Synthesis Question: Political Language Is The Basis Of All Human Communication

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Synthesis Question: Political Language Is The Basis Of All Human Communication



Francis Weed Essay: Open Insubordination And Criticism Future 31, England and Gibbs reflective cycle 1988 and the Social Anxiety Disorders In Silver Linings Playbook States. Eastern Christian Embracing Community Analysis, Larry W. We also identified geography as a key feature of gibbs reflective cycle 1988 to health care. It is also referred as the medium through which message transmitted.

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Species-specific behavioral traits of humans can be sorted into three main groups. First is the group of social behavior patterns, second is the group of various mechanisms of behavior-synchronization and the third one is the activities of construction. These three groups of traits are not isolated. There are many human behavior patterns in which single traits influence and complement each other and act in an integrated framework. Therefore it is better to call them the 'human behavior-complex'. In the following list I present the components of the complex without detailed discussion and next I deal with the possible evolutionary emergence of the complex.

The major challenge for the evolutionary theory is how could we explain the emergence of the species specific human behavioral traits by the various models of natural selection and is it possible to render a special sequence to the appearance of the various traits? The first group of the behavior-complex formed around group life and refers to a particular common aspect of the various traits that is the link to group density. After the separation from the apes, members of the Homo lines were able and compelled to tolerate the continuous close presence of the other group members. This trait is only weakly present in our closest relative, the chimps, which live in small fission-fusion type groups but spend a considerable part of their time alone or together with their young Mcgrew It would be difficult to guess the exact time of the significant increase of group density but it had to happen, probably already in the habilines and it increased more in the erectines and later in the sapiens.

If, because of any reason, group density had increased then the necessary appearance of the other components of the human behavior complex could be inferred on the basis of ethological considerations. The size of the bands of the group societies during the early phase of cultural evolution is estimated to be Dunbar These groups can be characterized by intensive face to face social relations. Members of these groups intimately know each other. They have direct, personal experiences about the personality and behavior of the fellow members in different situations. It is also known that the primary groups were settled at least for part of the year. Settlement and high group density are rendered under several behavioral conditions and they have important consequences.

The first and most important condition is that high group density can be formed if and only if the intra-group aggression is lowered considerably because high level of aggression disperse the group. Our Homo ancestors had to tolerate the physical closeness and they had to eliminate most of the sources of conflicts that lead to aggression. The most important ones are the aggression connected to food distribution and sex.

In difference from his relatives man is willing to share his food. Of course, ape mothers also share their food with their young and food sharing occurs sometimes between male and female dyads but the human type of frequent food sharing, involving not only relatives is a species-specific biological trait. Our species, similarly to the most developed social carnivores, is able to acquire and share food in common cooperative actions.

Food sharing could be compelled by the rarity of food near the settlement of larger groups. If larger group must be provided for, division of labor is necessary and not everybody must equally contribute to food gathering of hunting. Cooperation or some other form of common group activity can be observed among the highly social species. But in these cases the cooperation is mostly genetically determined and learning only modifies the patterns of inborn cooperative tendencies. Animal cooperation is always a parallel activity, that is, all individuals want to perform the same basic action, but if they are together they can tolerate the contribution of each other and perform tasks according to their positions in the given situation.

Human cooperation is always complementary type Reynolds This means that the task is decomposed hierarchically to smaller parts, roles, plans and alternatives are prepared before the action and the members of the group assign these to each other. Therefore human activity serves a predetermined common goal. Another condition of the formation of high-density groups is the decrease of the sexual rivalry among males because if it remains high then the frequent conflicts break up the group and makes the division of labor impossible. This problem has been solved by the decrease of the polygamous tendencies of our relatives and with the emergence of monogamy and pair bonding. Human groups are characterized by an entirely new property: loyalty.

Relations of animals to their groups are characterized by their relations to individual group members. According to our knowledge animal minds are not able to recognize their groups as an entity independently form their members. The ability of the human mind to make abstractions made this possible. Human groups are individual entities, their languages, customs, traditions distinguish them. The basis of the second group of the new characters, which exist also only in man, is quite a few mechanisms serving the synchronization of the activity of group members.

Such is the ability to imitate. That property of man that he is willing to copy behavior patterns observed without any reward or a goal which very seldom occurs in its pure form in the animal kingdom. In most of the cases imitation is not conscious. Usually, copying is not exact, but concerns some parts of a complex behavior form or just taking a few characteristic elements from it. Imitation exists in all human cultures. Susceptibility to hypnosis also belongs to this group, enabling control of one another by means of a close emotional bond and, according to recent findings, this is not a unidirectional communicational channel but a bilateral one.

CIS appeared either in overt movements like joint movements of the limbs when the subject performed motor suggestions and postures e. These movements were involuntary and out of awareness. The question also could arise whether there is an adaptive value of the special human trait of hypnotic susceptibility and if there is then what is its basis. In my opinion, hypnotic susceptibility might have evolved as a mechanism for concerting actions of cooperating individuals. It has been a tool to synchronize brain models by non-linguistic means for hominid groups and in that way promote cooperation for a given complex task. Well-founded hypotheses exist which suggest the appearance of biological communication mechanisms enabling the synchronization and planning of group actions well before the advent of language.

In addition, an extension is the ability of humans to judge intention and emotional state of conspecifics based on the sub-linguistic characteristics of human vocalization like intonation, melody and rhythm of speech Eibl-Eibesfeldt Another such mechanism peculiar to humans is the empathetic ability, which enables man to sense the motivational state of his mates. Out of these forms of emotional communication grows the making of rhythmic noises, chanting and primitive music, rhythmic movements, dances and rites. All these help closely synchronize the emotional and mental states of individuals in the group, facilitating the emergence of a unified will and its coherent execution. They fulfill the role of a primitive form of language, denoting and differentiating objects and concepts, as well as synchronizing actions and defining individual roles.

A very important mechanism for synchronization of group behavior is the rule-following behavior of man. Our species is attracted by group norms, verbal or written rules at every level of social existence. At the simplest level rule following is a behavior tool for minimizing conflicts. To achieve such effect we do not need formulated rules. Rule following is closely connected to the rank order of the group. The ethological ability of man to form and keep a rank order is transformed to a new organizational level by rule following. Positions in human groups correspond to personal physical power only in the most primitive ones.

Groups, which have culture and language, have behavior rules to define higher positions. A leader of a group or tribe usually does not have to fight physically for his position because the ideas connected to leadership embody rules, which control acquiring, and maintenance of the various positions. It is important to recognize an other connection between rank order and rule following. If animals standing face to face than the dominant one takes its share or fulfils its will. Takes food, female, sleeping place etc. When a man follows a rule he is obeying to a depersonalized dominance.

We call it as rule dominance. The dominant individual is substituted with a socially accepted rule and the submissive person performs the order embodied in the rule. The source of the command in the various social ideas is frequently personalized by the ancestors, or gods, but for the average man it is convincing if something 'must be done' in a certain way. Obedience can easily be achieved by just mentioning that rules exist. Construction and the compulsion of communication. In the third group of the new characters belong such seemingly different ones as language using, tool making and using, and abstract thought. Nevertheless, all of these can be inferred from a special kind of constructive ability, which exist in the animal kingdom only in the most proto forms.

This ability is expressed in that man's brain is able to reduce a situation through his senses to its components to analyze it and after the analysis to construct new structures, new wholes. With the help of construction man is able to displace phenomena in space and time, change relationships, recognize causal relations and designing new ones. Construction ability is appearing in abstract thinking, language using, and making of artifacts, in behavior and even in forming the social structure of the group.

With the help of construction man creates linguistic models of his environment and of his group. Larger part of rules controlling the activity of human groups exists only in linguistic models; they can be formulated only in them. The humanization of the Homo groups can not be separated from the evolution of language. Tool- and artifact-making are an other expression of the construction ability. Some of the animals are also attracted to objects and primitive forms of tool using are also occuring Macgrew , but these are rare. Although there is no known human culture without the use of some artifacts.

Man attraction to objects is biologically determined Morris Anthropological hypotheses suggest a definitive and direct correspondence between tool-making, tool-using and man's use of language Hewes Artifacts, language, abstract thoughts and rule systems are parts of an unseparable system. Language as a rule system and form of thoughts describing objects is a good example. Constructive ability also has a communicative function, its role can be evaluated only if its relation to animal communication is clarified. According to the ethological definition 'communication is an action of an animal which changes the probability distribution of the behavior pattern of a conspecific in a way that is adaptive for the first or both'.

There is no message, sign, understanding or meaning in this definition, which are the concepts one thinks of when communication is considered. Unfortunately these concepts originated from the highly developed human communication forms, language in the first place and they are only metaphors as components of explanatory models in ethology. If we say a courting peacock gives a love massage to its hen by its courting, this is not true at all. It is only a reference to a similar behavior, which we know well in the case of ourselves. Courting behavior is a physiological phenomena which can be activated by every hen in the mating season and we call it 'courting' just because we also have a behavior similar in function.

Animal communication, because it is called such, is a group of controlling mechanisms which allows the recognition of individuals, controls aggression and sex, it helps to maintain contact and avoid predators etc. All of these functions are provided without conscious intention. True communication appeared in man with sender and receiver, message and meaning. It appears as the transfer of a conceptual construction from one to an other mind. The primary force helping the emergence of this new property could be the density increase of the early Homo groups.

Living together in continuous face to face situations, they needed not only regulatory mechanisms concerning aggression and sex or signaling danger but tools for receiving information about the intentions, and even about the fine details of the mental states of their group mates. This urge, which can be called 'compulsion to communicate', helped to concert the actions of individuals in the interests of the whole group. True communication occurs only if intentionality, and in the case of man this is so, is clearly contributing. That is the wish of the sender to influence the mental state of the receiver and the receiver intention to listen to the sender.

Intentional communication has not started with man of course. Its primitive occasions can be found among animals. When chimps stretch their hands to the direction of a provider or to a dominant one, they are requesting. Here the joint attention and recognition of the intention are already appearing. Behavior patterns gain true communicative functions if they appear in the representation or models of the environment of the brain as components.

If the signal influences the receiver model only as an environmental event and the receiver's brain makes a representation of it and gives it a new function in its own model then there is no any correspondence between the two models. Therefore, we can estimate the measure of correspondence. For example: ants in a dangerous situation release a danger signaling pheromone. This act also influences their own internal state and start to initiate various escape or fighting behavior components depending on the concentration of the pheromone. The effect of the released pheromone is the same on the nearby conspecifics; it induces the same escape or fighting patterns.

In case of inherited signals, the mechanism is usually similar. This type of communication was called type I communication. In an other example, a master teaches his dog to obey to the signal 'sit". In this case, the correspondence between the models of the dog and man is low. For the man "to sit" is an abstract concept, which originally has a very weak connection with this particular dog if only that it is an animal, which can also sit.

For the dog, the sit vocalization at first is a nonsense but during the training, it learned that it has to sit because of the reward or punishment. His brain constructed a new model version of the environment in which the vocalization 'sit' as the key for reward joins to the representation of its master and with its own sitting behavior. If appropriate keys are given, animals merely perform the learned instructions. At the beginning of the training, the level of correspondence was 0 and somewhat increased during it and its exact measure is difficult to determine. Communication of such form was called type II communication.

Among animals, both are available. The process in which a component of a communicative system acquires a new function is the same as the process of interpretation in the theory of human communication. It is also clear what is the message, an other frequently used concept in this framework. The message is the function of the signal in the brain's model of the sender. But the model making of the brain is a very complex dynamic process therefore it is possible that a particular component may have more than one functions. The function depends on the part of the model in which the function is performed.

This is the context of the message, which influences the interpretation. The song of a male tit is very attractive for a female and it is the introductory part of the courtship but the same song is repulsive for a male competitor and is connected to aggression and territoriality. For a predator the tit song also attractive because it signals a prey. It could be entirely neutral as a background noise without any information value for an other uninterested species. From the concept of correspondence it is obvious that true communication could be based only on learning processes because the environmental model of the animal brain can be changed only by learned components. To go back to our ancestors, for them, the evolution of communication principally is the continuous increase of correspondence among them.

Therefore any mechanism, which is available for an ape organism to increase its correspondence, is also suitable as a tool for true communication and these also started to change for better communication. Such mechanisms are well known. The human face is able to communicate different messages, more precisely to express this number of different internal states Wilson This is an outstanding ability among the higher animals because they can use only behavior patterns of the whole body for such purpose.

The human face is able to express emotional states: joy, surprise, fear, sorrow, shame, distaste etc. Ekman and Friesen The tone, pitch, intonation also carry emotional information; fear, wonder, anxiety, irony, erotica, resignation could be inferred from them Sedlacek and Synchra Expression of emotions seems to be rather universal even if certain forms are suppressed in certain cultures.

Concerning the social function of the expression of emotions it is possible that they serve to signal the motivation behind them. Expression of an emotion could be a very important predictor for the action of the sender in the next moment. Therefore contribution in common actions or the refusal of it could be important information of the emotional communication Fridlund These fine expressive acts only have a function in the case of a species in which the individuals are constantly monitoring the mind states of their conspecifics. The human race is such a species. A large part of our everyday activity concerns the observations of the others or being in the center of attention. For humans it is extremely important to know what the others are thinking, planning, and dreaming.

Communication with the whole body. Besides expressing emotions, using our motor system to communicate, that is using mimetics might be the most important tool for early communication Donald This ability of us is based on imitation, but in the appropriate context mimics can communicate rather complex thoughts. According to Donald, the brain of apes uses an 'episodic' kind of representation and their brains are unable to 're-represent' information free of modality and context.

Everything is bound to the direct experiences. He thinks even the habilines could not do better in the Homo lineage. But the more complex tools, bigger brains and larger groups of the erectines suggest that a new brain mechanism emerged which was able to make secondary representations and mimetics. Donald calls the culture of erectines 'mimetics cultures'. We can add to these that before mimetics appeared human specific forms of social attraction and group bonding must have preceded because only these evoked compulsion to communicate. For mimetics a conscious self-induced representation in the brain is necessary which is not linguistic yet but intentional, communicative in nature. Joining representation and communication is the essence of this new trait.

A mimic tries to imitate a characteristic feature of the imitated animal or group mate in order to communicate. He makes a new representation in the brain, whose sole function is communication. Mimics could embody many actions and modalities: voice, tone, face expressions this is the function of emotional expressions , movements of the eyes, movement of hands and feet and the positions of the whole body. The mimic communicates not only a concrete object or person or an event but also a story. The story is not a signal which one can understand, and then choose to ignore it or not. The story is occurring in time, someone does something to somebody. The units of the story have meaning only in relation to the whole event. The story must be interpreted and we have to be involved in it with our emotions and empathy.

Mimetics play is very important even nowadays; it is the source of the arts. During mimetics the played and perceived act is not the same with the one it represents therefore it is necessary to separate reality and symbols in the interpretation. This separation is the first step to abstraction. A mimetic act can be enjoyed and played again several times. During the repetitions the component actions can be simplified, they might become communicative signals, parts of rituals or everyday communication.

Parts, which broke the heart perhaps, transferred to an other play and remain in the memory of the group as symbols of important events; death, birth, grief or joy. These properties of mimetic skill can lead to high differentiation among the groups. The mimetic symbols can evolve separately in each group. Mimetic cultures start to isolate themselves in this way which further enhances the effects of group selection. With mimetic skill, a communication system emerges which has an almost infinite component pool and its usage needs a construction ability to create the complex stories from the components. Nevertheless there is no syntax in it unless we regard the dramaturgy of the stories as such. For mimetics the personal construction is necessary but to be understood the interpretation of the whole group is also needed.

Channel is the means through which communication happen. The message is sent and received through the channel. It is also referred as the medium through which message transmitted. The speech and vision are the channels in a face to face communication whereas the cable or electromagnetic waves in a communication through telephone. Then cop drove closer blows the siren, this time Sam listened and stopped his car. The scope is now broad that it covers more scopes. The context of communication is the emotional feeling, climate conditions, location e.

Communication as we know is the process of encoding and deciphering of information. In other words, it is the creation of shared meaning either from a sender to a receiver or vise -versa. Interpersonal communication is a communication between persons i. This was such a good breakdown of Interpersonal Communication s taking place. It helped me to look at how communicating can be impacted by many different influences. Eyeopener for a novice. Thank you. I receive a better understanding of interpersonal communication.

Next post: Rorschach Experiments. Previous post: Propaganda Model. Interpersonal Communication in Interpersonal Communication. Idowu Olaoluwa Joshua December 22, , pm. Javier Navarro January 5, , am. Thanks, this information give me a context about this topic! Sandra S Lynn November 3, , am. It was nice to read the format of the interpersonal communication. Pheriya Muniandy February 26, , pm. Alize September 14, , am. O'neil Watt September 14, , am. Yashecia Amanda Higgins September 29, , am.

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