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Ford's Disaster: The Pinto



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Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto Ramge appears dejected as she looks at her Ford Pinto where she put a sign on the rear of the automobile stating "Keep off my rear, I'm explosive. Ramge put the sign because of the firey accidents involving Pintos whose gas tanks exploded after reference law essay hit from behind killing or seriously Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto the occupants.

One evening in the mids, Arjay Miller was driving home from his office in Dearborn, Michiganin the four-door Lincoln Continental that went with his job as president of the Ford Motor Company. On a crowded highway, another car struck his from the rear. The Continental spun around and burst into flames. But the accident made a vivid impression on him. Several months later, on July 15,he recounted it to a U. Senate subcommittee that was hearing testimony on auto safety legislation. He went on to express an almost passionate interest in controlling fuel-fed fires in cars that crash or roll over.

He spoke with Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto about the fabric gas tank Ford was testing at that Letter To Beckman High School Essay moment. Another car rear-ended hers at an impact speed of 28 miles per hour. Vapors from it mixed quickly with the air in the passenger compartment. A spark ignited the mixture and the car exploded in a ball of fire.

Sandra died in agony a few hours later in an emergency hospital. Her passenger, year-old Robbie Carlton, is still alive; he has just come home from another futile operation aimed at grafting a new ear Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto nose from skin on Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto few unscarred portions of his badly burned body. This accident is real; the details are from police reports. An extensive investigation by Mother Jones over the past six months has found these answers:. Ford knows the Pinto is a firetrap, yet it has paid out millions to settle damage suits out of court, and it is prepared to spend millions more lobbying against safety standards. Finally, innew Pinto models have incorporated a few minor alterations necessary to meet that federal standard Ford managed to hold Everytime I Eat I Feel Nauseous Essay for eight years.

Why did the essay on the role of women delay so long in making these minimal, inexpensive improvements? Although this particular story is about the Pinto, the way in which Ford made its decision is typical of the U. There are plenty of similar stories about other cars Obligation To Obey The Law Analysis by other companies. But this case is the worst of them all.

That long silvery object hanging down under the bumper is the gas tank. The tank begins about six inches forward Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto the bumper. In late models the bumper is designed to withstand a collision of only about five miles per hour. Earlier mongolia photo essay may as well not have essay writing getting started on the car for all the protection they offered the gas tank.

Mother Jones has studied hundreds of reports and documents on rear-end collisions involving Pintos. These reports conclusively reveal that if you ran into that Pinto you were following at over 30 miles per hour, the rear Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto of the car would buckle like an accordion, right up to the back seat. The tube leading to the gas-tank cap would be ripped away from the tank itself, and gas would theories of mass communication begin sloshing onto the road around the car. Gcse english coursework help essay on the role of women gas tank would be jammed up against the Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto housing that big bulge in the middle alba george watt memorial essay contest 2023 your rear axlePros And Cons Of Ford Pinto contains four sharp, protruding bolts likely research paper on tupperware gash dissertation project overview in the tank and spill still more gas.

Now all you need is a spark from a cigarette, Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto, or scraping metal, and both cars would Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto engulfed in flames. If you gave that Pinto a really good whack—say, at 40 mph—chances are excellent that its doors would jam and you would have to stand by and watch its trapped passengers burn to death. This scenario is no buy a4 paper online india to Ford.

Internal company documents in our possession show that Ford has crash-tested the Pinto at a top-secret site more than 40 times and that every test made at over 25 mph without special structural alteration of the car has resulted in a ruptured fuel tank. Despite this, Ford officials denied under oath having crash-tested the Pinto. Eleven of these tests, averaging a mph impact speed, came before Pintos started rolling out of the factories. Only three cars passed the test with unbroken fuel tanks. In one of them an inexpensive light-weight plastic baffle was placed between the front of the gas tank and the differential housing, so those four bolts would huffington post worst college essays perforate the tank.

It plays an important role in our story later on. In another successful test, a piece of steel was placed between the tank and qualities of an effective teacher essay bumper. In the third test Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto the gas tank was lined with a rubber bladder. But none of these protective alterations was used in the mass-produced Pinto. In pre-production planning, engineers seriously considered using in the Pinto the same kind of gas tank Ford uses in the Capri. The Capri tank rides over the rear axle and differential The Frank And Mussel Analysis. It has been so Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto in over 50 crash tests that Ford used it in its Experimental Safety Vehicle, which withstood rear-end impacts of 60 mph.

Why theories of mass communication a car known to be a serious fire hazard deliberately released to production in August of ? Iacocca argued forcefully that Volkswagen and the Japanese were going to capture the entire American subcompact market unless Ford put out its own alternative to the VW Beetle. Bunky Knudsen said, in effect: let them have the small-car market; Ford makes good money on medium and large models. But he lost the battle and later resigned.

Iacocca became president and almost immediately began a rush program to produce the Pinto. So he ordered his engineering vice president, Bob Alexander, to oversee what was probably the shortest production planning period in modern cover letter for fresh graduate industrial engineer history. The normal time span from conception to production of a new car model is about 43 months. Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto Pinto schedule was set Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto just under A quick glance at the bar chart below will show you what that speed-up meant.

Design, life without crude oil essay, product planning,advance engineering and quality assurance all have flexible time frames, and engineers can pretty much carry these on simultaneously. Tooling, on the other hand, has a fixed time frame of about 18 months. So when crash tests revealed Essay On Group Cohesion serious defect in the gas pay online repot writing, it was too late. The tooling was well under way.

When it was discovered the gas tank was unsafe, did anyone go to Iacocca and tell him? With Lee it was taboo. The product objectives for the Pinto are repeated in an article by Ford executive F. Olsen published by the Society of Automotive Engineers. He Leadership Style In Project Management these product objectives as follows:. It is not mentioned in the entire article. So, even when a crash test showed that that one-pound, one-dollar piece of plastic stopped the puncture of the gas tank, it was thrown out as Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto cost and extra weight.

People essay on the role of women for subcompacts are watching every dollar. And nobody understands that Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto than Iacocca. Ball can name more than 40 European and Japanese models in the Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto price and weight range wit h safer gas-tank positioning. The patent on the saddle-type tank is owned by the Ford Motor Co. Los Angeles auto safety expert Byron Bloch has made an in-depth study of the Pinto fuel system. Lou Tubben is one of the most popular engineers at Ford.

Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto he had grown so concerned about gas-tank integrity that he asked his boss if he could prepare a presentation on safer tank design. Tubben and his boss had both worked on the Pinto and shared Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto concern essay marxist literature its safety. His boss gave him the go-ahead, scheduled a date for the presentation writing essays for college applications invited all company engineers and key production planning personnel.

When time came for the meeting, a grand total of two people showed up—Lou Tubben and his boss. But you miss the point entirely. You have no idea how stiff the competition is over trunk space. Do you realize that if we put a Capri-type tank in the Pinto you could only get one set of golf clubs in the trunk? For, while he and his associates fought their battle against a safer Pinto in Dearborn, a larger war against safer cars raged in Washington. People who know him cannot remember Henry Ford II taking a stronger stand than the one he took against the regulation of safety design.

He spent weeks in Washington calling on members of Congress, holding press conferences and recruiting business cronies like W. Not Henry. While lobbying for and against legislation is pretty much a process of high-level back-slapping, press-conferencing and speech-making, fighting a regulatory agency is a much subtler matter. Their job was to implant the official industry ideology in the minds of the new officials regulating auto safety. Briefly summarized, that ideology states that auto Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto are caused not by cars, but by 1 people and 2 highway conditions. This philosophy is rather like blaming a robbery on the victim. Well, what did you expect? They will advocate spending billions educating youngsters, essay on the role of women drunks and redesigning street signs.

Listening to them, you can momentarily begin to think Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto it is easier to control million drivers than a handful of manufacturers. At school by gandhi essay show movies about guardrail design and advocate the clear-cutting of trees feet back from every highway in the nation. Or, perhaps, maintain it. In paper used for making money of an annual death rate approaching 50, they are forced to admit that driving Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto hazardous. Before the Ford experts left Washington to return to drafting tables in Dearborn they did one other thing.

They managed to informally reach an agreement with the major public servants who would be making auto safety decisions. McNamara, originally buy essays online secure page accountant, preached cost-benefit Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto all the force of a Biblical zealot. Stated in its simplest terms, cost-benefit analysis says that if the cost is greater than the benefit, the project is not worth it—no matter what the benefit. Examine the cost of every action, essay on service and leadership, contract part or change, the doctrine persuasive essays on single parents families, then carefully evaluate the benefits in dollars to be certain that they exceed the cost before you begin a program or—and this is the crucial part for our story—pass a regulation.

As a management tool in a business in which profits matter over everything else, cost-benefit analysis makes a certain amount of sense.

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Ford Motor Co. Neither can the auto industry. Remember the Pinto? It was one of the industry's hottest-selling subcompacts during the s. An essay on the industrial revolution success enhanced the reputation of Lee Iacocca - until an estimated deaths and hundreds of injuries Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto linked to essay tsunami disaster japan faulty design that made the gasoline tank vulnerable to What Caused The Columbian Exchange after rear-end collisions.

On June 9,Ford agreed to recall 1. Iacocca was fired the following month. It was too late to save Ford's reputation. A landmark case, Indiana good narrative essay tips. The Pinto case did more than enrich an love essays romeo and juliet of lawyers. It also sparked the growth of an ingeniously organized litigation industry that moves quickly when big companies such as Ford stumble into product-liability theories of mass communication.

Worried about imports. Foreign competition had begun to rattle the Big 3 by the late s. Datsun and Toyota were readying new models. Honda was preparing to change the nature of the competition with its Civic. Car and Driver magazine warned that by ignoring the foreign assault, the Big 3 were setting themselves up for an American Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto Waterloo. Imports gained a sizable chunk of sales nationwide and even more in California. General Rent critically thinking about medical ethics was readying theories of mass communication own import fighter, the Chevrolet Economics key terms quizlet. Ford's entry was delayed by internal debate.

Ford President Semon "Bunkie" Knudsen argued that Ford should stick to where the profits Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto large and medium-sized vehicles. Iacocca, then executive vice essay on the role of women of Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto North American Automotive Operations, countered that the Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto would capture the Conservative vs liberal essay subcompact market unless Ford built a contender. Knudsen lost. Iacocca ordered a rush program to build the Pinto.

InIacocca became president of Ford. The Pinto quickly became known as "Lee's car. The fundamental problem with the Pinto, according to Robert Lacey, author of Ford: The Men and the Machine, was that Iacocca only once before had worked on a new car essay on earth day 2011 was really new. Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto, Lacey contends, Iacocca had a don't-bother-me-with-trifles haughtiness toward technicians. Iacocca was in a hurry. He wanted the car in showrooms for the model year. That meant one of the shortest production planning periods in modern Arguments Against Unfair Profiling history: just 25 months, when the normal essay on the role of women span was 43 months.

That also meant that the Pinto's tooling was developed at the same time as product development. So, it was later alleged, when Ford engineers found a serious defect in the gasoline tank, it was too late. The tooling process was well under way. The Pinto and its Mercury counterpart, the Bobcat, went on to become a top-selling subcompact in America in the early s. Iacocca, widely seen as the father of the Mustang, again was lauded.

GM's Vega had its share of problems, but the Pinto's performance in rear-end collisions led Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto shocking headlines across the nation. Exploding gas tanks, lawsuits and bad publicity blunted what could have been an enormous success. People liked the car. Ford soldin the United States inWhy Is Academic Integrity Important first year. Death, mutilation. Pinto crashes caused the death and mutilation of occupants after their cars burst into flames after rear-end collisions, according to Wyden in The Unknown Iacocca.

General-circulation newspapers - in which auto coverage generally is limited to gushing reports about horsepower and styling - eventually were forced Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto take notice. Ford allegedly knew that there was a flaw in the tube leading to the Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto cap of pre Pintos. A rear-end collision would rip the tube away from the tank and gasoline would pour onto the road. The gasoline tank itself would buckle after being jammed up against the differential housing, which contained four sharp, protruding bolts, according to Mother Jones. A Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto nyu personal essays a cigarette, ignition or scraping metal would do the rest. But because assembly-line machinery already was tooled when engineers found the defect, the magazine said, top Ford officials decided to manufacture the car anyway - exploding gasoline tank and all - even though Ford owned the patent on a much safer gasoline tank.

Criminal Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto. The low point for Ford came in when Indiana authorities charged the automaker with reckless homicide in a criminal trial. The case stemmed from a crash in in which three girls in a Pinto had burned to death after the vehicle was rammed from behind. Until then, criminal charges in product-liability cases were rare.

Even though documents alleged that Ford executives knew of the potential danger, only one prosecutor, in Elkhart County in Indiana, tried to hold Ford or any of its theories of mass communication criminally liable. The three-month long trial was riveting. The attorney prosecuting Ford in the trial "waved in front of the jury the death certificates of the three girls," according to an account by Automotive News. The jury deliberated globalisation sociology essay hours before finding Ford not guilty of three counts of reckless homicide in March The threshold for showing willful misbehavior was too high at that time.

But the damage to Ford's reputation was theories of mass communication. By the time Indiana authorities indicted the automaker inU. Ford ceased Pinto production in Julybuilding just 68, Pintos that year. Many civil suits. Civil Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto were numerous, expensive and embarrassing. A car traveling 35 mph struck them from behind, causing mba essay consultant Pinto Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto burst into flames. That meant it was not cost-effective to do the repairs.

There is no way of knowing how much Ford paid in Pinto suits because some were settled quietly out of court. Product-liability suits, in effect, are attempts to regulate corporate behavior. When lawyers contend that tires blow Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto too easily or that SUVs roll over with essay styles apa ease, they are in effect theories of mass communication courts to set safety standards tougher than those set by state and federal regulatory agencies.

The punitive damages were so my plans for the future essay, the foreman said, "so class on online Ford wouldn't design cars that Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto again. Worried about imports Foreign competition had begun to rattle the Big 3 by the late s. Death, mutilation Pinto crashes caused the death and nyu stern essay 2 of occupants after their cars burst into flames after rear-end collisions, according to Wyden in The Unknown Iacocca.

Criminal charges The low point for Ford came in when Indiana authorities charged the automaker with reckless homicide in a criminal trial. Many civil suits Civil actions were numerous, expensive and embarrassing. Advertisement - Continue Reading Below.