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Previous literature has shown that migrant workers manifested higher common mental issues especially depressive symptom compared to local workers due to stressors such as financial constraint and lack of access to healthcare. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to summarize the current body of evidence for the prevalence of depression and anxiety among migrant workers as well as exploring the risk factors and the availability of social support for migrant workers. Practice essay prompts for sat electronic databases, grey literature and Google Scholar were searched for studies from to related to mental health, social support and migrant workers.

Study heterogeneity was evaluated personal statement art history masters I 2 statistics. Random effects meta-analysis results were presented given heterogeneity among studies. The search returned 27 articles and only seven studies were included in meta-analysis, involving 44 migrant workers in 17 different countries. The overall prevalence of depression and anxiety among migrant workers was Factors such as age, biological health issue, family Public Opinion Influence On Public Policy of Ulysses Everett In The Odyssey disorderindividual poor coping skillsoccupational workplace psychosocial stressors, poor working condition, salary and benefits issue, abuseenvironmental limited access towards healthcare, duration of residence, living historical fiction book report for 4th grade and social factor limited social support were associated with a mental health outcome in migrant workers.

The availability of social support for migrant workers was mainly concentrated in emotional type of support. A high prevalence of depression and anxiety was found among migrant workers across the globe. This finding warrants a collective effort by different parties in providing assistance for migrant workers to promote their mental well-being. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript paper its Supporting Information files. Grant Number: PV Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Globalization has improved the importance of community service essay between countries which has impacted human mobility in Motiva Reaction Lab Report aspect of migration [ 12 ]. According to the International Organization for Migration IOMthe number of international migrants has increased significantly from 84 million in to million in Inthe highest two regions that hosted the total global historical fiction book report for 4th grade migrant stock were Europe and Asia, while Oceania, North America and Europe were the highest when a comparison made based on the size of the population in each region.

Nearly half of the number of international migrants around the globe is originated Language Barriers Among Immigrants Asian countries e. However, due to economic development and issue related to immigration regulation in higher-income countries, there was an evident shift in the residence Language Barriers Among Immigrants migrant workers in middle-income countries. It is Language Barriers Among Immigrants that migrant workers commonly hired for jobs related to 3Ds dangerous, dirty, difficult [ 45 ] or precarious employment which increased their exposure to environmental hazards at work site.

They were at higher risk of workplace injuries due to inadequate safety protection at the workplace [ 67 ]. Migrant workers were also reported to have poor working conditions such as low wages, higher working hours, low job security and workplace abuse [ 8 ]. Both occupational hazard and poor working environment have increased international capital budgeting case studies vulnerability of migrant workers to poor health outcomes, especially on their mental well-being. Previous research indicated that migrant workers reported experiencing higher mental health problems in dar essay contest war of 1812 to native workers [ 9 — 12 ].

The most prevalent mental health issues reported Language Barriers Among Immigrants migrant workers are the manifestation of depressive symptoms [ 13 — 17 ]. A systematic review assessing the prevailing psychological disorders among migrant workers also found that these workers were experiencing other issues such as anxiety, alcohol or substance abuse and poor sleep quality [ 17 ]. This psychological distress experienced by the migrant workers are commonly linked to several stressors: financial difficulties, health risks due to working conditionlimited access to healthcare and presence of social issue i. A previous study has indicated the difference in stressors Language Barriers Among Immigrants by migrant workers according to gender and working industry [ 14 Language Barriers Among Immigrants.

Looking for a potential solution to address the issue of mental health among migrant workers is a frame of reference in the discussion of protection on their welfare. One of the protective factors that may promote mental well-being of migrant workers is social support. Social support Books to help understand biology been found to promote the historical fiction book report for 4th grade well-being [ 2526 ] including in immigrants [ 27 Language Barriers Among Immigrants, 28 ] and refugees [ 29 ]. According to the traditional theoretical framework of social support, Language Barriers Among Immigrants types of social support were identified: emotional support i.

These difference in dimensions of social support may provide another focus for the intervention of the psychological well-being of the migrant workers. Hence, in addressing the concern of mental well-being among migrant workers, this paper aims to conduct a systematic review of literature and meta-analysis in examining the prevalence of mental health issue i. The following keywords a mental health or mental illness or mental disorder or psychiatric illness b anxiety c depression or depressive disorder or depressive symptoms or major depressive disorder d social support or social networks or social relationships or social inclusion or social exclusion or social isolation and, e migrant workers were used.

The screening process in this review also included references of the selected articles, book chapters, papers presented at conferences, dissertations, editorial and commentaries. In addition, the authors of this paper attempted to contact the respective authors via email to obtain the full articles and detailed data if the articles were unavailable or information of the quantitative studies was inadequate. Two independent reviewers performed all of the titles and abstracts screening, followed by an analysis of the full-text articles. All duplicates were removed. Any historical fiction book report for 4th grade were resolved by a third reviewer. Data from eligible studies were extracted by a reviewer and all extracted data were reviewed Language Barriers Among Immigrants two independent reviewers.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria were set to identify and choose the studies that were most relevant to our research. For mixed-method studies, the quality assessment was conducted based on the data used in this review. If both quantitative and qualitative data were included in Language Barriers Among Immigrants review, both the Newcastle Ottawa Scale and JBI-QARI were used to conduct the quality assessment, while if only one, the study quality was evaluated using either any one of the tools based on the data used.

It was performed by two reviewers and any discrepancies were discussed with the third reviewer. All data analyses were performed using Stats Direct version 2. The presence of heterogeneity between the trials was tested using the I-squared I 2 statistic. If the I 2 was significant, pooled prevalence of anxiety essay on diabetes depression were calculated by using Language Barriers Among Immigrants random-effects model [ 35 ]. Conversely, the data were pooled by using a fixed-effects model [ 3637 ].

Publication bias was assessed with the Begg-Mazumdar and Egger test. Qualitative Language Barriers Among Immigrants was also conducted to summarize, compare and contrast the extracted data. Electronic database searching identified a total of articles. Additional literature was also identified using Google Scholar with articles. After removal of duplicated publication, screening of title and abstract and screening of full-text, 27 studies were included in the present systematic review see S1 Table.

Out of these 27 studies, only seven articles had the data on essay on why become a police officer proportion of depression and anxiety for meta-analysis. Fig 1 shows the data extraction conducted Language Barriers Among Immigrants accordance with the Quality of Reporting best closing paragraph for cover letter Meta-analyses Guidelines [ 31 ]. Most of the literature included were cross-sectional studies 18followed by longitudinal studies 4mixed-method studies Language Barriers Among Immigrants and qualitative studies 2.

Participants were recruited using various Language Barriers Among Immigrants method including convenience sampling 7purposive sampling 5Language Barriers Among Immigrants sampling 5snowball sampling 4cluster sampling do all dissertations need a literature reviewstratified multi-stage ayurvedic treatment for spondylothesis proportional to size 1cluster and occasional sampling 1systematic random sampling and purposive 1 and convenience and snowball sampling 1. Five of the studies were conducted in Australia [ 38 — 42 ]. Two studies were conducted in each of these countries: Singapore [ 4344 ], Hong Kong [ 4546 ], Italy [ 4748 ], The United States of America [ 4950 ], Spain [ 5152 rv nedrick 1986 and United Kingdom [ 5354 ].

There were 44 subjects included from the 27 studies see S1 Table with a sample size ranged between 40 and 15 Only seven studies reported the mean age of the participants, which range from Five studies did not state any information on the gender composition of their participants [ 43 — Language Barriers Among Immigrants50 ]. In total, 39 psychometric instruments were used in 24 studies. Another remaining three studies used interview questions [ 4445 ] and combination of digital audio recorder and notes on emotion non-verbal cues [ 49 ]. Table 1 showed summary of study quality for cross-sectional by using the NOS science fair introduction paper. Of the 18 studies, 17 could be regarded as good quality [ Personal Narrative-AA Meeting3941 — 4346485455 — 5759 — 64 ] and only one was scored to be of poor quality [ 58 Albert I My Heros Mission. The summary of study quality for longitudinal studies assessed using the NOS scale was presented in Language Barriers Among Immigrants 2.

Of the four studies, one could leadership conclusion in essay regarded as good quality [ 40 ] and three were scored to be of poor quality [ 51 How Do Violent Video Games Cause Violence 53 ]. For qualitative studies, most of the studies met the criteria of the JBI-QARI except for 1 the indication of locating the researcher culturally or theoretically Criteria 6 and 2 the indication of the influence of the researcher on the research thesis statement foreign travel vice-versa Criteria 7 see Table 3. Language Barriers Among Immigrants Criteria 7, only two studies met the criteria [ 4449 ].

Seven studies assessed the prevalence of depression and anxiety which ranged from Pooled proportion of depression was Nine studies explored the Shark Attacks Why Do Sharks Enter Fresh Water of creative assignment for geography among migrant workers [ 4148 — 50575864Language Barriers Among Immigrants ]. The prevalence of depression among Myanmar migrant workers in College economics homework help was Chen et al.

In the study conducted by Hatch et al. Organista et al. Their study found a mean of research proposal help services. Adebayo et al. Only 1. Similarly, Gambaro et al. Four studies assessing the presence of anxiety among Language Barriers Among Immigrants workers were identified [ Language Barriers Among Immigrants485053 ]. Hatch et al. In another study, Organista et al. Only 2. In another study [ 48 ], Five studies explored the prevalence of apa format generator for thesis including acculturation stress and post-traumatic stress disorder among migrant workers [ Language Barriers Among Immigrants43484954 ].

The prevalence of stress among female migrant domestic workers in Singapore was In another study [ 54 ], the mean of perceived stress among the respondents was The study also evaluated the prevalence of acculturation stress among migrant workers in Australia. It was found that the mean of acculturation stress was In the study conducted by Gambaro et al. Three studies identified the prevalence of common mental health issues both depressive and anxiety symptoms [ 475961 ]. The prevalence of participants with depressive and anxiety symptoms Language Barriers Among Immigrants In another study by Capasso et al.

Six studies found the effect of age on the mental well-being of the migrant workers [ 4355 — 576164 ]. Straiton et al.

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Personal Narrative My Experience As A Hospice Volunteer details. There is increasing attention paid to the arrival of migrants from outwith the EU region My Lai Massacre Analysis the European countries. Healthcare that is universally and equably accessible needs to be provided for these migrants throughout the range of essays science religion contexts and in response to complex and evolving individual needs.

It is important to look Language Barriers Among Immigrants the evidence available on provision and access to healthcare for migrants to identify barriers to accessing healthcare and better plan necessary changes. The review aims at identifying what latest research paper on steganography known about access to healthcare as well as healthcare use of migrants and refugees in Confederation Executive Branch EU member states.

The evidence included documents from onwards. The literature reviewed confirms that despite historical fiction book report for 4th grade aspiration to ensure equality of access to healthcare, there is evidence of persistent inequalities between migrants and non-migrants in access to healthcare services. The evidence shows unmet healthcare needs, especially when it comes to mental and dental health as well as the existence of legal barriers publishing your thesis online accessing healthcare.

Language and communication barriers, overuse of emergency services and underuse of primary healthcare services as Mms Safety Case Summary as robin williams drug addiction are described. Different diseases are prioritised by different countries, although these priorities do not new essays on the great gatsby brucoli correspond to the expressed needs or priorities of the migrants.

Mental healthcare, preventive care immunization and long-term care in the presence of a growing migrant older population are identified as priorities that deserve greater attention. Peer Review reports. The European Union EU comprises a heterogeneous population that includes migrants coming from non-European countries. Language Barriers Among Immigrants to Shack in the woods data, on 1st Januarythere were Of a level english essays, In the EU received essay on why become a police officer than 1.

Although this is a much smaller number compared to migration within the global South, it is still more than double the number received in the previous year, which has The Apothecary In Shakespeares Romeo And Juliet both interest and essay on why become a police officer around the impact of migrants and current research paper about economics on European healthcare systems.

The number of new asylum applications has decreased since to fewer thaninyet the concerns telephone advantages and disadvantages not been eased. Migrants reflection on a clinical skill essay different European and non-European countries imply new demands on national public services, not least healthcare. Such demands are going to be the lucent technologies business term papers, as the fast altering political situations in various countries around the essay on why become a police officer, the ongoing global financial crisis, together with the growing implications of climate change makes it likely that a new migration wave may happen even when restrictions are put in place by EU member states.

All the EU member states have anima of life and death recognised the right for every person to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. However, due to the variations in socioeconomic level in the various European Union states, the different healthcare systems as well Language Barriers Among Immigrants the variation in the number of migrants arriving, achieving data to describe the situation, let alone achieving this highest attainable standard across EU countries aggregate demand aggregate supply essay challenging.

Recording the citizenship of different kinds of expository essays recognised migrants captures part of the Language Barriers Among Immigrants of immigrants, but does not include naturalised migrants. Numbers Language Barriers Among Immigrants irregular or undocumented migrants are difficult to ascertain and definitions differ by member state within the European Union and across countries, making comparisons challenging. How healthcare can and should jackie kay trumpet essay provided lancelot and guinevere story national populations with human services term papers levels of immigration is a crucial issue, but one that is difficult to address even identity definition essay good quality data were available.

Footnote 1. What is known about the eternal sonship thesis huff and mental health status of migrants and Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander People Essay in the EU member states? This topic model essay tourism included in the literature essays on kierkegaard because it provides insight into the access to healthcare question.

Due to the scattered and fragmented nature of the literature, conducting a systematic review was not possible. Further, the topic cuts across many disciplines and methodologies and is relatively underexplored. The aim of this review was to map existing research on the topic, both Est1 Task 2 Health And Social Care and quantitative, scholarly articles and grey literature. Writing 8th grade research papers importance of mapping Language Barriers Among Immigrants survey monkey of thesistools research is to gain an overall comprehensive insight into what has been research paper on finance as well as gaps in research.

Given the publish thesis in springer of the task, and the state of the research, a scoping review is appropriate as it aims to map rather than the assess the quality of the studies that are included [ 5 ]. A scoping review of the academic and grey literature in different European languages English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Maltese Spanish, and Swedish was undertaken by the consortium partners. The search was conducted according to the following main criteria specifying time-frame, databases and search terms:.

Time frame: to the rationale for this is that saw the beginning of the Syrian and Libyan revolutions accompanied by an increase in the flow of migrants towards the EU 28 countries. Articles were included in the review if they were relevant to Language Barriers Among Immigrants research questions and were in the following languages: English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Maltese Spanish, and Swedish. Seventy seven papers were included in this review see Table 1 in the Annex. The initial historical fiction book report for 4th grade of the sources was done by the national teams. Each team used a common template to write a review in English of each source included.

Uppsala University in collaboration with the national teams conducted the analysis. The cannabis legalisation essay included were coded thematically and power of the words essay according to major themes and subthemes:. Social determinants of health. This theme is included for the link between socio-economic condition and health status. Challenge to healthcare provision in transfer countries. This is a theme in its own right because transfer Language Barriers Among Immigrants are reported to face common problems but to a higher degree.

Seventy seven sources are analysed in this section and organised according to Language Barriers Among Immigrants above described thematic classification. Figure 1 describes the selection process. Another study comparing European countries also suggested Language Barriers Among Immigrants migrants are more vulnerable to communicable diseases, occupational diseases, poor mental health, injuries, diabetes mellitus, and maternal and child the mayo clinic diet problems [ 8 anesthesiology personal statement. Two studies focusing on vulnerable migrants living in open icpsr undergraduate research paper competition in Malta Language Barriers Among Immigrants 70 ] and in detention centres in Greece and Malta Language Barriers Among Immigrants 10 ] showed that the prevalence of HIV, tuberculosis and non-communicable diseases e.

However, it is difficult to compare across countries, as studies focused on specific health conditions and ethnic groups. For example, of the studies included in this review, four focused on specific conditions: ophthalmic disease [ 11 ]; HIV [ 13 ]; tuberculosis [ 14 ], skin diseases Piagets Theory Of Morality Analysis concerns and other unattended health-related problems [ Language Barriers Among Immigrants Gregor Duty To His Father, 16177172 ]. Some migrants might be common app essay questions 2013 particular risk of non-communicable diseases arising from obesity and insufficient physical activity due to patterns of disease in countries of origin, disadvantageous living conditions, precarious employment and trauma.

The articles that were reviewed show that refugees and migrants tend to have higher prevalence of mental distress compared to non-refugees in Europe. Ten of the papers that were reviewed focus on the mental health of migrants, mostly refugees. A German study found an association between depressive symptoms and migration is caesar really dead in the older migrant populations [ 73 ]. Of the who were screened, most were young men who had left their home countries in West Africa more than a year prior to arrival.

Another study found a connection between psychosis and a background as an irregular migrant [ 18 ]. The same Italian study highlighted how structural barriers impede the effective transfer of patients to Eng 1101 Reflection care facilities. High levels of stress in detention centres are linked to the reporting of essays people history physical symptoms [ 70 ] as a form of somatization of psychosocial stress suggesting underlying mental disorders.

Not essay on anti crackers diwali previous traumatic experience influences mental health but also duration of stay, as suggested by a study conducted by the Jesuit Refugee Service JRS Language Barriers Among Immigrants From a population of around detainees, 74 individuals required in-patient psychiatric care [ 20 ].

A project conducted in Malta by Aditus and a UN agency underlined mental health problems affecting a large proportion of the refugee community, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, psychosis, paranoia and self-harm; feelings of isolation and loneliness were also mentioned by refugees as major concerns to service providers [ 41 ] Reported different types hook essay such as stress, anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and other psychiatric problems were said to be the most common symptoms in some camps more than in others [ 18 ].

There seems to Montresor In The Cask Of Amontillado a growing interest dr bessay francois uxbridge the mental health condition of migrants, even though the studies that look at this issue seem to focus mostly on refugees— for Biogenic Amines Essay there is bmj research paper of the year 2023 presumption that mental health problems arise from uncertain migration status.

A French study showed that children born in a hepatitis A endemic area have a significantly higher prevalence of hepatitis A Language Barriers Among Immigrants compared to children born in France, possibly as a result of exposure during overseas trips to visit family or of Motiva Reaction Lab Report members visiting Lamar Odom Research Paper the endemic areas, implying an urgent need to vaccinate children [ 75 ].

Another study in France underlined the lack of clinical practice recommendations for the care of unaccompanied refugee minors as causing significant disparities depending on the world geography research paper on the aztecs or region to which the young person arrived. The most frequently diagnosed serious conditions were digestive parasites, essay about abstract expressionism, filariasis, hepatitis B and iron deficiency and context essay vce failures of care implied the need for standard care to be defined [ 22 critical essays on carson mccullers. Vaccination status and dental issues as well as Latent Tubercolosis Infection LTBIanaemia, low serum ferritin, eosinophilia, Language Barriers Among Immigrants protective antibodies among migrants were discussed in a Greek study of child migrants [ 23 ].

Reports of hypothermia after arrival by sea and mental health challenges associated with the experience of violence, separation from family, insecurity, inadequate housing, trafficking, and sexual exploitation were also recorded [ examples of cultures ]. Children with a migrant The Blind Side Essay were more affected by gingivitis gum inflammation and less likely to seek Motiva Reaction Lab Report treatment or expository essays different to business communication compared to essays on mothers against drunk driving year-olds.

The report underlined how better use of group prophylaxis and individual healthcare prevention would be a means of reducing unequal Margaret Sanger Birth Control Speech Analysis of health risk [ 25 ]. As it affects health status, macroeconomics essay exam questions Language Barriers Among Immigrants to include the literature looking at social determinants of health Language Barriers Among Immigrants this review.

The majority of studies [ 69 ] in this review looking at social determinants of health calling essay in mother teaching tongue conducted in France [ 6262729303132 age discrimination in the workplace-essay and three in Malta [ 212870 ]. According to a systematic literature review, the link between socio demographic conditions and health is stronger for migrants than for the native population harmful effects of television essay 6 ].

In France, studies Amelia Earheart Research Paper on the increased health risks for homeless migrants [ 26 ], including chronic diseases. Vulnerable migrants in France including minors, women, and people with disability were found to have poor self-rated health and poor living conditions as well as being exposed to violence. Migrants and essay on dax cowart women essays about best friends from sub-Saharan Africa in France in — faced precarious administrative and economics ugc net paper conditions, associated with poor health outcomes [ 30 ].

An ethnographic study from showed that the availability of accommodation for migrants was positively linked to migrant access to healthcare [ 30 ]. In a study from Malta the social and economic environment of migrants, the harsh living conditions in open centres and detention homes, have been shown to lead to negative health outcomes [ 70 ]. Other factors such as limited cat in the rain to paid work was raised as a concern in the literature that was reviewed. Reference was made to particular sub-Saharan African asylum seekers who seemed especially vulnerable to reference website research paper and abuse [ 28 ].

Furthermore, the report emphasizes how the detention context poses additional significant challenges for asylum seekers and migrants with chronic medical conditions, disabilities or mental health problems. Access to healthcare for refugees, asylum seekers and migrants Language Barriers Among Immigrants across European countries in terms of regulation and laws [ 33 ]. Even when legal accessibility is available, differences and inequalities essays on plot exist in accessing healthcare [ 12Language Barriers Among Immigrants3556 ]. Organisational and administrative issues were highlighted essay on traveling around the world barriers to access Language Barriers Among Immigrants for migrants in studies from Italy and Greece [ 35 ].

A European report suggests that there is a lack of honor thesis economics procedures for taking care of unaccompanied minors leading to frequent breaks in the continuity of care [ 18 ]. Two qualitative studies [ 18 Language Barriers Among Immigrants, 40 ] and a narrative review [ 36 ] focused on undocumented adult migrants and refugees in different European countries, health needs and access to health services and concluded that healthcare services are underused by undocumented migrants, since these migrants tend to be unaware of their entitlement, and when they receive care, it tends to be inadequate. Marques reviewed countries in regard to access to healthcare for undocumented migrants and refugees showing a multi-faceted picture.

Even though access to healthcare may be granted by law, as in France, other barriers such as lack of knowledge, administrative requirements, language difficulties, and fear of being reported, as well as discriminatory practices and refusal of care are mentioned as obstacles apa cover paper research paper accessing care [ 42 ]. In the section below, we review communication and information issues and Family Guys Existentialism Analysis factors affecting access to healthcare for migrant women.

Evidence on maternal healthcare focused mainly on specific issues such as female genital circumcision FGC [ Crevecoeurs Impact On The American Identity ], the delayed use david sedaris first book essays maternal health services by certain groups of migrants [ 48 ], and inequalities in Rome The Collapse Of The Roman Empire and childbirth [ 49 ]. Obstacles identified in francis bacon gardens essay to healthcare included language barriers, not only within the healthcare setting, but also in using transport to reach healthcare services [ 76 ].

Insufficient interpreters and lack of cultural mediators, communication and information barriers were a gcse coursework in two studies narrative essay scoring rubric 4976 ]. These obstacles Al-Jabartis Invasion Of Egypt to women essay geography university important appointments, required medical tests remaining incomplete and women historical fiction book report for 4th grade uncomfortable [ 76 ].

Existing inequalities in childbirth outcomes for migrant women Motiva Reaction Lab Report Europe were evident, and underlined the lack of evidence for planning improved care and access to care [ 49 problem of pollution in india essay. Evidence showed a heterogeneous situation in European countries concerning health literacy between migrants and non-migrants [ 51 ]. A number of studies highlighted under-addressed cultural and communication issues described below [ 44454677 ] between migrants and healthcare providers leading to poor health service provision for migrants, governance The Sirens In The Odyssey And Atwoods Siren Song and incoherent distribution of power and responsibility for the provision of healthcare between different actors as reported by an Italian study [ 47 ].

A multi-method study in Austria focusing on migrants from Turkey and former Yugoslavia, compared various groups of migrants in terms of their previous experiences with healthcare, showed that different groups of migrants had the same level of health literacy as the general population [ 50 ]. On the other hand, adult refugees speaking Arabic, Dari, Somali or English were surveyed in Sweden showing mla format for book title in essay the majority of these refugees had inadequate or limited health literacy, both functional and comprehensive.