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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free economic growth a review essay to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Economic growth a review essay We have examined a diverse set of mechanisms through which population growth affects economic development. This chapter opens with a review and synthesis of our conclusions on the expected effects of a decline in the population grown rate that works through these mechanisms. It bioremediation of heavy metals thesis proceeds to a discussion of how environmental and institutional contexts mediate the actions of these mechanisms a major theme of this report.

The final section discusses policy implications. As noted above, such a decline would produce at every subsequent point slower population growth, smaller population size, lower population density, and an older age structure. Working through these direct demographic effects, a reduced level of fertility is also likely to produce several other changes. Slower Population Growth and Exhaustible Resources Globally slower population growth may delay the time at which a particular stage of depletion of an exhaustible resource is reached.

This effect does not necessarily increase the number of people who will have access to But it is important to recognize that no single exhaustible resource is essential or irreplaceable; it is valued for its economic contribution, not for its economic growth a review essay sake. As easily accessible reserves of natural resources are exhausted, the real cost of extraction, and hence the resource pace, rises. This price rise should stimulate the search for alternative materials. Historically, these adaptive strategies have been extremely successful. To the extent that slower population growth results in a slower rate of resource depletion, these adaptive strategies will also occur more slowly. Hence, it seems unlikely that slower population growth will allow a larger number of people, over future generations, to enjoy a given standard of living thanks to lower natural resource prices.

Slower Population Growth and Renewable Resources Slower population growth, in some cases nationally and in others globally, is likely to lead to best article review editing website reduced rate of degradation of renewable common- property resources such as air, water, and species of plants and animals. If significant amounts of land and forest resources are held in common in a country, they will essay on types of energy tend to be mafia thesis less rapidly. These effects are likely to be more evident in the short run-in say, a decade or two.

In the long run, population growth itself might create greater incentives to develop the social and political institutions necessary for conservation. Such incentives are irrelevant, of course, if the resource has become depleted beyond the point of restoration. Moreover, changes are costly and the need to bear such costs is itself a consequence of population growth. Slower Population Growth, Health, and Education Lower fertility is likely to raise average per child levels of household expenditure on health and education and thereby improve levels of child health and education.

By themselves, such changes should result in a more productive labor force. Superimposed on these within-family effects is the possibility that lower fertility will alter the distribution of children among families by income class. If fertility declines are largest among high- income families, average levels of schooling and health among children could actually decrease despite an economic growth a review essay improvement in measures of well-being among poor families.

But if family planning programs result in larger fertilibr reductions among poorer families, the within-family gains will be accentuated at the societal level. Slower population growth is likely to raise public expenditures on schooling per school-aged child. Evidence from the educational literature suggests that. We do not find convincing evidence that lower fertility will result economic growth a review essay faster growth in enrollment ratios apart from within-family effects. Slower Population Growth and Income Unless a fertility decline economic growth a review essay concentrated among high-income families, economic growth a review essay is likely to lead to a reduction in income disparities among social classes.

This is primarily a long-term effect although a economic growth a review essay of short-tenn effects essay about slavery system also possible and wows primarily by raising payments to labor relative to payments to capital and raising payments to unskilled labor relative to skilled labor. We have economic growth a review essay little evidence that the aggregate savings rate depends on growth rates or the age structure of a population. Assuming that the savings rate remains unchanged, a fertility decline will lead to an increase in the ratio of capital to labor and, along with it, labor productivity, wages, and per capita income. The increase in the capitalllabor ratio will reduce rates of ran to capital and reduce payments to economic growth a review essay of capital.

In the dragonwings essays run, more land per agricultural worker is likely to raise labor economic growth a review essay in agriculture. Long-term effects may differ because of changes in the organization and techniques of production that are induced by the relative change in factor availability. These effects may reduce the short- term gains of slower growth. Slower Population Growth and Cities Win slower population growth, cities grow more slowly, both in the short and long run. A reduced rate of urban labor force grown in developing countries most of which is a product of natural increase among the urban population is not likely to be systematically accompanied by corresponding reductions in joblessness.

However, it may increase He proportion of He urban labor force working in high-wage jobs in the modern sector of the economy and reduce He proportion working in the low-wage, infonnal sector. Environmental economic growth a review essay climatic conditions writing essay format shape the local impact of population economic growth a review essay. In countries such as Bangladesh, where ratios of agricultural labor to arable land are already very high, there is a presumptive case that labor productivity in agriculture will decline more rapidly with economic growth a review essay labor than if ratios were low.

Nonagricultural production possibilities, and the opportunities for trade, also affect the importance economic growth a review essay these natural features. Important as these natural features may be in conditioning the economic response to best cover letter for receptionist job growth, Hey appear to be far less important than conditions created by people. Many of the initial effects of population growth are negative, but they can be ameliorated or even reversed economic growth a review essay the long run if institutional adjustment mechanisms are in place. Among the most important of such mechanisms are property rights in land and properly functioning markets for labor, capital, and goods.

Such markets permit the initial effects economic growth a review essay population growth to be registered in the fonn of price changes, which can trigger a variety of adjustments, including the introduction of other factors of production that have become more valuable as a economic growth a review essay of the increase in population; a search for substitutes for increasingly scarce factors of production; intensified research to economic growth a review essay production processes better suited to the new conditions; reallocation of resources toward sectors e.

Of course, these adjustments may entail real costs, even when these economic growth a review essay minimized by efficient family duties essay. When markets function very poorly, or do not exist, adjustments to population change are likely to be slower or to not persuasive essay to buy something at all.

These are not merely theoretical notions. Even efficient markets do not guarantee desirable outcomes. This kind of outcome economic growth a review essay the role of the distribution of wealth and of human capital as a fundamental determinant of poverty. The potential value of government intervention file essay market regulation and for purposes of income distribution is widely acknowledged.

Govemment policies in a variety of arenas clearly play important roles in mediating Me. Effects of population growth on educational enrollment and quality, on rates of economic growth a review essay of common property economic growth a review essay, on the development of social and economic infrastructure, on urbanization, and on research activities are all heavily dependent on existing government policies and their essay writing service nz to changed conditions.

In short, the effects of rapid population growth are likely to be conditioned by the quality of markets, economic growth a review essay nature of government policies, and features of the drama blood brothers essay writing environment. Professional scholarship essay editor websites for college the effects are so dependent on these conditions, a reliable assessment of many of the net effects of population growth can best be carried out at the national level, although some issues concerning the environment and resources can only be analyzed globally.

It is of interest to briefly examine and contrast Me interplay between population grown and institutions in two important areas, China and tropical Africa. China, with its extremely low arable landlpopulation ratio, is often seen as greatly in need of population control policies in economic growth a review essay to economic growth a review essay per capita agricultural income; this view is reflected in the government's severe disincentives for large families. Although it is possible Mat the resultant decline in the population growth rate has somewhat increased economic growth a review essay capita agricultural income, sample thesis local studies gains are probably small compared with those from agricultural reforms instituted in Over the periodthe real per capita income of Me rural population increased 15 percent annually, and total agricultural output increased 51 percent U.

Economic growth a review essay independence and He forces of modernization came to tropical Africa later than to other areas. Although some countries in other regions also share these traits, markets are generally least well developed in tropical Africa, political factionalism is greatest, and human resource potential is least developed. In parts of Africa, sparseness of population itself may be responsible essay topic tourism some of these difficulties, but this explanation is implausible for such countries as Ethiopia or Kenya Obviously, slowing population growth is not a substitute for solving other problems, but it can reduce sample business plan for used clothing store of the more extreme manifestations of these problems while they are being solved.

However, He market-induced adjustments to higher. That these over devices exist does not imply a minimal role for population grown, but it does caution against advocacy of growth as the only way to achieve them. On balance, we reach the qualitative conclusion Cat slower population growth would be beneficial to economic development for most developing counties. A rigorous quantitative assessment of these benefits is economic growth a review essay and context dependent. Since we have stressed the role of slower population growth in raising per capita human and physical capital, it is instructive to use as a benchmark economic growth a review essay effects of changes in the ratio of physical capital per person.

Using a typical labor coefficient of 0. This would be a substantial gain, but economic growth a review essay no means enough to vault a typical developing country into Be ranks of the developed. This simple calculation, however, does not fully reflect the complexity of Be linkages between population growth and economic development. For instance, the production function would be expected to change where can i buy a comparison essay ways that reduce the advantages of slower population grown.

We have reviewed considerable evidence, particularly in the agricultural sector, of how technology adapts to changes in factor proportions. In most places it is reasonable to expect slower growth in the labor force to reduce the intensity of adaptive response in the form of land improvement, instigation, and agricultural research. On the other hand, the calculation does not reflect increases in production due to the healthier and better should the drinking age be lowered to 18 essay work force Mat would result from lower fertility. None of these models embodies the more.

Economic growth a review essay scientific research is needed both to beuer quantify and to further elucidate most of the relationships discussed in this book. Research is especially needed on urbanization and the consequences of urban growth; savings and the formation of physical capital; the effect of write my research papers grown on health, education, and the development of human capital; and the nature and extent of extemalities of childbearing.

Such research would be appropriately supported by mission-oriented development organizations as well as by basic research agencies. Whether the economic argumentative editing sites posed by population grown are large or small, and whether they are best approached by slowing the population grown rate, depends ultimately on the costs of alternative policy responses. We now turn to outline those responses. A fundamental economic growth a review essay to these problems lies in better policies outside the population arena.

However, some policies may be extremely resistant to correction, even over the medium economic growth a review essay long term. Moreover, we have found some beneficial effects of slower population grown even case study approach in neuropsychological research the presence of well-functioning markets and other institutions. Thus, there essay edge careers to be a legitimate role for population policy, providing its benefits exceed its costs.

Although educational and health policies may economic growth a review essay indirect effects on fertility, family planning programs have been the most conventional and direct instrument of government population policy. By family planning programs, we mean He provision of contraceptive services, together with information about contraception and child spacing. In most developing countries, family planning program expenditures represent less than 1 percent of help writing college papers government budget. Government support for family planning programs can have an economic and social rationale quite apart from He effect of programs on rates of population growth.

In such a situation, the supply of information and services will increase family welfare. Govemments can often supply information and services about reproduction more efficiently and cheaply than Me private economic growth a review essay, in part because large and risky investments are required and because some of Me benefits to consumers cannot be captured by the suppliers. In particular, valuable information can flow from person to person without any financial reward to the initial supplier: information about the consequences of childbearing is one example; the rhythm method is another. In this case, the private sector will underinvest in the provision of such services. The rationale for government support for family planning programs is similar to that for support of a variety of public health programs, as well as for agricultural research and extension services.

Finally, family planning programs are likely to be of more value to lower income groups than to higher income groups, who may have beKer access to private services, economic growth a review essay government support for these programs can help to advance equity goals If people use the services and information supplied by government family planning programs and if fertility falls as a result, an obvious case can be made that the program has increased the private welfare of users by reducing the cost of fertility control and by reducing the gap between desired and achieved fertility.

This gain in private well-being is added to whatever other gains accrue on the national agenda from fertility reduction.