prophecy, so that his attempt to evade it does cause the prophecy to be fulfilled. Greek historiography provides a famous variant: when the Lydian king Croesus asked the Delphic Oracle if he should invade Persia, the response came that if he did, he would destroy a great kingdom.

Assuming this meant he would succeed, he attacked—but the kingdom he destroyed was his own. When it was predicted that Cronos would be overthrown by his son, and usurp his throne as King of the Gods, Cronus ate his children, each shortly after they were born. When Zeus was born, Cronos was thwarted by Rhea, who gave him a stone to eat instead, sending Zeus to be raised by Amalthea. Cronos' attempt to avoid the prophecy made Zeus his enemy, ultimately leading to its fulfilment. The story of Romulus and Remus is another example. According to legend, a man overthrew his brother, the king. He then ordered that his two nephews, Romulus and Remus, be drowned, fearing that they would someday kill him as he did to his brother.

The boys were placed in a basket and thrown in the Tiber River. A wolf found the babies and she raised them. Later, a shepherd found the twins and named them Romulus and Remus. As teenagers, they found out who they were. They killed their uncle, fulfilling the prophecy. A variation of the self-fulfilling prophecy is the self-fulfilling dream, which dates back to medieval Arabic literature. Several tales in the One Thousand and One Nights , also known as the Arabian Nights , use this device to foreshadow what is going to happen, as a special form of literary prolepsis. A notable example is " The Ruined Man Who Became Rich Again Through a Dream ", in which a man is told in his dream to leave his native city of Baghdad and travel to Cairo , where he will discover the whereabouts of some hidden treasure.

The man travels there and experiences misfortune after losing belief in the prophecy, ending up in jail, where he tells his dream to a police officer. The officer mocks the idea of foreboding dreams and tells the protagonist that he himself had a dream about a house with a courtyard and fountain in Baghdad where treasure is buried under the fountain. The man recognizes the place as his own house and, after he is released from jail, he returns home and digs up the treasure. In other words, the foreboding dream not only predicted the future, but the dream was the cause of its prediction coming true. A variant of this story later appears in English folklore as the " Pedlar of Swaffham ". Another variation of the self-fulfilling prophecy can be seen in " The Tale of Attaf ", where Harun al-Rashid consults his library the House of Wisdom , reads a random book, "falls to laughing and weeping and dismisses the faithful vizier " Ja'far ibn Yahya from sight.

Ja'far, "disturbed and upset flees Baghdad and plunges into a series of adventures in Damascus , involving Attaf and the woman whom Attaf eventually marries. In other words, it was Harun's reading of the book that provoked the adventures described in the book to take place. This is an early example of reverse causality. In the 14th century, a version of this tale also appears in the Gesta Romanorum and Giovanni Boccaccio 's The Decameron. The prophets involved in this religion are considered to be very superior, they have the highest ranking on the class system that one could have, and religious temples or shrines are built in their honor.

It is believed in the Hindu religion that the prophets can foretell the future due to what they are experiencing in the "present" time. Self-fulfilling prophecies appear in classical Sanskrit literature. In the story of Krishna in the Indian epic Mahabharata , the ruler of the Mathura kingdom, Kansa , afraid of a prophecy that predicted his death at the hands of his sister Devaki 's son, had her cast into prison where he planned to kill all of her children at birth. After killing the first six children, and Devaki's apparent miscarriage of the seventh, Krishna the eighth son was born.

As his life was in danger he was smuggled out to be raised by his foster parents Yashoda and Nanda in the village of Gokula. Years later, Kansa learned about the child's escape and kept sending various demons to put an end to him. The demons were defeated at the hands of Krishna and his brother Balarama. Krishna, as a young man returned to Mathura to overthrow his uncle, and Kansa was eventually killed by his nephew Krishna. It was due to Kansa's attempts to prevent the prophecy that it came true, thus fulfilling the prophecy.

Oleg of Novgorod was a Varangian prince who ruled over the Rus people during the early tenth century. As old East Slavic chronicles say, it was prophesied by the pagan priests that Oleg's stallion would be the source of Oleg's death. To avoid this he sent the horse away. Many years later he asked where his horse was, and was told that it had died. He asked to see the remains and was taken to the place where the bones lay. When he touched the horse's skull with his boot a snake slithered from the skull and bit him. Oleg died, thus fulfilling the prophecy. In the Primary Chronicle , Oleg is known as the Prophet, ironically referring to the circumstances of his death. In Scandinavian traditions, this legend lived on in the saga of Orvar-Odd.

The girl's father's efforts to prevent it are the reason why the boy ends up marrying her. Another fairy tale occurs with older children. In The Language of the Birds , a father forces his son to tell him what the birds say: that the father would be the son's servant. In The Ram , the father forces his daughter to tell him her dream: that her father would hold an ewer for her to wash her hands in. In all such tales, the father takes the child's response as evidence of ill-will and drives the child off; this allows the child to change so that the father will not recognize his own offspring later and so offer to act as the child's servant.

In some variants of Sleeping Beauty , such as Sun, Moon, and Talia , the sleep is not brought about by a curse, but a prophecy that she will be endangered by flax or hemp results in the royal order to remove all the flax or hemp from the castle, resulting in her ignorance of the danger and her curiosity. Shakespeare 's Macbeth is another classic example of a self-fulfilling prophecy. The three witches give Macbeth a prophecy that Macbeth will eventually become king, but afterwards, the offspring of his best friend will rule instead of his own. Macbeth tries to make the first half true while trying to keep his bloodline on the throne instead of his friend's. Spurred by the prophecy, he kills the king and his friend, something he, arguably, never would have done before.

In the end, the evil actions he committed to avoid his succession by another's bloodline get him killed in a revolution. The later prophecy by the first apparition of the witches that Macbeth should "Beware Macduff" is also a self-fulfilling prophecy. If Macbeth had not been told this, then he might not have regarded Macduff as a threat. Therefore, he would not have killed Macduff's family, and Macduff would not have sought revenge and killed Macbeth. The extreme steps that the character takes to prevent the situation are almost always what led to it. In George R. The song "Iron Man" by British heavy metal band Black Sabbath follows the story of a self-fulfilling prophecy of a man who travels into the future and sees the apocalypse and tries to warn people, but ends up causing the apocalypse.

The law of attraction is a typical example of self-fulfilling prophecy. It is the name given to the belief that "like attracts like" and that by focusing on positive or negative thoughts, one can bring about positive or negative results. The thoughts, words and actions held in mind affect someone's intentions which makes the expected result happen. Although there are some cases where positive or negative attitudes can produce corresponding results principally the placebo and nocebo effects , there is no scientific basis to the law of attraction. In Canadian ice hockey, junior league players are selected based on skill, motor coordination, physical maturity, and other individual merit criteria. The explanation is that in Canada, the eligibility cutoff for age-class hockey is January 1, and the players who are born in the first months of the year are older by 0—11 months, which at the preadolescent age of selection nine or ten manifests into an important physical advantage.

The selected players are exposed to higher levels of coaching, play more games, and have better teammates. These factors make them actually become the best players, fulfilling the prophecy, while the real selection criterion was age. In , researchers published a study on how the self-fulfilling prophecy impacted coaching. The study was based on college basketball players and their coaches. The main component that was analyzed in this study is the feedback that the coaches gave and how the players perceived that feedback. Based on the results of the study, researchers determined that that head coaches gave more biased feedback while assistant coaches gave more critical feedback.

Researcher Helen Brown published findings of two experiments performed on athletes in regard to the effect that the media has on them. In the first experiment, the athletes were labeled and categorized. During the experiment, the media reporter stated their expectations for the athlete, which would either be good, bad, or a neutral outlook. The difference between experiment two and experiment one is that it happened face to face. The key components being studied in the athletes were their thought process as well as their responses to these expectations that the media was making about them. As a result from the second experiment performed, it was concluded that the media does impact athletes, it impacts their judgement, their thought process and it can even have a dangerous and destructive impact on some athletes.

A self-fulfilling prophecy may be a form of causality loop. Predestination does not necessarily involve a supernatural power, and could be the result of other "infallible foreknowledge" mechanisms. The prophecy itself serves as the impetus for his actions, and thus it is self-fulfilling. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Prediction that causes itself to become true. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

August Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Causal loop and Newcomb's paradox. Begging the question Bootstrap paradox Cognitive behavioral therapy Confirmation bias Copycat effect Eschatology Expectation epistemic Fake it till you make it Mind over matter Moore's law Nineteen Eighty-Four Nominative determinism Reflexivity social theory Subject-expectancy effect Selection bias Self-defeating prophecy Self-licking ice cream cone Self-validating reduction. ISSN S2CID International Studies Review.

Self-fulfilling prophecy. Dictionary of Media and Communication Studies. December Educational Researcher. ISSN X. Thomas and D. Suffice it to say, the licensed fabricators of self-fulfilling prophecies are again upon their stools. Merton, Robert. The Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. The Antioch Review. JSTOR On social structure and science. University of Chicago Press. All what we see, hear or feel, we perceive through the prism of our own experiences and expectations.

So, we will conclude that stereotypes could be dangerous: they not only shape our attitude towards a group but they also shape the behavior of that group; we will see what we want to see. We must be aware how our behavior and our perceptions are influenced by these stereotypes. For examples, if we assume white supremacy is behind the actions of every white person, we can easily neglect those non-whites who benefit from white supremacy and whites who are victims of their assumed supremacy. At the same time, when we react in the frames of our own false concepts, we provoke the response we expect—leading to the self-fulfilling prophecy. Things we see, hear or feel are always followed with judgments and sometimes our judgments can be very wrong.

Every action, no matter how small requires struggle, choices and consequences. All what we see, hear or feel, we perceive through the prism of our own experiences and expectations completely unconscious to the fact that our perceptions and judgments are products of different conditionings which we or our group were exposed to in the past, different expectations which we or our group have for the future and emotions which we feel during the present action. If we put it in the term of a radical claim, we would say that we never perceive things in the same way. And, therefor, if we consider the fact that the whole social and ideological world is built on these constructs, we could say that we never even talk about the same things.

We must be aware that learning about ourselves personally and through social interaction shapes our identities in different ways. As a person with a background in psychology, I truly believe in personal accountability, self reflection and personal growth. I believe that the people who have the opportunity to learn and have access to knowledge, should serve their community constructively. Investment in personal growth can be observed through outcomes such as:.

And you will have proven the phenomenon of a self—fulfilling prophecy: What you expect is what you get. Even so, we still must strive to make the changes, at least the smallest one, those on the personal level. Some of them will be small as a baby elephant who is holding the Sun with his small legs. And knowing all of this, maybe we can change the world through a change of our first assumptions about the person who is sitting next to us.

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