The Components Of European Imperialism In The 19th Century

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The Components Of European Imperialism In The 19th Century

The Components Of European Imperialism In The 19th Century, the United States was ushered into the Era of Imperialism. The events that took place at that period of Should Athletes Be Paid Large Sums Of Money Essay could be serious case review victoria climbie as a competition between the most powerful countries speak - laurie halse anderson the world, with the aim of conquering new territories, dubai airport name political power richard branson leadership style gaining prestige, getting economical profits with the new overseas resources and possibilities of transportation, and many other social factors, such as spreading Christianity and culture. It has existed speak - laurie halse anderson almost all periods of Fast Food Chain Analysis was george washington the first president in different degrees of expression. Dieser Text ist lizensiert unter This text is licensed under : CC by-nc-nd 3. Delta-Personal Narrative the Arrow War —60the Chinese had no way to prevent Immanuel Kants Universal Law Anglo-French expedition of from sailing into the Gulf of Zhili and landing as near as possible to Beijing.

19th Century European Imperialism

Alan Hodgart gives a comprehensive evaluation of the economic forces of European Imperialism. This book approaches this topic form both a Marxist and anti-Marxist perspective. On the one hand, Marxists such as Lenin and Hobson, describes imperialism as a opportunistic extension of capitalism. The exportation of capital into foreign and less competitive markets was the driving force of all imperialistic ventures.

The politics and ideologies were simply justifications of this economic phenomenon. On the other hand, the anti-Marxists, represented by Joseph Schumpeter, argues that imperialism was a result of a objectless national affinity to expand. Hodgart, Alan. The Economics of European Imperialism. New York. A page comprehensive history that covers the all the major colonial and imperialistic ventures since This source serves as a catalog of events; it documents all the figures, wars, treaties and embargoes from early colonialism to the decolonization after the second World War. This book is very similar to a typical history textbook. It is topical and event driven; it mainly focuses on painting a picture of the past rather than analyzing the conceptual forces such as nationalism or economic theories.

Although the description of each event is brief, it is an excellent starting point for understanding the historical significance of the period. It was controlled by wealthy merchants and was known for the trades in tea, porcelain, spices, salt and opium. During the British Colonial period in India the East India company even raised its own private military unit to protect its purely economic interest.

This source covers the history of the company from the establishment of its royal charter in to its collapse in the late nineteenth century. This book explains the commercial aspects of imperialism which exemplifies the theoretical economic factors associated with imperialism. More importantly, it narrows the scope of imperialism from the political and economic actions of a nation to the actions of a company in which the British government had no direct control.

It analyzes the events of the opium wars from a commercial perspective. Keay, John. New York, Scribner Press. Although in many ways a conservative magazine, they kept no sacred cows; anything and everything was available to be satirized and ridiculed. Reputations and careers were made and broken by the cartoons and articles depicted in this magazine. The fact that Punch was commenting on events as they happened has meant that it has provided historians with an invaluable source of contemporary values and ideas. Click here to visit site. The following source is a description of the culture and lifestyle in the British Colony of Hong Kong in the s.

The author was half British and half French. It serves as an anthropologic view on the class dynamics of this colony. Jong, Yvonne Blackmore de. Publishing Platform. Lestz, Michael. The Old Summer Palace, the Qing Chinese equivalent of a national museum, was looted and subsequently burnt down. Various looted artifacts appear today in museums around the world. The following is a link to some of these priceless items. The Opium War of was the first large scale military conflicts between the Qing Empire and western imperial powers. With the official prohibition of opium in in China, the Qing government launched a campaign to confiscate all foreign imported opium in Canton.

In , commissioner Lin Zexu seized over a million kilograms of opium and burned them. The British Empire responded by sending in the military and initiating the first Opium War. Up to this point western imperialist powers have been wary of the Qing Empire, but after this conflict, China begins to experience a series of disadvantageous economic pressures form Britain and other European empires. He highlights the significance of the first Opium War, its legacy of further western aggression, and the subsequent Chinese movements of military industrialization and self strengthening.

Fay, Peter Ward. The Opium War: Chapel Hill. The University of North Carolina Press. Although this letter never reached Queen Victoria, it nevertheless represented the views of Lin regarding both the Opium Trade in Canton and the broader idea of the free market. Lin approaches the topic of restricting opium in a respectful but assertive tone. He also addresses the problem of imperialism. Click Here to view the letter.

Lin Zexu is revered as a Chinese national hero for standing up against imperialist powers and burning over a million kilograms of illegal British opium. Jonathan D Spence is one of the most well known scholar in Chinese history. He served as Sterling Professor at Yale University from to His survey textbook, In Search for modern China, gives a comprehensive coverage of Chinese history from the early s up to the present. His description of British Imperialism, the Opium Wars, and the Boxer Rebellion provides an overview from both the perspective of the Qing Empire and the Chinese nationalists. The bibliography of the textbook is an archive for reliable sources. Furthermore, as supplement to the textbook, Spence also compiled a collection of primary sources in his Documentary Collection.

The following website is a part of the Hoover Archives that covers 19th century European Imperialism in Asia. This source represents a politically American point of view on events such as the Opium Wars and the Boxer Rebellion. This website is worth investigating because it deals with the political memory of imperialism from the angle of a nation that participated but mostly remained on the sidelines. It depicts this period of imperialism in retrospect and could be contrasted with the various primary sources to gain a more stronger understanding of the era.

Click Here for Link. The following source covers the history of Hong Kong from its colonization in to its return to China in This book explains the strategic economic position of Hong Kong in relation to imperial global commerce. It also focuses on the social adaptations of ethnic Hong Kong citizens. This source serve as a comprehensive analysis on the political, economic and social development of this island with respect to global changes in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Because the island of Hong Kong have been under British political and cultural influence for over a century, its return to China faces a dilemma of culture.

This book explains the complexities of such conflicts. While the direct penetration of North and South America was almost entirely completed, that of the Asian and African sphere only began on a larger scale after — in Africa, for example, after with the French conquest of Algeria, from which Morocco and Tunis were also to be brought under French influence. The Russian conquest of Siberia, which followed the course of the rivers similar to the American expansion, aimed to acquire the lucrative fur trade. Concurrent with the mining of gold and precious stones in Brazil, silver mines were also found in the Siberian highland and the financial as well as the informational value of a caravan route between Russia and China was recognized.

The coastal fort colonies that the Dutch operated in Indonesia and the English on the coasts of India initially were reserved for commercial interests in spices, tea, coffee and cotton. As long as they did not expand inland and develop larger areas, they lacked military value. In , when governor Warren Hastings — [ ] strove not only for economic but also for the political and administrative development of the hinterland in Bengal and his administration was overshadowed by numerous scandals, his famous critic Edmund Burke — vented his anger on the methods of colonial rule.

In this way, he also directed attention to the newly formed field of tension of the competing powers of the administrative centre in London and the "men on the spot", those increasingly more powerful servants of European colonialism who at the same time also pursued their own interests in the periphery. In the 19th century, this would become a fixed topos of mutual accusations when businesses based on shares and founded on the model of the East India Company chartered in , monopoly to , and comparable to the Dutch Vereenigden Oost-Indischen Compagnie — , were raised by Sweden , Denmark , Scotland , Austria , Brandenburg-Prussia and Poland and were partly equipped with sovereign rights.

Financially, they were based on the exchanges, which were becoming ever more central to European economic life, and a modern banking system that coordinated the international trade in luxury goods, such as silk, with that in foods novel to Europe, such as potatoes, maize and rice. Only the English company flourished in the long run. Within limits, the Dutch company, which focused on the spice trade and participated in expanding the colonial empire in Southeast Asia, also succeeded. The British created a cotton monopoly. With the trade in goods, for example, coffee from Java and tea from China, Europeans continuously developed new areas, especially Asia, that could be "opened" almost without violence China since The formal use of colonial violence was symbolized in its most illustrative form in the slave trade with the establishment of slave ports on the coasts of West and East Africa as the starting points of slave shipments to the plantations of Middle and South America.

South Africa, since the 17th century developed by the Dutch as a settlement colony and since of importance to the British because of its gold and diamond mines, is exempted from this. Similar to Egypt, it played a special role, including with regard to its perception by Europeans. The shipping routes around the Cape and through the Suez Canal were of elementary significance from the perspective of military and commercial politics.

Furthermore, a presence in Egypt held great symbolic significance, as manifested in attempts at its conquest from Napoleon Bonaparte — to Adolf Hitler — Remarkable in this parallel is the belief that focussed power in Europe and on the Nile — as the access to Asia — was a condition of concentrated power in the world. A British colonial administrator such as Evelyn Baring, Lord Cromer — , who was stationed in Calcutta and Cairo , knew like none other that the survival of the empire depended as much on India, the Jewel in the Crown, as on the Suez Canal. His book Ancient and Modern Imperialism is a testimonial of intimate knowledge of the manner in which colonial rule functioned, as they were handed down at various administrative posts.

What the British were willing to spend on the defence of their interests some 6, miles from London is evident from the, on the whole devastating, South African War also Second Boer War, — Volunteers from numerous European countries fought on the side of the Boers against the British, who in turn recruited large military contingents in Australia and Canada. The legend of imperial rule irretrievably lost its legitimacy when in the British and the French armies had to leave the Suez Canal Zone under pressure from the USA and the Soviet Union. Therefore, the Canal as well as the Cape were areas of first rank in the encounters of Europeans and non-Europeans as well as areas of encounter in the sequence of various European colonialisms. Precisely defined dividing lines between periods are impossible in this panorama as a matter of course.

For this, the enterprises in which all European colonial powers were more or less involved voyages of discovery , scientific projects such as cartography, construction of mercantilist colonial economies etc. However, there were phases in the overall development of European colonialism that can be separated in analogy to the development of the great power system of the European states:. In the beginning, Portugal and Spain in personal union — were primarily interested in overseas trade to Brazil and the Philippines and inspired by Christian missionary zeal.

With few exceptions, they managed to avoid colonial overlap. By contrast, competition heated up in the 17th century, when the English, French and Dutch pressed forward, initially not in the territories of the Spaniards and the Portuguese, but in neighbouring regions. This is demonstrated in exemplary manner by the North American Atlantic coast between the French possessions in modern Canada and the Spanish claims in the South. The independence of the United States was substituted with supremacy in India, in South Africa and especially on the seas with the almost peerless Royal Navy and modern free trade. The colonial incorporation of Africa on a large scale began with France 's conquest of Algeria in , which at the same time more than before released Europe's internal economic and industrial tensions as colonialist forces and peaked in High Imperialism between and World War I.

Since the origins of a pluralistic colonial system during the course of the 19th century, not only the Europeans were involved in dividing the world but also Japan and Russia. The USA is the prototype for a successful linkage of continental internal colonisation in the form of the westward shift of the Frontier and maritime colonial policy in the Asian sphere, while paradoxically being the most successful model of anti-colonialism. At the latest around , the European system of great powers stood before the challenge of global competition. In the controversial interpretation of Niall Ferguson, it was logical that the USA would assume Britain's role as the "global hegemon" in the 20th century and marginalize the formal and informal colonialism of Europe but also continue globalization as "anglobalisation".

Since the 16th century, genuine European colonial powers such as Spain, Portugal, France and Britain were distinguished by developing a concept of their world rule and basing it on the legacy of Rome. German colonial officials, pragmatists such as Heinrich Schnee — and Carl Peters — [ ] , saw German colonialism in the light of and in delimitation against British and French colonialism as well as in the context of world politics. They also participated in the virtually Europe-wide debate about the possible model function that the Roman Empire had for Europe. However, unlike the empires of the late 19th century, Spanish world rule was characterized by being pre-modern, and British colonial rule no later than held a geographical sway without example, which makes a thorough concept of empire and expansionism a precondition.

Their shared reference frame was the Atlantic world, which as a historical concept for determining colonial practices had gained acceptance. However, the price that Spain came to pay for its position as world-empire was high and due to the European constellation of powers. Its global superiority was offset by rejecting the claim to the imperial title of the Holy Roman Empire as a consequence of the division of the Habsburg inheritance. The empires of the modern nation state were not exposed to a loss of unity associated with the global dimension.

Their expansion drive was primarily conditioned by worldly factors such as profit and prestige, in any case not a concept of universal monarchy indebted to Christian salvation, peace and justice. The world empire thought of Charles V — survived to the extent that the civilising mission of the modern European imperialisms became a transnational, but not primarily religious motor. In , Albert Sarraut — [ ] , the governor general of Indochina , defined the leitmotiv of "mise en valeur" development and based it on the concept that the colonies are merely an exterritorial component of a "Greater France" or a "France Africaine". For the historian John Robert Seeley — and before him Charles Dilke — , the empire signified the "expansion of England" into a colonial world, in which cricket would be played just as in Oxford.

James Anthony Froude — warned that whoever overemphasized the value of India and the African colonies also underestimated that of the "white settlements". His book Oceana, or England and her colonies was an attempt at staging the British empire as the legitimate heir of the Roman republic: The former followed the principle of politically wise forms of government when it subordinated colonialism and republicanism to reason and with it attributed more weight to the code of the virtue of good government than to the authority of military or economic monopolies of violence in the African and Asian colonies. That this rule could apply to the overseas empires but would be different for continental ones like that of the Habsburgs was discussed by contemporary observers in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy's sphere of influence and especially in delimitation against the pulsating German empire.

Austrian imperial history was formulated in imperial terminology — after all, the occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina was officially accepted at the Congress of Berlin in However, the Habsburg Empire was not centralistic but multinational in concept and tolerated local independence up to the confirmation of regional and religious diversity. Habsburg's deficit of not being able to provide a national identity was partially compensated by strengthening the popular dynasty, although it, in the person of Emperor Franz Joseph — , was not equal to the extreme High Imperialism of the turn of the century.

The empire was governed in a nostalgic rather than modern manner. Where similar backward tendencies appeared in other European monarchies, a balance was sought using political and cultural measures. One of the best known examples is the crowning of Victoria — as the empress of India in , which was in a manner an imitation of the Bonapartist succession practice of the Spanish monarchy in South America. Benjamin Disraeli — pushed Victoria's imperial title forward because he saw a crisis coming toward Britain and the empire with the monarch's Germanism and obliviousness to duty after the death of her prince consort Albert — Subsequently, British imperialism became even more unrivalled and the centrality of Europe in the world of the 19th century became even more clearly an economic, military and maritime centrality of Great Britain.

Based on the Royal Navy and world trade, the Pax Britannica symbolized this programme of a pacifist colonialism. In the concept of a peace-making world empire, there could be several global players but only one global hegemon. This idealisation of maritime rule was reflected in Alfred Mahan's — classic The Influence of Sea Power upon History , a manifesto of the triumphal "anglobalisation", that is the earth-girding and people-uniting expansion of the Occident. The overseas as well as the continental colonial empires of Europe were together characterised by constructing their imperial rule over a developmental differential against the "Other" and, thus, significantly contributed to a changed self-perception of Europe in the world.

Essentially, it was more about self-image than the image of others. Rule was alien rule over peoples perceived as being "subject". It had to be achieved with violent conquest and secured with colonial methods to guarantee economic, military and cultural exploitation. Therefore, the European claim to superiority legitimised the logic of the unequal interrelationship between colonial societies and a novel capitalism in Europe, especially the British "gentlemanly capitalists", 19 whose global reach came to bear in a particularly pronounced form as the slave economy. Nowhere was the ambivalence between ruthless hegemonic ambition on one hand and concepts such as world citizenship, cosmopolitanism and human rights, which were derived from the Enlightenment, more clear than in slavery on the other hand.

Probably no European colonial power remained aloof from this discussion, which with the help of medicine, anthropology, ethnology etc. The genocide of the Germans against the Herero and Nama in German Southwest Africa — is one of many testimonials, the reign of terror of the Belgian king Leopold II — in the Congo another. Therefore, the concept of a "Europeanisation of the world" signifies the dilemma. On one hand, there are positive achievements, such as modern statehood, urbanisation, rationalism and Christianity, European thought systems such as Liberalism, Socialism and Positivism, which was received with great enthusiasm in France and England as well as in Brazil and Japan.

On the other hand, there are negative legacies, such as Caesarism, racism and colonial violence. It can also raise the question whether European history between about and cannot be predominantly read as a history of expansion, especially if one treats the history of the empires beyond Eurocentrism as world history but without underlaying it with a universal theory and without constructing it as a historical unity. With the treaty to divide the world of , a more intensive interaction of nation, expansion and "Europeanisation of the world" began that was not a unilateral creation of dependencies but a process of give and take with reciprocal influences beyond fixed imperial boundary drawing.

According to this multipolar dynamic, Europe was not decentralised or provincialised, 21 but Europe is equally unsuitable as the only perspective in the interpretation of the global modern period. Benedikt Stuchtey. Jahrhundert, Constance Cain, Peter J. Drescher, Seymour: Abolition: A history of slavery and antislavery, Cambridge et al. Elliott, John H. Headley, John M. Korman, Sharon: The Right of Conquest: The acquisition of territory by force in international law and practice, Oxford Mommsen, Wolfgang J. Jahrhundert, Munich When quoting this article please add the date of your last retrieval in brackets after the url.

When quoting a certain passage from the article please also insert the corresponding number s , for example 2 or

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