Salt And Sugar Research Paper

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Salt And Sugar Research Paper



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Get Healthy: Sugar and Salt - NBC Learn

They also explain how sugar has more recently been partially replaced in manufactured foods and beverages by starch-based sweeteners. And they explain minor sweetener sources, some going back to ancient times, such as boiled-down grape juice; fig and date syrup; the sap of palms, the maple tree, and sweet sorghum; and the exudations from certain trees and shrubs. Like sugar, honey—the first concentrated sweetener known to humans—is ultimately a product of photosynthesis. Bees making honey and humans processing cane or beet to crystal sugar are basically doing the same thing—both extract dilute sugar solutions from plants and convert them into forms easier to handle and storable by evaporating unwanted water.

All forms of sugarcane are species or hybrids of the genus Saccharum, a member of the large family of Gramineae. Their botanical derivation from ancestors in northern India or China is still debated, but cane probably became a cultivated food plant, originally selected for chewing, in eastern Indonesia, New Guinea, or the Philippines from about 4, to 3, BCE. It eventually spread eastward across the Pacific and northwestward to India—where crystalline sugar has been made since at least the fifth century BCE—and thence by way of Persia and the Mediterranean basin to the Atlantic seaboard, finally reaching the New World in , with the second voyage of Columbus.

The expansion of the industry in the Western Hemisphere had two effects. First, it increased the supply of sugar in Europe, making it less of a costly rarity. Even so, British per capita sugar consumption in the early s is estimated to have averaged just four pounds a year, or about a teaspoonful a day. Second, it linked sugar production with slavery and plantation agriculture on a scale far greater than anything previously seen in the Old World, with lasting political, economic, social, and cultural consequences.

Sugar beet, on the other hand, a type of Beta vulgaris L. The plant is known to have been used as a vegetable and medicinally in Greek and Roman times. But it was not until that a German professor, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf — , reported having extracted from red and white beets a substance identical with cane sugar. Expanding under the umbrella of state protection, beet sugar production became an important driver of the agricultural and industrial development of nineteenth-century Europe. Whether starting from cane and beet, a sugar factory in essence performs a series of solid—liquid separations: 1 extraction of the juice, with fiber or pulp the residue; 2 purification of the juice, removing nonsucrose substances; 3 concentration of the purified juice to syrup; 4 crystallization of the sucrose in the syrup by further evaporation; 5 separation of the crystals from the syrup.

While some high-quality raw cane sugar is sold for consumption, most undergoes additional refining —on-site or in a separate plant—by washing and redissolving the crystals and further clarifying and decolorizing the resulting solution. The clear syrup is then again boiled until crystals form or is made into liquid sugar. White sugar can also be produced directly after a more thorough purification of the juice, as is now done in some cane sugar factories and throughout the beet sugar industry. No fewer than countries produced sugar in , but just five areas—Brazil, India, the European Union, China, and the United States—accounted for around 55 percent of global output.

World consumption of sugar from industrial-scale processors amounted to some million metric tons, white quality, equivalent to about 21 kilograms per person. Roughly threequarters came from sugarcane and the rest from sugar beet. In addition, on the order of 12 million metric tons of indigenous types of cane and palm sugar were produced by small rural enterprises, mainly in Asia and Latin America.

Average annual per capita sugar consumption by country ranged from less than 10 kilograms to more than 60 kilograms, depending on economic factors as well as national habits and tastes. At higher living standards sugar is mainly consumed as an ingredient of processed foods and drinks, where it now competes against high-fructose syrups, made chiefly from corn, particularly in the United States.

In early according to reports in Bloomsberg, Businessweek, and Financial Express , the production of sugar was slated to fall short of demand by 14 million tons for the year about enough to make billion cans of Coca-Cola , and the price of refined sugar on the futures market soared to reach a twenty-year high at 30 cents a pound. Like starchy foods, sugar is a source of dietary energy, providing nearly 4 kilocalories about 16 kilojoules per gram. The solution is heated so that the solvent will evaporate, and the solid substance is left behind. Conclusion: The objective of the experiment was to separate a mixture of sand and salt. Through using given materials, and following the procedure, the objective was met.

The mixture can be separated into sand and salt through filtration and evaporation. The sand can be separated from the mixture through filtration. In order to filter the sand from the mixture, salt must first be dissolved in water. The mixture of salt water and sand can be then filtered through a funnel fitted with filter paper. Filter paper only allows liquids though, allowing for the sand to stay inside it. The salt can be separated from water through evaporation.

During evaporation the solvent evaporates, leaving solid particles behind. The overall results from the experiment are that the grams of the heterogeneous mixture consisted of 8. The sand makes up What might have affected the results were errors. During the filtration process, not all grains of sand were collected. Also during the evaporation process, due to intensive heat salt started popping out of the flask. Even though matter was lost, the final mass of sand and salt is 0. The additional mass comes from an error in the separation recesses. The water that was used to separate salt and sand could remain in the samples either from inadequate time period for the sand to dry, or evaporating.

This could have been prevented through providing a longer amount of time for the sand to dry, as well as for the boiling of the solution. It would also be helpful to place the separated particles in hot oven for a period of time, to ensure that both samples are completely dry. In conclusion it is possible to separate various substances from one another through different techniques without changing the chemical makeup of the substance. Accessed October 9, Report, Pages 3 words. Get quality help now.

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