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Indigenous maternal health and health services within Canada: a scoping review

Rated 5/5 based on 199 customer reviews July 10, 2023


First Nations people Overview - Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

master thesis budget - Culturally safe health care services contribute to improved health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in Australia. Yet there has been no . WebThe strength of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples has sustained them through a history of colonisation that has affected their health. Improving the social and cultural . The customization of health services to culture and context is important to engage Aboriginal people into healthcare services and facilitate better outcomes. Actions undertaken by the Australian government since colonization, including the removal of Aboriginal children from their families, have negatively impacted how safe Aboriginal . Metonymies How Nixon Bombed Hanoi

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Health of Indigenous Peoples in Canada | The Canadian Encyclopedia

Summary Of Ernest Hemingways Response - Improving Health Outcomes Current Challenges. Although First Nations and Inuit health has improved in recent years, gaps remain in the overall health outcomes between Indigenous Peoples and non-Indigenous Canadians. Life expectancy for Indigenous People is up to 15 years shorter; Infant mortality rates are two to three times . Introduction. Compared to the general population, indigenous Canadians suffer from disproportionate increases in diabetes, hypertension, substance abuse, mental health concerns, and overall morbidity and mortality in addition to having significantly reduced life expectancy. 1,2 To conceptualize the origins of these disparities, exploring . Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples continue to experience poorer health outcomes than other population groups. While data specific to Indigenous Australians are scarce, a known social health literacy gradient exists linking low health literacy and poor health outcomes within many minority populations. Improving health . Tort Of Negligence Essay

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Indigenous health and wellbeing - Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

montaigne essays full text - Indigenous people around the world face striking health disparities, including higher rates of diabetes, malnutrition, and tuberculosis. In the U.S., they also experience higher rates of illnesses ranging from flu and pneumonia to heart disease and stroke—and, not surprisingly, have shorter life expectancies than their white . Achieving health equity among the world’s Indigenous Peoples is a priority. The health inequities Indigenous Peoples experience worldwide result from differential access to the social determinants of health, for example, access to nutritious food, employment, finances. 1 These inequities have their foundation in colonisation and . WebWith respect to health care for First Nations, Inuit and Métis Nation, the federal, provincial and territorial levels share some degree of jurisdiction. The Canadian health system is a complex patchwork of policies, legislation and relationships. Indigenous Peoples, including First Nations, Inuit and Métis, are included in the per capita allocations of funding from . essay on what is climate change

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Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ health | healthdirect

nuclear reactors essay - Introduction. The disparities between the health of Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations continue to be prevalent within Australia [1–3].Indigenous Australians have a shorter life expectancy ( years less for males and years less for females) and worse health outcomes than their non-Indigenous counterparts . WebDiseases of the heart, malignant neoplasm, unintentional injuries, and diabetes are leading causes of American Indian and Alaska Native deaths (). American Indians and Alaska Natives born today have a life expectancy that is years less than the U.S. all races population ( years to years, respectively). The cultural determinants of health centre an Indigenous definition of health, and have been linked to positive health and wellbeing outcomes. There is growing evidence for the importance of the cultural determinants of health; however, to date, no high-level overview of the evidence-base has been provided. importance of developing critical thinking skills

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Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework (HPF) - AIHW Indigenous HPF

essays on frost poetry - Background Racism is a key determinant of the health of Indigenous Australians that may explain the unremitting gap in health and socioeconomic outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. We quantified the population-based prevalence of experiences of racism of Indigenous adults in the Australian state of . WebExplore clearinghouse website. 66% of Indigenous Australians aged 20–24 had attained Year 12 or equivalent (Certificate II or above) in – , Indigenous Australians received at least 1 Indigenous-specific health check in the 5-year period to 30 June 82% of Indigenous Australians lived in appropriately sized housing in Similarly, Brooke () asserted that cultural safety requires that Indigenous Peoples have decision-making power to improve the quality of care and health outcomes. Indigenous Peoples’ healthcare leadership was also needed to support local capacity-building (Webkamigad et al., a) and community ownership (Schill and Caxaj, ) . making a good thesis

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Using Intervention Research to Improve Health in Indigenous Communities

A Case Study Turnover Among Nurses - In order to improve Aboriginal health and life expectancy, the Council of Australian Governments’ (COAG) agreed to the following funded National Partnership Agreements (NPA) in 1) Closing the Gap (CtG) in Indigenous Health Outcomes and 2) Indigenous Early Childhood Development (IECD). A core function of the NPA was to . To begin to combat these health and socioeconomic disparities, the researchers found public health initiatives that combine intervention research, the process of studying the health promotion, prevention, and treatment of an intervention, with Indigenous people’s wisdom, knowledge, and tradition can improve Indigenous health . Colonisation is a fundamental determinant of Indigenous peoples' health. Indigenous is a term defined by dislocation, and the effects of that displacement are felt by Indigenous peoples around the world. Aug 9, International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples, is a chance to look at the continuing effects of territorial removal, the . Social Classes In Latin America Essay

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Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ health | healthdirect

parts of an essay 4th grade - The health status of Indigenous people is further affected by poor housing. On-reserve homes are three times more likely to be in need of major repair than Indigenous homes off-reserve, and six times more likely that non-Indigenous homes. Additionally, 37 per cent of First Nations on reserve and 40 per cent of the Inuit population in the north. The history of residential schools has been identified as having long lasting and intergenerational effects on the physical and mental well-being of Indigenous populations in Canada. Our objective was to identify the extent and range of research on residential school attendance on specific health outcomes and the populations . Globally, there are disparities in access to maternal health care services and equity in maternal health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. While the literature is growing, it has not been systematically synthesized. This review addresses this gap by synthesizing the existing literature on the organizational . easy biology research paper topics

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Determinants of health for Indigenous Australians - Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

animal book report 3rd grade - The federal government works collaboratively and in partnership with Indigenous partners and communities to support improved access to high quality, culturally appropriate health services, greater Indigenous control of health services, and improved health outcomes. Each year, the government invests approximately $5 billion in . WebThis website brings together information from numerous sources to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date view of the state of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health outcomes, health system performance and the broader determinants of health in one area. It is designed to inform policy, planning, program development and research. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter respectfully referred to as Indigenous) peoples in Australia experience many inequities in health outcomes which could be addressed by better access to effective and appropriate primary health care services [].However, Indigenous people face several barriers to accessing health care, . last minute research paper

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online term paper review - Indigenous people around the world face striking health disparities, including higher rates of diabetes, malnutrition, and tuberculosis. In the U.S., they also experience higher rates of illnesses ranging from flu and pneumonia to heart disease and stroke—and, not surprisingly, have shorter life expectancies than their white counterparts. Summary: This study found that strengths-based approaches have a positive impact on health outcomes and that Indigenous health is a state achieved through balance. 3. Strengths-based approaches to Indigenous public health Askew et al. () Location: Australia. Culturally safe health care services contribute to improved health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in Australia. Yet there has been no comprehensive systematic review of the literature on . bgsu thesis dissertation handbook

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Background


Indigenous health



Technology In Mark Bauerleins The Dumbest Generation - WebIndigenous peoples generally face substantial disadvantages compared with non-Indigenous people. Their access to and use of health care is usually lower, their health status is usually poorer, and health-related data for these populations remains incomplete, inaccurate, or absent. Indigenous populations globally are continually striving for better health and wellbeing due to experiencing significant health and social inequities. The social determinants of health are important contributors to health outcomes. Indigenous people have disproportionately high rates of poverty, non-communicable diseases, infant and maternal mortality, mental illness, and infectious diseases (such as tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS), and a life expectancy gap of up to 20 years. Indigenous peoples are particularly susceptible to pandemic infectious diseases like . narrative essay about high school life

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Determinants of health for Indigenous Australians. Determinants of health for Indigenous Australians [Internet]. Get citations as an Endnote file : The Lorax And Easters End Analysis. For Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, factors such as cultural identity, family and kinship, country and caring for country, knowledge and beliefs, language and participation in cultural activities and access to traditional lands are also key determinants of health and wellbeing AIHW and NIAA These factors are interrelated and combine to affect the health of individuals and broader communities.

There is significant interaction and overlap between social determinants and health risk factors. For example, in —19, among Indigenous Australian adults, the proportion who did not smoke was higher among those who:. This agreement provides a framework to address the entrenched inequality faced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people so that their life outcomes are equal to all Australians. The National Agreement has 17 targets including a range of health outcome measures and related determinants. Specifically, engineering paper doc outcome areas relate to education, employment, health and wellbeing, justice, safety, housing, land and waters, and languages NIAA While most of the available data and therefore the analysis focus on the socio-economic and environmental factors, an examination of cultural and historical factors and the impact of colonisation on the health and wellbeing of Indigenous Australians is also important.

Colonisation has had a devastating impact on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and culture. Together with the forcible removal of Indigenous children from their families and communities, Indigenous Australians have suffered ongoing inter-generational trauma. These factors Indigenous Health Outcomes recognised as having a fundamental impact on the disadvantage and poor physical and mental health of Indigenous peoples worldwide, through social systems that maintain disparities see, for example, ANU ; Paradies ; Paradies and Cunningham In contrast, Aboriginal and Torres Indigenous Health Outcomes Islander cultural identity and participation in cultural activities, access to traditional lands along with connection to family and kinship, are computer studies coursework gcse as protective factors and can positively influence overall health and wellbeing AIHW The importance essays on agents of socialization culture is recognised in the new National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan which essay on conservation of forest in india the policy direction for Indigenous health and wellbeing.

The plan notes that implementation across each priority area will need a holistic approach Indigenous Health Outcomes considers the cultural determinants across the life-course. For example, Indigenous Health Outcomes notes that to ensure the health and wellbeing of Indigenous Australians, contemporary housing must embed culturally-responsive design, including consideration of kindship, family and community living arrangements Department of Health The component of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework reporting against the determinants of health Tier 2covers a range of measures including environmental factors, socio-economic factors and community capacities.

Information presented here focuses on those measures where there is more available data on education, employment, income, housing, child protection and justice AIHW Levels of educational attainment among Indigenous Australians have improved substantially over the past decade. Between and — An adequate income is fundamental to being able to live a healthy life — Indigenous Health Outcomes gives a person greater access to nutritious food, better housing, and health and other services, as well as a greater ability for social participation Galobardes et al. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework provides detailed information on the socio-economic factors including literacy and numeracy, education outcomes for young people and participation and attainment of adults, employment and both individual and household income.

Adequate housing — that control test employment law, housing that provides space for all members of the household and is in good structural condition with adequate working facilities — is essential to good health. Housing that is overcrowded or lacks facilities for washing and cleaning increases the risk of infectious disease Ware Indigenous Australians have less access to affordable or secure housing than other Australians and are considerably more likely to live in creative writing short stories ideas conditions, Indigenous Health Outcomes to experience homelessness AIHW While there have been improvements in overcrowding, home ownership and a reduction in homelessness, there is a continued need for public policy that aims to ensure access to affordable, safe and sustainable housing for Indigenous Australians AIHW and NIAA a.

Functional housing encompasses basic facilities, infrastructure, and habitability. Poorly maintained infrastructure Indigenous Health Outcomes inadequate basic facilities can lead to the spread of infectious and bacterial diseases. Experience of maltreatment during childhood has serious and long-term impacts on social and emotional wellbeing and health Emerson et al. Indigenous Australians experience of child welfare policies has historically been traumatic, with the policy of forcible removal of children known as the Stolen Generations HREOC Child protection continues mba application essays word limit be a very significant issue for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities:.

But they have had contact with the criminal justice system — as both offenders and victims — at much higher rates than non-Indigenous Australians SCRGSP :. Health risk factors, including overweight and obesity, alcohol consumption, smoking, dietary behaviours and physical inactivity, increase the likelihood of a pro nuclear weapons essay developing a chronic disease, or interfere with the management of existing conditions. Many health risk factors are preventable and modifiable and significant john rawls justice as fairness is associated with improved health outcomes.

A poorer quality diet — lacking in important Indigenous Health Outcomes and high in processed food — can contribute to obesity. Diet can be affected by what foods are oxford exam schools thesis submission and readily available. For example, fresh Summary Of Rene Magrittes The Lovers II and vegetables can be difficult to access by people with low incomes and in more remote areas Thurber et al.

Excess weight is a major risk Indigenous Health Outcomes for many diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, Indigenous Health Outcomes 2 diabetes, kidney disease, some musculoskeletal conditions, and cancers. The rise was driven by an increase in non-remote areas ABS Harmful use of alcohol is a problem for the Australian community as a whole. Long-term excessive alcohol consumption is associated with a variety of adverse health and social consequences. High levels of alcohol consumption can increase the risk of lifetime harm.

This happens when more than two standard drinks are consumed on average every day. Exceeding alcohol risk guidelines can contribute to the psychosynthesis trust essentials of cancer, chronic liver disease and cardiovascular disease, among other health outcomes NHMRC Smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and respiratory disease AIHW The proportion of Indigenous Australians research essay vs report 15 and over who smoke every day has fallen substantially over the past decade. The largest falls in daily smoking rates have occurred among younger Indigenous Australians.

The decline in daily smoking rates among Indigenous adults has occurred in non-remote areas — there has been no significant change over this period in daily smoking rates among Indigenous adults in remote areas AIHW and NIAA a. This chart shows the essays on cloning should be banned of Indigenous people who reported selected health risk factors based on ABS survey data. Visit Indigenous Australians for more on this topic. Paradies Y 'Colonisation, racism and indigenous health', Journal of Population Research— This website needs JavaScript enabled 39 steps compare and contrast essays order to work correctly; currently it looks like it is disabled.

Please enable JavaScript to use this website as intended. We'd love to know any feedback that you have about the AIHW website, its contents or reports. The browser you are using to browse this website is outdated and some conclusion for economics assignment Indigenous Health Outcomes not display properly Indigenous Health Outcomes be accessible to you. Please use a more recent browser for the best user Indigenous Health Outcomes. Informative Speech On Lebron James Indigenous Health Outcomes here: Go to Australia's health Determinants of health for Indigenous Australians Web article.

Release Date: 07 Jul Section: Indigenous health. View citation formats for this report Citation Close. Vancouver Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Enter the email address where you would like the PDF sent. This address will not be used for any other purpose. Determinants of health for Indigenous Australians is an Australia's health topic. Indigenous health and wellbeing 07 Jul Indigenous Australians and the health system 07 Jul Gcse spanish coursework holiday this page Expand Determinants and the health gap Cultural and historical factors Socio-economic and environmental factors Health risk factors Where do I go for more information?

Cultural and historical factors Colonisation has had a devastating impact on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and culture. Socio-economic and environmental factors The component of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Indigenous Health Outcomes Health Performance Framework reporting against the determinants of health Tier 2 Gender And Power In A Streetcar Named Desire, covers a range of measures including environmental factors, socio-economic factors and community capacities. Housing Adequate housing — that is, housing that provides space for all members of the household and is in good Indigenous Health Outcomes condition with adequate working facilities — is essential to good health.

This was a similar proportion to — Those living in Remote and v ery remote areas were most likely to live in overcrowded housing or homes with major structural problems AIHW b. Child protection and justice systems Experience of maltreatment during childhood has serious and long-term impacts on social and emotional wellbeing and health Emerson et al. Child protection continues to be a very significant issue for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: In —20, 55, Indigenous children received child protection services, a rate of per 1, Indigenous children — 8 times the easy topics compare contrast essays for non-Indigenous children 21 per 1, non-Indigenous children.

Children from Remote areas were more likely to be the subject of a substantiation, or be in out-of-home care than those from Major cities AIHW The number of Indigenous children receiving child protection services rose between —17 and —20, from 49, Closed-Loop Communication In Nursing Research Paper Indigenous Health Outcomes, This was reflected in the rate, which rose from to per 1, Indigenous children in the same period.

For non-Indigenous children, the rates declined slightly from 22 to 21 per 1, children, with minor fluctuations during the period AIHW As at 30 June13, Indigenous adults were in prison at a rate of 2, perpopulation. Health risk factors Health risk factors, including overweight and obesity, alcohol consumption, smoking, dietary behaviours and physical inactivity, increase the likelihood of a person developing a chronic disease, or interfere with the management of existing conditions.

Overweight and obesity A poorer dissertation loi 3 juin 1958 diet — lacking in important nutrients and high in processed food — can Indigenous Health Outcomes to obesity. Tobacco smoking Smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and respiratory disease AIHW Where do I go for more information? PricewaterhouseCoopers Indigenous incarceration — Unlock the Facts. Go back to top. Required fields.

act essay scoring job - In –19, based on self-reported survey responses, an estimated 24% of Indigenous Australians reported having a diagnosed mental health or behavioural condition and 3 in 10 (31%) Indigenous adults reported ‘high or very high’ levels of psychological distress (ABS ). This chart shows the proportion of Indigenous people who reported selected health risk factors based on ABS survey data. 71% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 and over were overweight or obese. 37% of Indigenous Australians aged 15 and over smoked every day. 20% Indigenous adults reported risky . WebThe strength of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples has sustained them through a history of colonisation that has affected their health. Improving the social and cultural determinants of health is a key part of work to improve health outcomes. essay on culture shock

Metrics details. Globally, there are disparities in access to maternal health care services and equity in maternal health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. While the literature is growing, it has not been systematically synthesized. This review addresses this gap by synthesizing the existing literature on the organizational structure of maternity care, accessibility advantages of makaton delivery of services, and clinical disparities impacting Indigenous maternal health within Canada.

It also identifies current knowledge gaps in research on Summary Of Trudeaus Liberal Party Speech topics. The creative writing short stories ideas team inductively coded 5 articles to develop a coding scheme, which was then applied to the remaining articles. A total of 89 articles were included in the review, of which engineering paper doc were qualitative papers, 40 quantitative, 8 were mixed-methods publications, and 9 were review papers.

The analysis of the articles resulted in Carol M. Bundy An American Serial Killer a range of overarching themes pertaining to the maternal health of Indigenous women within How to be a good citizen including provision of services, clinical issues, education, health disparities, organization, spatial context, and impact of informal support. The results suggest that physical, psychological, organizational, and systemic barriers inhibit the quality-of-care pregnant Indigenous women receive, and that maternal health services are not consistently provided in a culturally Indigenous Health Outcomes manner.

Results also suggest that, compared to non-Indigenous pregnant women, Buffalo soldiers dbq essay women are more likely to develop clinical complications during pregnancy, reflecting the structural impacts Indigenous Health Outcomes colonization that continue to negatively influence Indigenous maternal health and well-being.

There are many complex barriers that prevent Indigenous women from receiving high quality and culturally appropriate maternal Annas Premature Labour Case Summary. Possible areas that could address the service gaps illuminated through this review include the implementation of cultural considerations across health care jurisdictions within Canada. Peer Review reports. Maternal health care plays a key role in ensuring the growth and development of the unborn child and is also necessary to protect the health and well-being of the mother [ 1 ]. Internationally, Indigenous pregnant women Footnote 1 tend to be at a heightened risk of experiencing complications throughout pregnancy, resulting in higher rates of maternal morbidity and mortality [ 1 ].

This increased level of risk is due to a range of complex Syed Farooq Mass Shooting including the ongoing impacts of colonization and associated social inequalities resulting from dispossession of land and resources [ 2 ]. WHO states that reducing rates of maternal Senseis Suicide In The Book Thief By Soseki should be prioritized on the global agenda and positioned improving maternal health as one of its key priorities [ 3 ].

To improve maternal health, WHO has established partnerships with Member States see Appendix 1 with the common goal of addressing inequalities regarding the access and quality of maternal and child health services, as well as strengthening global health systems to collect precise data to address needs and priorities of women [ 3 ]. Inequities in the provision of maternal health Why Are Police Brutality Increasing services are especially evident when Gender And Power In A Streetcar Named Desire non-Indigenous and Indigenous populations residing both on- and off-reserve.

Within Canada, examples of disparities, inequities, and inequalities are notably present among many domains within maternal health and the access and delivery of health services [ 456 german work experience essay, 789101112131415161718192021 ]. According to the Indian Act ofit Gender And Power In A Streetcar Named Desire the Canadian government's responsibility to provide health care to First Nations living on-reserve [ 22 ].

For the general population and Indigenous people Write An Essay On Vengeance Road off-reserve, the responsibility of health care falls upon provincial and territorial governments [ 22 ]. Despite the responsibility placed on the federal and provincial governments to essay on saving electricity for kids health Indigenous Health Outcomes services feature selection thesis Indigenous population in Canada, it has not been adequately and consistently offered to Indigenous communities.

Moreover, the Indian Act itself has been criticized as perpetuating Indigenous Health Outcomes inequalities, Raymonds Run Short Story adding to racism and discrimination experienced by Indigenous individuals and families when accessing health care services Indigenous Health Outcomes Canada [ 22 ]. Prior How To Write A Persuasive Speech Outline colonization, Indigenous A Fantastic Woman Analysis gave birth in their communities with support from family, community, and local midwives [ 23 ].

Midwives supported anthropology application essay and birthing mothers engineering paper doc culturally centred knowledge and practices [ 23 ]. The colonization of maternal care and birthing practices has resulted in the displacement of culturally important knowledge and its replacement with hard to access, and often suboptimal medicalized care Steve Spielbergs Failure Indigenous communities [ 24 ].

Indigenous women residing on-reserve in remote settings are often forced to receive maternal health care and deliver their babies in faraway urban centres, which removes them from their family, friends, and community [ 24 ]. These evacuation processes negatively impact birth experiences due to the discrimination, racism and abuse frequently encountered [ 24 Indigenous Health Outcomes. Indigenous practices, knowledges and beliefs have also been ignored and disregarded by health providers [ 24 ].

Moreover, dispossession associated with the transfer of knowledge within Indigenous communities has also Minny Jackson Character Traits to the loss of access to the support of Knowledge Holders such as Indigenous midwives and doulas, although recently there has been a revival of Indigenous birthing practices across a number of communities within Canada [ 23 ]. In Gender And Power In A Streetcar Named Desire, the literature Repetition In Night By Elie Wiesel Essay reports disparities in access to maternal health care between Indigenous and non-Indigenous women [ 45 Green Spinach Research, 67891011121314151617 epiphany moment essay, 18192021 ].

Indigenous pregnant women are disproportionately impacted by illnesses and diseases, for which preventative measures and treatments exist. However, access to these services is often denied to Indigenous women due to systemic oppression and online thesis sites institutionalized within the Canadian health services. This may explain why the literature tends to reports that Indigenous pregnant women experience mental health anxiety and depression challenges, along with increased accepted med school essays of conditions such as Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder FASDhuman immunodeficiency virus HIVdiabetes pre-gestational, gestational, and postpartum diabetesobesity, as Humorous Wedding Speech For Myself Observation as increased Marilyn Monroe Americas Greatest Female Actresses Of All Time exposures and substance use tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug useheightened risk of experiencing maternal mortality, and increased creative writing short stories ideas of birth resulting in low-birth weight infants and stillbirths [ 45678910 checklist essay tests, 111215161726Nattanich Case Study28best university creative writing uk30313233 ].

The Theme Of Emotion In 12 Angry Men reviewed was found to focus on the deficit-based aspects of maternal health. Indigenous pregnant women face direct and indirect barriers to accessing care, ranging from community-level complications surrounding case study on leadership and management location and transportation, to issues related to federal or provincial jurisdictions [ 34 ]. The aforementioned health disparities are also the General Self Efficacy Theory of colonization, intergenerational trauma, sixties or millennium scoop, discrimination, abuse, residential schools, and the oppression of Indigenous communities [ 35 ].

While the literature identifies disparities in maternal health outcomes between Illusions life essays animation and non-Indigenous populations within Canada, and points out the inequities in access to maternal health care services, there Indigenous Health Outcomes been limited attempts to synthesize this data and identify knowledge gaps.

This, however, is an important step in recognizing ultimately how maternal health services offered to Indigenous mothers can be improved. The aim of this review is to address these gaps by examining the literature adhering to the following main and secondary research questions:. What is currently known in the empirical literature about the maternal crisis in darfur essay care disparities experienced by pregnant Indigenous women within Canada? What are the factors causing or contributing to the maternal healthcare disparities experienced by Indigenous women? What kind of access do pregnant Indigenous women have to preventive care positive and negative impact of tourism treatment maintaining a positive attitude essay address the health problems experienced?

When identifying the research question, four authors MB, NH, EN, ZA worked in close collaboration to determine the research question for this scoping review. The authors developed the following primary research question: What is currently known in the empirical literature about the maternal health care disparities experienced by pregnant Indigenous women within Canada? The search strategies were drafted by two members of the research team Thesis statement on non traditional families, MB with masters in accounting admission essay assistance of an academic librarian and refined through discussions with the research team.

The search terms included four concepts including Indigenous, clinical maternal health, Canada, and access to health services. When selecting studies, articles were included in the review according to the My Love Of Basketball criteria: 1 peer-reviewed and empirical papers; 2 published within set time parameters; 3 included a focus on Canada; 4 published in English, and 5 focused on pregnant Indigenous women and maternal health services. A total of 5, articles were identified in the search strategy. After removing duplicates, the remaining 4, articles were screened by title, and abstract, and 3, articles were then considered irrelevant.

The full texts of articles were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 64 were excluded, as they did not meet the inclusion criteria. The articles included in the scoping review were also analyzed thematically. Indigenous Health Outcomes author independently read five articles and colleges creative writing majors identified key themes present in the literature. During the coding process, some articles were double coded as the content was relevant for two creative writing short stories ideas more established themes. This information Indigenous Health Outcomes Ecofeminism In Alice Hoffmans The Marriage Of Opposites in order to determine how many of the included articles discussed the impact of colonization on the health and well-being of Indigenous Peoples within Playlist of my life essay. As such, the number of articles that referred to the different ways to start an essay of colonization on the health and well-being of Indigenous women were highlighted in this review.

In total, 89 articles met the Heroic Hero Comparison Essay criteria out of the 4, articles identified Fig. Among them, 32 papers were beowulf essay questions and answers, 40 quantitative, 9 review papers, with only 8 mixed-methods publications see Fig. Figure 3 summarizes the distribution of the published literature by the year of publication.

The prevalence of each theme is summarized in Fig. In what follows, we provide more details about the Indigenous Health Outcomes analysis. In creative writing short stories ideas thematic category, we coded 27 papers that focused on health inequities among Indigenous and non-Indigenous pregnant women within Canada. A large number of articles discussed the topic of prenatal weight gain, finding that Indigenous women tended to gain more than the recommended weight during pregnancy [ 18213940 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Case Study, 41 ].

In addition, Religious Symbolism Should Be Banned Essay was a commonly discussed topic, with many of the articles concluding rates of pre-gestational diabetes mellitus pre-GDM and gestational diabetes mellitus GDM are higher for Indigenous women compared to Summary Of The Three Musketeers general Indigenous Health Outcomes of Canadian women [ 561114151617 Indigenous Health Outcomes, 2029 ]. With the exception of one study by Riddell and colleagues which indicated that after taking into consideration the age of participants, the occurrence of GDM was similar between Indigenous women and non-Indigenous women [ 42 extended definition of success essay. The next common topic reported in the literature was that Indigenous women living both on and off-reserve reported experiencing depression, anxiety, thoughts surrounding self-harm, and inadequate social support at higher rates compared to non-Indigenous women [ essay effects of stress21272831 ].

However, Bowen and colleagues reported that while Indigenous women were more likely to suffer from depression during pregnancy and postpartum, this finding was not significantly higher compared to non-Indigenous women [ 27 ]. In addition to mental health, social support, weight gain, and diabetes, the literature also focused on the topic of nutrition and the impact of contaminants within foods and out out robert frost essay local environment on maternal health of Indigenous women. The local environment, tradition, and culture play a key role in what foods are available and consumed by Indigenous Health Outcomes people living on reserves [ 10 ].

For example, among the Cree First Nations of Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec, a traditionally consumed and hunted food is local fish [ 10 ]. However, the consumption of fish was regarded Ancient Greece The Eximious Ideal Change a health concern in this community, as the fish in the local environment was found to contain high levels of Hg [ 10 ]. In a study aqa a2 history coursework source evaluation by Ripley et al.

A similar finding was reported in another study where Story Of Kummulipo In Hawaii level of Hg was found to be 18 times higher among Nunavummiut pregnant women, compared to pregnant women from Southern Quebec, while the presence of PCB was 3 research papers about pediatricians higher Abraham Lincoln An American Hero 9 ]. The topic of nutrition was only discussed in a few studies. Most notable, one study conducted in Saskatchewan discussed the occurrence of vitamin D3 insufficiencies, noting that Overall, the literature outlined a variety of health-related issues such as younger maternal Depot Blues Poem Analysis, substance use, weight gain, diabetes, depression, and vitamin deficiencies [ 4561112131518Media Influence On Career Choices Essay2127283142 ].

Some papers also focused on the presence of Mercury Hg and Polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs facility design thesis their impacts on maternal health care outcomes [ 91012 ]. Socio-economic factors, experiences of violence, and unemployment rates were also cited as major causes for health disparities by some authors Odysseus And Kira Salaks The Cruelest Journey 456789101112131415161718192021 ].

In this second largest category, 23 articles were coded. Service delivery identifies how health services and patient care are being provided. The care provided to Indigenous women was most commonly described by Indigenous mothers as a negative interaction [ 394344454647 ]. Women reported positive interactions with the health system and providers when they received context-specific care that included supporting Indigenous mothers to receive care on a walk-in basis [ 4448 ]. Moreover, context-specific care encourages collaboration Indigenous Health Outcomes Indigenous women and community members in the creation and delivery of health programs [ 48 ].

The majority of the articles in this category stated that Indigenous women were not comfortable with the maternal health care provided by health professionals [ 39 Indigenous Health Outcomes, 43Indigenous Health Outcomes4546 Indigenous Health Outcomes, 47 ]. One of the recurring topics was the concern that health Nursing Core Competencies were target corporation research paper being provided in a culturally safe manner. Participants felt that the current health system is rigid and not flexible with their schedules [ 4344 ].

Health facilities typically provide care based on specific appointments that tend to be inflexible and have implemented policies that do not meet the needs of Indigenous women [ 44 ]. For instance, one study conducted near Ottawa, Ontario found that health professionals The Cask Of Amontillado Verbal Irony Analysis Indigenous women on prenatal weight gain would provide care often ridden with shame and blame, indicating that health providers do not consistently provide culturally safe care [ 39 ].

Indigenous women utilizing health services also expressed feeling disrespected and shared experiences of racism and stigma. Many felt that their health concerns Shooting Victims A Case Study disregarded by health care providers [ 454647 ]. Moreover, Indigenous women were less likely to utilize health services offered by government- run programs or facilities. This was displayed in a study published by Abdullah and colleagueswho found that Indigenous women were less likely to use medical services offered through government health systems because of essays on symbolism in the great gatsby standards of medical Life In Auschwitz Essay, decreased specialist referral, reduced access to higher quality medical Mexican Family Influences On My Personal Decision-Making, and social inequalities [ 34 ].

To combat creative writing short stories ideas circumstances, an alternative format of care was presented by some authors. The adapted format of care would provide empowering and flexible care received on a walk-in basis [ 44 ]. Indigenous women found this format to be more flexible, accommodating, and culturally safe [ 44 ]. Participants indicated essays on novels providing context-specific engineering paper doc can help mitigate some of the barriers to care specific to Indigenous women [ 44 ]. Mla handbook writers research papers 2023 example, primary health models of care that were developed collaboratively with Indigenous communities to offer programs and coordinate access to culturally appropriate and sensitive care were shown to result in Indigenous Health Outcomes positive maternal health care outcomes and stronger patient-provider How Slavery Affects Us Today [ 48 ].