Importance Of Informal Social Control

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Importance Of Informal Social Control

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In socialist society, social control reinforces social relations and promotes social development. The building of communism presupposes the development of various forms of social control, and above all, of those founded on the increasing social activity of the workers. State forms of social control are also of great importance. Quality control in industry, exercised by technical control departments, is also of great importance. Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia It might be outdated or ideologically biased. Marx and F. Engels, Soch. Engels, F. Proiskhozhdenie semi, chastnoi sobstvennosti i gosudarstva. Lenin, V. Gosudarstvo i revoliutsiia. Szczepanski, J.

Elementarnye poniatiia sotsiologii. Moscow, Translated from Polish. Roucek, J. Social Control. Princeton, N. Landis, P. Philadelphia-New York-Chicago, The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition All rights reserved. Mentioned in? Administration and Management Becker, Howard S. Bellah, Robert Neelly Bernstein, Basil caste Clark, John Maurice communication community work concentration camp conformity control criminology delinquent drift deviance deviance amplification discipline Economic Management eugenics free wage labour. References in periodicals archive? Despite the fact that the Constitution includes the function of Transparency and Social Control as a means to curb corruption, in the last decade the indices that measure this evil have not dropped, as Ecuador ranks th out of countries; The explanation for this contradiction can be found in the fact that the aforementioned function has not been able to reach citizens with the necessary information to exercise the oversight power contemplated in the Constitution.

Use of the neutrosophic IADOV technique to diagnose the real state of citizen participation and social control, exercised by young people in Ecuador. Thus, in view of these concessions, as well as the 'war of position' waged in civil society that is intended to besiege the state, the social control exerted by the subaltern classes is located. Social control in the sectors of sanitation and health: a comparative analysis based on the Brazilian legal framework. When referring to the concept of social control in Brazil, it is common for authors to link it to the theme of popular participation. Conrad 9 argues that psychoactive medication under the influence of pharmaceutical companies is a form of medical social control. The context of individual suffering needs to be considered.

Each item was rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly agree 1 to strongly disagree 5. The working version of the scale of PA-related informal social control was tested via face-to-face cognitive interviews on a sample of Chinese-speaking 20 primary caregivers of Hong Kong pre-schoolers recruited from and interviewed at kindergartens and MCHCs of the Department of Health in August Moreover, participants in NGT sessions were contacted and invited to take part in this stage. As a result, six out of the 20 participants took part in both NGT sessions and cognitive interviews. Eligibility criteria and recruitment procedures for this study component were identical to those of the NGT sessions. Cognitive interviews are a method developed by Tourangeau [[ 32 ]] which consist of the following processes: 1 comprehension of the question; 2 retrieval of relevant information from memory; 3 decision-making; and, 4 responding.

Cognitive interviews help the interviewer to understand what a respondent believes a question is asking, including the meaning of words and phrases e. The procedure for the cognitive interviews was standardized in the form of scripts that the interviewer had to follow. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The information gathered during the cognitive interviews was used to modify the wording of the items when necessary and create a final version to be used in the next stage of the scale development shown in Table 2. All items were retained in the final version of the scale after considering the results from the cognitive interviews, which led to slight rewording of a few items. A quantitative study was conducted to assess the test-retest reliability of the items included in the newly-developed working version of the scale of PA-related informal social control.

Sixty-one participants none of whom had participated in the qualitative stage of the study were recruited from kindergartens and MCHCs of the Department of Health in Participants were included if, in the pre-screening questionnaire, they identified themselves as the parent or primary caregiver of at least one 3—5 year-old Chinese-speaking child living in Hong Kong. Exclusion and inclusion criteria were the same as those for the qualitative components of the study. Eligible participants provided informed written consent. They were asked to complete a demographic survey and the newly-developed self-administered paper-and-pen working version of the PA-related informal social control scale at their convenience, within 7 days of receipt of the survey first assessment T1.

The scale was administered again a week after the completion of the first survey T2. To establish whether there was a significant change on average scores on the items and subscales from T1 to T2, paired t-tests were performed. The relative percentages of shifts in responses to items were also computed to gain more detailed insight into the test-retest reliability of the individual items. Data were analysed using the SPSS statistical software package version Thirteen items generated during the NGT sessions and nine items generated by the panel of experts were included in a first working version of the scale of PA-related informal social control Table 2.

The average score on two items significantly increased across time, as did the total composite score, but only slightly Table 2. Most participants did not change their responses or changed them by one unit across time. The test-retest reliability of this subscale was excellent, as was its internal consistency. These items also impacted negatively on the internal consistency of the subscale. All items except the two excluded positively contributed to the internal consistency of this subscale.

Of the retained items, only one showed significant changes in average scores from T1 to T2. The test-retest reliability of this subscale was substantial and internal consistency acceptable at both time points. Although parents enlisted personal involvement, supervision, and civic engagement as relevant aspects of PA-related informal social control, they were not seen to be as important and prevalent as educating and assisting children. All final subscales of informal social control showed acceptable levels of internal consistency. Such items were introduced by a panel of experts based on prior research acknowledging the importance of crime and traffic safety for engagement in PA [[ 18 ],[ 36 ]], and of civic engagement and supervision as ways for residents to collectively address such problems [[ 21 ]].

Yet, in the quantitative component of this study, participants tended to agree rather than disagree that neighbours would engage in activities that address crime i. This indicates that although crime and traffic safety may not be perceived as major safety issues, Hong Kong parents of preschool children, in general, maintain that residents of their neighbourhood would attempt to actively address these problems if needed.

This suggests that Chinese parents of pre-schoolers in Hong Kong maintain that neighbours may substantially contribute to creating safe neighbourhood environments for children by educating them about how to behave properly in the community and by assisting them in learning skills that will enhance the level of personal safety. This finding is in line with the content of extant general, non-PA specific child-centred measures of informal social support that consider assisting children in need and stopping acts of misbehaviour as essential components of the construct of informal social support [[ 30 ],[ 39 ]]. Specifically, previous studies have shown that such behaviours contribute to more positive parental perceptions of environmental safety and, thus, influence parental choices of places where children engage in PA [[ 40 ],[ 41 ]].

These items were less frequently endorsed by parents than items gauging educating and assisting neighbourhood children in developing skills and behaviours contributing to personal safety. This indicates that Hong Kong Chinese adults may, in general, seldom participate in endeavours aimed at neighbourhood-level policy changes, although this type of collective behaviour has been shown to contribute to better community cohesion and interpersonal connections in Western populations [[ 42 ]]. The greater emphasis on enhancing neighbourhood safety by shaping the behaviour of young children rather than trying to change the neighbourhood environment through civic engagement observed in this sample may be attributable to the endorsement of a Confucian traditional philosophy typical of Chinese societies [[ 43 ]].

An important principle of the political teachings of Confucius is that harmony is achieved if all members of a society loyally perform their role as prescribed in a given hierarchy [[ 43 ]]. Although Chinese societies have made considerable progress towards democracy and greater civic participation, traditional Confucians values remain to a certain extent embedded in approach to life and choices of action [[ 44 ],[ 45 ]]. This scale may be also appropriate for use in other urban, developed areas of mainland China and other countries with a high proportion of Chinese residents such as Taiwan, where Confucianism has been found to influence beliefs that shape behaviour patterns and community structure to a greater extent than Buddhism and Taoism[[ 46 ]].

Unlike other qualitative methods e. The use of cognitive interviews to pilot test the newly-developed scale ensured that the items generated were clear and comprehensive. The fact that we recruited participants balanced by child gender and SES ensured that we developed a scale reflecting a wide range of opinions about aspects of PA-related child-centred informal social control in urban Chinese communities.

This study has also several limitations. Our sample consisted primarily of mothers of Hong Kong pre-school children. Another limitation of this study pertains to the fact that it focused on the test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the scale only. Future studies, in larger samples, will need to examine the factorial validity of the scale, i. The factorial structure of the scale would then also need to be cross-validated with another sample from a different geographical location in China to examine the generalizability of the scale to populations outside Hong Kong. This is an issue that remains understudied in Hong Kong as well as other geographical locations.

We hope that our newly-developed scale will stimulate research on this topic. Yet, before this can happen, further scale validation work needs to be done. Future studies will need to examine further and in greater detail the metric characteristics of the scale. Specifically, these studies will need to establish the factorial validity of the scale and cross-validate it in other samples of parents. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Article Google Scholar. Scand J Med Sci Sports. Active start: a statement of physical activity guidelines for children from birth to age 5.

Prev Med. Tucker P: The physical activity levels of preschool-aged children: a systematic review. Early Child Res Q. Hong Kong Med J. Google Scholar. Macfarlane DJ: Some disturbing trends in the level of habitual physical activity in Hong Kong primary school children: perliminary findings. Early Child Dev Care. Study on diet and physical activity arrangement in Hong Kong pre-primary institutions: a questionnaire survey.

Malina RM: Physical activity and fitness: pathways from childhood to adulthood. Am J Hum Biol. Obes Res. Health Psychol. Burdette HL, Whitaker RC: Neighborhood playgrounds, fast food restaurants, and crime: relationships to overweight in low-income preschool children. A review Health Place. Health Place. Am J Health Promot. Asian J Criminol. Kawachi I: Income inequality and health. Social epidemiology. Soc Sci Med. J Community Psychol. Child Dev. Tourangeau R: Cognitive sciences and survey methods.

Cognitive aspects of survey methodology: building a bridge between disciplines: report of the advanced research seminar on cognitive aspects of survey methodology. Edited by: Jabine TB. BMC Public Health. Am J Commun Psychol. Burdette HL, Whitaker RC: A national study of neighborhood safety, outdoor play, television viewing, and obesity in preschool children. Cohen D, Prusak L: How to invest in social capital. Harv Bus Rev.

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