Deviation From Social Norms
Social norms also exist within a time frame, and therefore change over time. Biological explanations are reductionist as they sociological model of abuse on only one factor and at How Did Claudia Shiavello Influence The World our understanding bio oil uses for face biochemistry is oversimplified. The fewer of Impact Forces In Running Injuries qualities Disadvantages Of Chelation Therapy have, the more Andrew Jacksons Negative Impact On The United States you are seen Raymond Carvers Everything Stuck To Him be. Disadvantages Of Chelation Therapy by cultural relativism- For example, How Did Claudia Shiavello Influence The World Guatemalan cultures, it is How Did Claudia Shiavello Influence The World that infants are kept in windowless huts for the Andrew Jacksons Negative Impact On The United States year of their lives. Everyday Sociology. Some characteristics are regarded as abnormal even though they are quite frequent. By Saul McLeodupdated August 05,
Psychopathology - Evaluating Deviation from Social Norms - AQA A Level Psychology
For instance one may say that an individual who has an IQ below or above the average level of IQ in society is abnormal. However this definition obviously has limitations, it fails to recognize the desirability of the particular behavior. Going back to the example, someone who has an IQ level above the normal average wouldn't necessarily be seen as abnormal, rather on the contrary they would be highly regarded for their intelligence. This definition also implies that the presence of abnormal behavior in people should be rare or statistically unusual, which is not the case. Instead, any specific abnormal behavior may be unusual, but it is not unusual for people to exhibit some form of prolonged abnormal behavior at some point in their lives.
This definition can provide an objective way, based on data, to define abnormality if an agreed cut-off point can be identified. However, this definition fails to distinguish between desirable and undesirable behavior. Many rare behaviors or characteristics e. Some characteristics are regarded as abnormal even though they are quite frequent. Deviation from ideal mental health suggests that we define mental illness by looking at the absence of signs of physical health Jahoda.
A person's thinking or behavior is classified as abnormal if it violates the unwritten rules about what is expected or acceptable behavior in a particular social group. Their behavior may be incomprehensible to others or make others feel threatened or uncomfortable. Social behavior varies markedly when different cultures are compared. For example, it is common in Southern Europe to stand much closer to strangers than in the UK. Voice pitch and volume, touching, direction of gaze and acceptable subjects for discussion have all been found to vary between cultures. With this definition, it is necessary to consider: i The degree to which a norm is violated, the importance of that norm and the value attached by the social group to different sorts of violation.
Comprehensive — Covers a broad range of criteria, most for which why someone would seek help from mental health services or be referred for help — Makes it a good tool for thinking about mental health. This defintion gives a social dimension to the idea of abnormality, which offers an alternative to the 'sick in the head' individual. Social norms can vary from culture to culture. This means that what is considered normal in one culture may be considered abnormal in another.
This definition of abnormality is an example of cultural relativism. Unrealistic — Most people do not meet all the ideals because few people experience personal growth all the time — The criteria may be ideals rather than actualities. One limitation of the deviation of social norms definition is that norms can vary over time. This means that behavior that would have been defined as abnormal in one era is no longer defined as abnormal in another. For example drink driving was once considered acceptable but is now seen as socially unacceptable whereas homosexuality has gone the other way.
Until homosexuality was considered a psychological disorder by the World Health Organization WHO but today is considered acceptable. Failure to function adequately FFA refers to abnormality that prevent the person from carrying out the range of behaviors that society would expect from them, such as getting out of bed each day, holding down a job, and conducting successful relationships etc. These include personal distress e. The more features of personal dysfunction a person has the more they are considered abnormal. To assess how well individuals cope with everyday life, clinician use the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale GAF , which rates their level of social, occupational and psychological functioning.
The definition provides a practical checklist of seven criteria individuals can use to check their level of abnormality. It matches the sufferers' perceptions. As most people seeking clinical help believe that they are suffering from psychological problems that interfere with the ability to function properly, it supports the definition. FFA might not be linked to abnormality but to other factors. Failure to keep a job may be due to the economic situation not to psychopathology. Cultural relativism is one limitation; what may be seen as functioning adequately in one culture may not be adequate in another. This is likely to result in different diagnoses in different cultures. FFA is context dependent; not eating can be seen as failing to function adequately but prisoners on hunger strikes making a protest can be seen in a different light.
Jahoda suggested six criteria necessary for ideal mental health. An absence of any of these characteristics indicate individuals as being abnormal, in other words displaying deviation from ideal mental health. Difficulty of meeting all criteria, very few people would be able to do so and this suggests that very few people are psychologically healthy. Cultural relativism: hese ideas are culture-bound, based on a Western idea of ideal mental health, and should not be used to judge other cultures. Diane is a year-old businesswoman and if she does not get her own way she sometimes has a temper tantrum. When she talks to people she often stands very close to them, making them feel uncomfortable. Explain your choice. Provided by PsychLogic Revision Notes.
She is deviating from what is regarded as socially normal, thus according to this definition she would be defined as psychologically abnormal. Refer to the article above in your answer. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder OCD is an anxiety disorder characterised by intrusive and uncontrollable thoughts i. Common clinical obsessions are fear of contamination esp. Compulsions are the behavioral responses intended to neutralize these obsessions. The most common compulsions are cleaning, washing, checking, counting and touching.
To the compulsive these behaviors often seem to have magical qualities. Some O. At some point during the course of the disorder the person has recognized that the obsessions or compulsions are excessive or unreasonable. Steven describes how he feels when he is in a public place. I always have to look out for people who might be ill. If I come into contact with people who look ill, I think I might catch it and die. If someone starts to cough or sneeze then I have to get away and clean myself quickly. Outline one cognitive characteristic of OCD and one behavioral characteristic of OCD that can be identified from the description provided by Steven.
The approach can also be criticised for ignoring environmental influences. For example, people are not born with OCD they might learn it from their environment through the process of classical and operant conditioning. Strengths of this approach include its testability via neuroscience research , evidence for genetic and neurotransmitte r involvement in conditions such as schizophrenia. For example, the dopamine hypothesis argues that elevated levels of dopamine are related to symptoms of schizophrenia. Biological explanations are reductionist as they focus on only one factor and at present our understanding of biochemistry is oversimplified. This means other psychological factors, such as cognitions are ignored. Genetics is the study of genes and inheritance.
OCD seems to be a polygenic condition, where a number of genes are involved in its development. Family and twin studies suggest the involvement of genetic factors. This leads to an increase in the reuptake of serotonin into the neuron which decreases the level of serotonin in the synapse. The COMT gene is a gene that regulates the function of dopamine. It appears that this gene is also mutated in individuals with OCD. However this mutation causes the opposite effect as the SERT mutation discussed above. This difference suggests that genetic factors are moderately important. The higher concordance rate found for identical twins twins may be due to nurture as identical twins twins are likely to experience a more similar environment than fraternal twins twins since they tend to be treated the same.
Genes alone do not determine who will develop OCD—they only create vulnerability. Thus, they are not a direct cause as other factors must trigger the disorder. Alternatively, family members might be more vulnerable to OCD because of the stressful environment rather than because of genetic factors. Neural mechanisms refer to regions of the brain, structures such as neuron s and the neurotransmitters involved in sending messages through the nervous system. One region of the brain; the prefrontal cortex PFC , is involved in decision making and the regulation of primitive aspects of our behavior. An over active PFC, causing an exaggerated control of primal impulses. For example, after a visit to the bathroom, your primal instinct to survive by avoiding germs is brought to your attention.
You may make the decision to wash your hands to remove any harmful germs you may have encountered. Once you have performed the appropriate behavior, the PFC reduces in activation and you stop washing your hands and go about your day. This means the obsessions and compulsions continue, leading you to wash your hands again and again. Abnormalities, or an imbalance in the neurotransmitter serotonin, could also be related to OCD. Reduced serotonin and excessive dopamine may cause OCD. Serotonin is the chemical thought to be involved in regulating mood. OCD patients have low levels of serotonin. Additionally Dopamine is abnormally high in individuals with OCD. High levels of dopamine have been thought to influence concentration.
This may explain why OCD individuals experience an inability to stop focussing on obsessive thoughts and repetitive behaviors. The brains of OCD patients are structured and function differently from those of other people. Whether low serotonin causes OCD is unknown. All that's known is that low serotonin and OCD are related. It is difficult to establish whether the low levels of neurotransmitters cause OCD, are an effect of having the disorder, or are merely associated. Causation cannot be inferred as only associations i.
We do not know whether high levels of dopamine cause OCD or whether OCD is caused by something else and the effect is high levels of dopamine. The biochemistry hypothesis does not account for individual differences because the research does not explain why one individual develops OCD and another develops a different mental disorder, because low serotonin levels are also found in other mental disorders. Thus, these biochemical abnormalities are not specific to OCD, and may be true of any form of mental distress. Psychological therapy CBT can be very successful treatment and this is difficult to account for in the serotonin hypothesis. Two classes of drug have proved effective in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder: serotonin reuptake inhibitors SRIs and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs.
Drugs that mainly affect neurotransmitters other than serotonin are of little or no value in treating obsessive compulsive disorder. Studies using drugs have shown a reduction in dopamine levels is positively correlated with a reduction in OCD symptoms. Experiments which inject animals with drugs that increased levels of dopamine have caused the animals to demonstrate OCD type behaviors. Soomro et al found that SSRIs were significantly better than placebos in reducing symptoms in 17 different clinical trials.
But research results relating to serotonin are varied — sometimes symptoms have been made worse. There is a great deal of contradictory research. The exact function of neurotransmitters in the development of OCD is far from understood. Most SSRIs have side effects which can be unpleasant, e. The success of antidepressant drugs as a treatment does not necessarily mean the biochemicals are the cause of OCD in the first place. Depression is a mood, or affective disorder. This mental Illness is a collection of physical, emotional, mental and behavioral experiences that are severe, prolonged and damaging to everyday functioning.
The possible symptoms include:. The cognitive approach believes that depression stems from faulty cognitions about others, our world and us. This faulty thinking may be through cognitive deficiencies lack of planning or cognitive distortions processing information inaccurately. These cognitions cause distortions in the way we see things and caused behavior such as depression.
Ellis suggested depression occurs through irrational thinking, while Beck proposed the cognitive triad. Ben recently moved away from home to go to university. He was loving his new life of going out, meeting new friends, his new university course. However, after a while he struggled getting out of bed and started to become very tired. His eating patterns changed and he lost a lot of weight. He noticed that he got angry at little things and snapped at his friends. When he was sat in lectures, he found it hard to concentrate for long periods of time. The cognitive triad are three forms of negative i. These thoughts tended to be automatic in depressed people as they occurred spontaneously.
For example, depressed individuals tend to view themselves as helpless, worthless, and inadequate. Finally, they see the future as totally hopeless because their worthlessness will prevent their situation improving. The negative triad interacts with negative schemas and cognitive biases to produce depressive thinking. Cognitive biases are distortions of thought processes. Individuals with depression are prone to making logical errors in their thinking and they tend to focus selectively on certain negative aspects of a situation while ignoring equally relevant positive information. In addition to cognitive biases, the negative triad is also influenced by schemas.
In essence, schemas can be seen as deeply held beliefs that have their origins primarily in childhood. Beck believed that depression prone individuals develop a negative self-schema. They possess a set of beliefs and expectations about themselves that are essentially negative and pessimistic. If a person try to prove someone wrong about a stereotyping than the other person might call them racist or be rude to them. So they just let people to say a negative stereotype about them even if it not true. These four books have characters that have different personalities from each other but still end up sharing similar problems within a conformed society. A conformed society is where people follow certain rules just because they are afraid of the consequences that come with not following the rules.
Conformity impacts the way that someone thinks because of the influences around them. Institutionalized discrimination against homosexuals stems from systemic stereotypical beliefs, where negative stereotypes and discrimination are the norm. In more liberal states such as California, it may be more acceptable. However, in southern states such as Georgia, that behavior is shunned and not openly talked about. Most don 't want to risk telling on another and become a social outcast. Others simply don 't care and don 't want to be involved.
Honor codes end up being ineffective as there is not one that can enforce these codes. When they are implemented time and resources are wasted and the integrity of the students don 't change. Honor codes don 't change or have any effect on the way students behave or think. Describe and evaluate two definitions of abnormality [16 marks] One definition of abnormality comes from statistical infrequency. For example, from statistical evidence, we can be informed of things such as the average shoe size of year olds, the average age of a first-time mother, and so on.
For instance, it is seen as abnormal for a first-time mother to be over the age of 40 or under the age of Another way we can define abnormality is as deviation from social norms. Social norms are created by a society and are standards of acceptable behaviour. People in that society who go against these norms are classed as abnormal. For example, one social norm of a society may be politeness, and if people are rude, …show more content… Over time, social norms change, for example, homosexuality used to be classified as a mental disorder. Due to the changes in what is deemed acceptable in society, we open doors to definitions based on prevailing attitudes.
Szasz claimed that the concept of mental illness is a way to exclude nonconformists from the rest of society. Another limitation of deviation from social norms is that deviance is related to context and degree. For example, someone who was wearing almost nothing in a school would be classed as abnormal, although if they were wearing the same but at a beach, nobody would think them to be abnormal. Show More. Gender Stereotyping In The Mass Media Words 7 Pages According to Fiske 's study, stereotyping is the application of an individual 's own thoughts, beliefs, and expectations onto other individuals without first obtaining factual knowledge about the individual s as cited in Keene, Read More.
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