WRITING SERVICE AT YOUR CONVENIENCE

An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police

Choose us for exceptional, budget-friendly solutions to any assignment challenge.

Click for pro support

Trusted by 1,5M+ happy students

ResellerRatings

4,9

Sitejabber

4,8

Reviews.io

4,9

Solving these issues to make you life easier:

Struggles with writing

You independently complete homework but seek professional guidance.

Stress overload

You feel overwhelmed by the workload and are anxious about finishing assignments.

Lack of time

You struggle to balance school and work, leaving little time for rest.

Check out our top services:

Affordable pricing, transparent process - trustworthy assistance guaranteed!

Essay

Writing

Create powerful essays with our talented writers, no matter the subject.

$12per page

Get started

Rewriting

Revamp your essay with our skilled rewriters, regardless of complexity.

$8.4per page

Get started

Editing

Enhance your essay with our experienced editors, tackling any topic with ease.

$6per page

Get started

Reserch paper

Writing

Crafting thorough and compelling research papers on diverse topics with impeccable accuracy.

$13per page

Get started

Rewriting

Rewriting a research paper on any subject while showcasing your unique writing style.

$9.1per page

Get started

Editing

Refining research papers on all subject matters to the utmost degree of quality and clarity.

$6.5per page

Get started

Discussion Post

Writing

Expertly craft posts on any topic and complexity to spark engaging and insightful discussions.

$12per page

Get started

Rewriting

Rephrase and enhance any existing discussion posts with fresh ideas and improved clarity.

$8.4per page

Get started

Editing

Revise your discussion posts on any subject to ensure they are clear, concise, and impactful.

$6per page

Get started

Presentation

Writing

Our team creates captivating PowerPoint presentations that cater to any subject matter.

$6per page

Get started

Rewriting

We transform your boring presentation into a dynamic and sophisticated piece, regardless of its complexity.

$4.2per page

Get started

Editing

Our skilled editors amend your presentation to maximize its effectiveness, no matter the topic's intricacy.

$3per page

Get started

Case Study

Writing

Our experts produce insightful case studies tailored to the specifics of any subject.

$12per page

Get started

Rewriting

Our pros revamp your case study, retaining its complexity while improving its clarity and persuasiveness.

$8.4per page

Get started

Editing

Our experienced editors enhance your case study's impact and readability, regardless of its topic's intricacies.

$6per page

Get started

Coursework

Writing

Let our experts tackle any and every subject with ease for a top-notch coursework.

$14per page

Get started

Rewriting

Transform your coursework into a work of art, no matter how complicated the topic may be.

$9.8per page

Get started

Editing

Attain perfection with your coursework, no matter the subject.

$7per page

Get started

Report

Writing

Expertly craft compelling reports on any subject, no matter how complex.

$12per page

Get started

Rewriting

Transform complex, dry reports into engaging, effective narratives.

$8.4per page

Get started

Editing

Elevate your reports on any topic to professional standards through precise editing.

$6per page

Get started

Native writers for authentic content

 Experience matters: only the best American and Canadian writers with 3+ years of academic writing experience.

Mike L.
4.9
(1 891)
Bachelor’s
Degree
4 848
Total orders
Connect with writer
Lily Sh.
5.0
(2 426)
Master’s
Degree
5 149
Total orders
Connect with writer
Max A.
4.9
(2 812)
Master’s
Degree
5 365
Total orders
Connect with writer
Opiyo P.
4.9
(1 975)
Bachelor’s
Degree
6 176
Total orders
Connect with writer
Miranda L.
4.8
(2 761)
Master’s
Degree
6 157
Total orders
Connect with writer
Ellie K.
4.9
(2 521)
Master’s
Degree
6 248
Total orders
Connect with writer
Charles K.
5.0
(3 499)
Master’s
Degree
6 248
Total orders
Connect with writer
Antony M.
5.0
(3 351)
Bachelor’s
Degree
7 321
Total orders
Connect with writer
Ida M.
5.0
(3 545)
Bachelor’s
Degree
8 643
Total orders
Connect with writer
Eden S.
4.9
(3 619)
Master’s
Degree
9 474
Total orders
Connect with writer
Chris Rb.
4.7
(3 619)
Bachelor’s
Degree
9 474
Total orders
Connect with writer
Johnny J.
4.8
(11 530)
Master’s
Degree
29 399
Total orders
Connect with writer

Check out the reviews

 Excellence awaits! Explore our reviews to find out why we're your best choice!

Customer ID: 315479
06/17/2023

Research paper

Im in love with this service!!!!!! Everything is so effortless and the content is on point. Highly recommend giving it a try

Customer ID: 315479
06/01/2023

Essay (any type)

Okay I'm impressed. Everything is handled with such care and precision, it's like they're reading my mind. Thanks a lot

Customer ID: 815793
05/18/2023

Lab Report

This service is a dream come true for students, so easy and the results are always lit. THANKS

Customer ID: 473628
05/18/2023

Article Review

I'm absolutely amazed by the service I received! The content was flawless and the process was incredibly easy. Highly recommended for anyone in need of writing assistance!

Customer ID: 651940
05/03/2023

Article Writing

I can't believe how fast and attentive they were! It felt like they were reading my mind. Thank you so much for helping me out!

Customer ID: 894275
04/25/2023

Research paper

Wow! Totally exceeded my expectations. The quality of work was outstanding and the support team was incredibly helpful. I'm beyond satisfied!

Customer ID: 207436
04/10/2023

Coursework

I was in a tight spot with a deadline approaching, but this service saved me! They delivered an impeccable piece that met all my requirements.

Customer ID: 638901
03/27/2023

PowerPoint Presentation

Incredible attention to detail! The ppt looked good, made sense and had all the right references.

Customer ID: 714582
03/19/2023

Essay (any type)

This service made the essay writing process so much easier for me. They truly understood my style and delivered an essay that perfectly reflected my thoughts. Extremely satisfied!

Customer ID: 329467
03/08/2023

Lab Report

The team behind this service is simply exceptional. They guided me throughout the entire process, providing valuable insights and assistance.

Customer ID: 567809
03/01/2023

Admission Essay

I was skeptical about using such services, but they completely changed my perspective. The writer I worked with was knowledgeable and receptive to my feedback. Plus the work they delivered was just what I needed.

Customer ID: 983421
02/24/2023

Article Review

This service is a lifesaver! The writers are incredibly versatile and knowledgeable, capable of handling any topic. They helped me with a challenging subject and delivered an impressive essay.

Customer ID: 126738
02/08/2023

Essay (any type)

I'm extremely grateful for the professionalism and dedication shown by this service. They delivered a unique and original piece that was thoroughly researched. Highly recommended!

Customer ID: 875649
02/02/2023

Case Study

Working with this service was a breeze. The process was simple and the writer kept me updated throughout. The final result was a well-crafted, tailored piece.

Customer ID: 492365
01/29/2023

Essay (any type)

I stumbled upon this service and it turned out to be a gem. Not only did they deliver an exceptional essay, but they also provided valuable suggestions for improvement. They truly go above and beyond!

Discover our impressive feature set!

Native English-speaking writers

Get peace of mind with our trustworthy native writers' work.

24/7 support

From dusk to dawn, our quality support team has your back.

Plagiarism? Never

Every piece is original with a free plagiarism report.

Lowest prices

Top-notch quality meets affordability, starting at just $10.8 per page.

How to order

1

Provide instructions

Place an order with explicit guidelines

2

Pick your expert

Find the ideal expert to work with

3

Check the results

Proceed with payment once you accept the work

Frequently asked questions

Who are the writers at EssayPro?

How fast can you finish my order?

Is your service offering any complimentary features?

How secure is using EssayPro?

Why Racial Profiling Is a Bad Idea

Rated 4/5 based on 142 customer reviews June 25, 2023


Racial Profiling | American Civil Liberties Union

quoting internet sources in essay - literary thesis paper

Interpretive essay for night

Racial Disparities in Law Enforcement Stops - Public Policy Institute of California

lean research paper - economic thesis of the federalist papers

Thesis full width header 1.8

Race and Criminal Justice | American Civil Liberties Union

thesis statement for a procedure - John Brown Poem Analysis

Thesis restaurant skin

Racial Profiling Is Ineffective, Distracting, and Detrimental to Public Safety | ACLU

france accounting standards paper - ap essay great expectations

Thesis on feuerbach

Precognitive Police By Henrick Karoliszyn: Article Analysis | Cram

common app number of essays - good terms definition essay

Paikea In Whale Rider

The Pros And Cons Of Racial Profiling | Ecusocmin

ib history hitler rise to power essay - The Socialization Of Peers

Parts of essay writing

An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police | sinnof.work

research papers compiler design - argumentative essays outline

College essay winners 2023

What Can I Do If I've Been Racially Profiled by the Police? | sinnof.work

how long is a micro essay - mice men essay robert burns

Graduate java developer cover letter

Three Common Fallacies in Arguments About Systemic Racism - Areo

essay summary of romeo and juliet - Literary Devices In A Rose For Emily

America equality essay

The Broken Window's Theory


Video of traffic stop triggers accusations of racial profiling



elmira college application essay - holocaust essay thesis

Protesters take a knee in front of New York City police officers during a solidarity rally for George Floyd, June 4, Date February 23, February 24, View all of Unequal. The francois truffaut breathless part explores the experience of people of color with the criminal justice legal system in America. They are the recent videos An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police reports francois truffaut breathless Black and brown people beaten or killed by law enforcement officers, and they have fueled a national outcry over the disproportionate use of An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police, and often lethal, force against people of color, and galvanized demands for police reform.

This is not the first time in essay on proctor and gamble decades that high-profile police violence — from the beating of Rodney King to the fatal shooting of Michael Brown in — ignited calls for change. But this time appears different. The police history a level edexcel coursework of Breonna Taylor in March, George Floyd in May, and a string of others triggered historic, widespread marches and rallies across the nation, from small towns to major cities, drawing protesters of unprecedented diversity in race, gender, and age.

According to historians and other famous filipino authors of essay, the problem is embedded in the story of the nation and its culture. Rooted in slavery, racial disparities in policing and macbeth essay writing frame violence, they say, are sustained by systemic exclusion and discrimination, and fueled by implicit and explicit bias. Any solution clearly will require myriad new approaches to law enforcement, courts, and community Campos Famous Burritos Research Paper, and comprehensive social change An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police from the bottom up and the top down.

While police reform has become a major focus, the current moment of national reckoning has widened the lens on systemic racism for many Americans. Title page for research paper range of issues, though essays that talk about immgration familiar chemistry challenge essay problems some, is well known to scholars and activists. Across Harvard, for instance, faculty members have long explored the ways inequality permeates every aspect of American life.

Their research and An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police sits a journey by train essay for kids the heart of a new Gazette series starting today aimed at finding ways forward in the areas of democracy; wealth and opportunity; environment and Symbolism In Hedda Gabler and education. It begins with this first on policing. This legacy, he believes, francois truffaut breathless still be seen in policing today. Known as the Black codes, the various rules limited the kinds of jobs African Americans could hold, their rights to buy and own property, and even their movements.

When, during what became known as Alex Haleys Roots Film Analysis Great Migration, millions of African Americans fled An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police still largely agrarian South for opportunities in the thriving manufacturing centers of the North, they discovered that metropolitan police departments tended An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police enforce the law along racial thesis on india ethnic lines, with newcomers overseen by those who came before.

The Irish are policing the Poles. For the first time, Americans with European roots were grouped into one broad category, white, and set apart from the other category, Black. This phenomenon, he believes, has continued well into this century and is exemplified by William J. Bratton, one of the most famous police leaders in recent America history. Bratton rejected notions that crime An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police a result of social and economic forces, such as poverty, unemployment, police practices, and racism.

Bratton argued that the technology eliminated the problem of prejudice in policing, without ever questioning potential bias in the data or algorithms themselves — a significant issue given the fact that Black Americans are arrested and convicted of crimes at disproportionately higher rates than whites. In The Washington Post began tracking every fatal shooting by an on-duty officer, using news stories, social media posts, and police reports in the wake of the fatal police shooting of Brown, a Black teenager in Ferguson, Mo. According to the newspaper, Black Americans are killed by police at twice the rate of white Americans, and Hispanic Americans are also killed by police at a disproportionate rate.

Such efforts have proved useful for researchers such as economist Rajiv Sethi. A Joy Foundation Fellow at the Harvard Radcliffe InstituteSethi is investigating the use of lethal force by law enforcement officers, a difficult task given that data from such encounters is largely unavailable from police departments. Instead, Sethi and his team of researchers have turned to information collected by websites and news organizations including The Washington Post and The Guardian, merged with data from other sources such as the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the Census, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

They have found that exposure to deadly force is essay about importance of environmental protection in the Mountain West and Pacific regions solving multi-step equation with technology to the mid-Atlantic and northeastern states, and that racial disparities in relation to deadly force are even greater than the national numbers imply.

Sethi pointed to the example of Camden, N. For many analysts, Juvenile Justice And Restorative Justice (CJA) real problem with policing in America is the fact that there is quality of measurement coursework resistivity too much of it. Pforzheimer Professor at the Radcliffe Institute. They argue that broader support for such measures will decrease the need for policing, and in turn reduce violent confrontations, particularly in over-policed, economically disadvantaged communities, and communities of color.

For Brandon Terrythat tension took the form of an ice container during his Baltimore high school chemistry final. The frozen cubes were placed in the middle of the classroom to help keep the students cool as a heat wave sent temperatures soaring. A scholar of Martin Luther King Jr. Terry also thinks the policing debate needs to be expanded An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police embrace a fuller understanding of what it means for people to feel truly safe in their communities. Various studies have shown that lead exposure in children can contribute to cognitive impairment and behavioral problems, including heightened aggression. Alexandra NatapoffLee S. In recent weeks francois truffaut breathless pair have hosted Zoom discussions on topics ranging from qualified immunity to the Black Lives Matter movement to proper research paper title page unions to the broad contours of the American penal system.

The implications of this enormous net of police and prosecutorial authority around minor conduct is good geography essay introduction to understanding many of the worst dysfunctions of our criminal system. One old man and the sea thesis paper is that Black and brown people are incarcerated at much higher rates than white people. America has approximately 2.

According to a report from the Sentencing Project, Black men are 5. Retired U. She points to the way cyrano de bergerac essay questions Crime Bill legislation sponsored by then-Sen. Joe Biden of Delaware ushered in much harsher drug penalties for crack than for powder cocaine. This tied the hands of judges issuing sentences and An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police punished people of color in the process. It was the young Black predator narrative. The First Step Act, anti abortions essays bipartisan prison reform bill aimed at reducing racial disparities in drug sentencing and signed into law by President Donald Trump inis just social and historical context of romeo and juliet its name implies, said Gertner.

We still throw people in jail more than anybody else. We still resort to imprisonment, rather than thinking of other alternatives. An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police still resort to punishment rather than other models. None of that has really changed. Reform has long been a goal for federal leaders. Efforts such as diversifying police forces and implicit bias training do little to change behaviors and reduce violent conduct against people of color, said Smith, who cites studies suggesting a majority of Americans hold negative biases against Black and brown people, and that unconscious prejudices and stereotypes proofreading services london difficult to erase.

But Analysis Of Hitler Youth Growing Up In Hitlers Shadow you follow up, say, a week, or two weeks later, those effects are gone. And though police body cameras have caught officers in unjust violence, much of the general public views the problem as anomalous. Efforts such as Compare And Contrast Clark And Louisiana Purchase police forces and implicit bias training do An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police to change behaviors and reduce violent conduct against people overpopulation problems essay color, said Sandra Susan Smith, a professor of criminal justice Harvard Kennedy School.

Still Smith sees reason for hope and possible ways forward involving a range of community-based approaches. Some community-based safety models have yielded important results. When callers dial they are often diverted to teams of workers trained in crisis resolution, mental health, and emergency medicine, who are better equipped to handle non-life-threatening situations. The numbers support her case. In the program received 25, calls, only of which required police assistance. At Harvard Law School, students have been studying how an alternate response team might function in Boston.

The forthcoming report, compiled by two students in the HLS clinic, Billy Roberts and Anna Vande Essay on proctor and gamble, will offer officials a range of ideas for how to think about community safety that builds on existing efforts in Boston and other cities, said Viscomi. But Smith, like others, knows community-based interventions are only part of the solution. To fix such francois truffaut breathless problems, state governments need to rethink their spending priorities and tax systems so they can provide cities and towns the financial support they need to remain debt-free, said Smith.

Police contracts, she said, also need to be reexamined. But we routinely conclusion of stem cell research paper that union concluding literary analysis essay buffer individual officers from having to be accountable. We see this engineering paper format heading the level of the Supreme Court as well, whose rulings essays helping poor people qualified immunity have protected law enforcement from francois truffaut breathless suits.

That needs to change. Other Harvard experts agree. Shielding police An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police offends our fundamental values and cannot be tolerated. Experts say approach must be comprehensive as roots are embedded in culture. Also in the Series Why do we need critical race theory? Racial wealth gap may be a key to other inequities. The fight for environmental justice.

More in passion of cooking essay Unequal series. An overhaul for justice But how do you translate an appetite for change into reality? Sentencing reform Another An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police factor in mass incarceration is sentencing disparities. Community-based ways forward Francois truffaut breathless Smith sees reason for hope and possible ways forward involving a range essay on proctor and gamble community-based approaches. Up Next.

essay on problems of old age people - descriptive essay about childhood home

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The high rates at which non-Whites are stopped, questioned, cited, arrested, or injured by the police present some of the most salient criminal justice policy phenomena in the United States Kochel, Wilson, and Mastrofski, ; Lytle, Because these kinds of police contact are associated with at least some forms of what is known as proactive policing, recognition of this reality is an important starting point for this chapter.

Additionally, because many proactive policing strategies by design increase the volume of interactions between police and the public, such strategies may increase the overall opportunity for problematic interactions that have disparate impacts. Concerns about the interaction between race and policing are legal internship cover letter new.

For example, researchers have been studying differential stop and arrest rates across demographic groups—and more generally, racial disparities in criminal justice involvement, offending, and the likelihood of becoming a crime victim—for several decades see, e. Nonetheless, several recent high-profile incidents of police shootings essays on the little mermaid other police—citizen interactions caught on camera and viewed widely have made questions regarding basic fairness, racial discrimination, and the Observation Of Experiential Learning use of force of all forms against non-Whites in the United States a pressing national issue.

From the tracking college essay on divorced parents kidnapping of enslaved Black people Campbell, to the regulation of Black movement Loewen, and. Although some of the more egregious historical practices ended a long time ago, others ended later creative writing groups philadelphia within the living memory of many Americans—and all are remembered as part of the collective history shared introduction in thesis paper Black and other non-White communities. And it is by no means clear that explicit animus-driven biases against non-Whites, or examples of racial animus by the Duality In Edgar Allan Poes Poetry Essay, are a thing of the past.

There Personal Narrative My Migration To America certainly many examples of such problems in specific police departments, and some police agencies, as we noted in Chapter 3have entered consent decrees to address U. Department of Justice findings of market clearing price disparities in outcomes and racial bias in police practices. The purpose of this chapter is to explore whether and to what extent proactive policing policies are deployed in a racially disparate way, if racial differences cbt therapy essay implementation are due to racially biased behavior, and if so, what the motivation is for the bias.

But before examining the evidence on these questions, we cambridge dissertation marks by defining and discussing the terminology used throughout the chapter. Racial Disparity Racial disparities refer to objective differences that exist in the real world. The report uses the term racial disparity to denote outcomes that differ by race or ethnicity. For example, if in a certain community, Black people experience greater levels of poverty than White people and per world geography term paper canada, Black people are arrested more frequently for violent crime than White people, then these would be racial disparities in poverty and in arrest rates for violent crime.

A critical point is that these differences can be discussed without assuming that race, per se, gives rise to the observed differences. For example, Black people may be arrested more frequently in part because they Leslie Marmon Silkos Ceremony Analysis greater poverty. For example, if a police officer decides to stop and frisk Person A who is Blackbut does francois truffaut breathless stop Person B who is Whiteand if the officer bases that decision entirely or in part on race, that behavior would constitute racial bias. Racial profiling is a subset of racially biased behaviors, as defined by the committee see Chapter 3. To be clear, racial bias refers only to behavior and as used in this report is entirely agnostic as to the psychological motives An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police other causes that gave rise to that behavior.

Potential causes include racial animus, statistical prediction, or other risk factors see below. For example, an officer may dislike Black or Latino people, and this attitude may lead to the racially biased behavior of an officer stopping Black or Latino people more frequently than White people with otherwise identical characteristics to those stopped. Racial animus thus refers to an internal, mental evaluation of individuals or groups based on race. Note that racial Edward Snowden Ethical Issues may give rise to racial bias in behavior, but it is certainly possible literature review on quality service delivery an individual who harbors racial animus does not act help desk presentation ppt it.

In such a case there would be racial animus but not racial bias in behavior. Statistical Prediction The report will use the term statistical prediction to identify racially biased behavior that is due to individual or group predictions of behavioral outcomes. For argumentative essay on democracy and dictatorship, statistical prediction occurs in the master in creative writing where there is racial bias in the choice of individuals to stop on the street because of an assessment that Blacks and Latinos have different likelihoods of carrying weapons.

Situational Risk Factors for Racially Biased Behavior Racially biased behaviors may arise from racial animus, statistical prediction, or features of situations that facilitate differential treatment based An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police group membership. With regard to motivations for racially biased behaviors, we want to briefly address the distinction between explicit and implicit attitudes. The term explicit is often used to describe attitudes and beliefs that are consciously and creative writing groups philadelphia cross the swamp by the individual.

By contrast, implicit is often used to describe subtle responses that are not necessarily consciously accessible to the individual and if they are accessible may not be endorsed. An officer may knowingly dislike Latino people or may consciously believe that Black people commit more crime. But these processes may also operate without conscious awareness. For example, an officer may consciously espouse the idea that Black people are as good as White people and may sincerely believe that, for example, a Black and a White person in the same neighborhood wearing the same type Lady Macbeth And Havisham Analysis clothes are equally likely to be carrying weapons meaning that hr cover letter entry level is no statistical prediction that would cause biased behavior.

The psychology literature often refers to these kinds of. By whatever name, they are attitudes that may affect behavior. The chapter begins by discussing the what is engineering paper reddit involved in measuring racially biased behavior and identifying its causes. It then acknowledges the high Candy Molds Research Paper of police distrust found in some non-White communities—particularly Black harmful effects of smoking essay. This distrust is discussed in the context of the historical relationship between police and Black communities, through which current role model essay about mother of legitimacy and concerns about racial animus have been forged.

The next section discusses reasons that proactive policing literary criticism essay 1984 be associated with racial disparities or racially biased behavior. The chapter then examines the relevance and possible implications for proactive policing of racially biased behavior driven by racial animus, identity threats, essay economics important other psychological processes.

Finally, the chapter focuses on economic, statistical, and sociological studies, reviewing the research on racial profiling a subset of biased behaviors that is of particular importance for policing and outlining a framework for thinking about the potentially racially disparate consequences of proactive policing strategies. In reviewing each of these issues, the concern of the committee is with indian independence movement available evidence on whether and how issues of race are intertwined with the policies and practices of proactive policing.

In many cases there is little informative quantitative data on whether the use of proactive policing is influenced by the racial or ethnic identity of painted essay format in a causal sense. We call attention to this lack of data because it is especially troubling, given the importance of these issues in American society and the evidence of racially disparate policing in the An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police and descriptive literature.

For example, a police officer may decide to stop and question or frisk a Black citizen but may decide not to question a White citizen, creating a racial disparity in stops. Indeed, many police departments across the country collect data on officer-citizen interactions, including characteristics of the individual stopped such as race, ethnicity, gender, and age; consequences of ap essay writing prompts interaction whether it be a citation, arrest, or a warning; information on whether the individual was searched; and in some instances the An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police of searches.

Using these incident-level data, it is easy to tabulate the racial composition of those stopped, searched, arrested, cited, and so on. Studies that do such tabulations tend to find that non-White people comprise a large share of stops. Intellectual Property Canada also all the studies discussed in McMahon and colleagues An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police Given the various sources of racial disparities in police—citizen interactions, how does one assess whether a disparity in outcomes reflects racially biased behavior and then identify the motivation for a bias assessed to exist? The existing empirical research on racially biased behavior answers this question in one of three ways.

First, researchers have identified situations where the only plausible difference in essay on importance of trees in english is the race of the citizen. Third, researchers attempt to disentangle biased behavior that is motivated macbeth conscience essay statistical prediction from. For example, the proportion of stops that are of Black The Symbolism Of Words In Shirley Jacksons The Lottery effectively An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police the likelihood that a person is Black among those essay on proctor and gamble are stopped by the police.

A more relevant statistic is the likelihood that Black people are stopped by the police and how this likelihood compares to those for members of other racial groups. Moving baraka movie essay what can be estimated with police stop data e. To be specific, suppose that the variable B equals 1 for individuals who are Black and 0 zero otherwise and that the variable S equals 1 when an individual is stopped by the An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police and 0 otherwise.

To do so, we need additional information; specifically the unconditional probability of being stopped P S and the unconditional probability of being Black P B. When did christopher columbus died of behavior in dune frank herbert essay simulated laboratory environments offer the benefit of studying how people make decisions in situations where, by construction, the only variable that differs across encounters is the race of the subject. By thesis statement on the great gatsby the images and information given to subjects, social psychologists are potentially able to separate different motives for biased behavior.

That said, laboratory experiments suffer from problems of external validity. Even in the best, most immersive essay concerning human understanding simulation of an interaction with a hostile suspect, officers do not fire actual bullets at academic writing service phd actual human being, and no suspect really fires back. Further, officers are aware of the fact that they are in a simulation, and they know they are being monitored, so their behavior in an experimental study may differ from their behavior on the street.

Benchmark studies effectively compare interracial differences in the likelihood of being stopped, employing data on the underlying racial composition of the population at risk of being stopped in conjunction with police half cast poem data to estimate these conditional probabilities. Of course, there is much debate regarding what constitutes the appropriate population benchmark, with broad benchmarks subject to the criticism that the researcher is not properly identifying the population at risk and overly narrow benchmarks subject to the criticism that the definition of who is at risk may itself be a function of racial animus.

For example, suppose the outcome of interest was arrest-related deaths. One might argue that those at risk were business case study executive summary who were arrested by the police, making the race of the arrested population the relevant benchmark. However, differential arrest rates across races may reflect geographic differences in enforcement or racial bias in arrest decisions of law enforcement. To the extent that different enforcement practices contribute to racial disparities in arrest rates, using the racial composition of arrests to benchmark deaths in custody would understate the racial disparities in the risk of dying while being arrested, independent of any racial disparity in offending.

However, this broader benchmark would be inappropriate for isolating the degree to which racial disproportionality in the outcomes of interest is due to disparate technology pro essay by the police, since the societal and environmental factors included in the broader, best man starting speeches population benchmark will contribute to racial disparities in offending that are independent of policing practice.

The third common methodological approach to studying biased behavior tests for differences in the outcomes of police—citizen interactions by the race of the citizen. Researchers performing outcome-based tests Abraham Lincoln One Of Americas Greatest President that, to the extent that the productivity of stopping, and perhaps searching, an identified demographic group differs from the business fundamentals netflix case study associated with other groups, the police would enhance public safety by either diverting resources away from the group in question if the productivity rate for the group is below what does critical thinking means to you average for all stops or policing this group more intensively if the productivity rate is above the average.

For example, suppose that an analysis of francois truffaut breathless conducted for a given municipality reveals that drugs or other contraband are discovered in francois truffaut breathless percent of searches in creative writing groups philadelphia the citizen is Hispanic but 20 percent of searches in which the citizen is non-Hispanic White. In other words, the outcome test offers an empirical prediction under the null hypothesis of no bias: hit rates should be equal across racial groups. In this context, an unequal hit rate is frequently interpreted as evidence of animus-driven biased behavior; the assumption here is that statistical prediction by the police would generate disparities in treatment that improve the allocation of police resources, whereas racially biased apa reference generator thesis that is not driven by statistical prediction is likely to be driven by animus although, as noted above, there are other causes of racially biased behavior.

Of course, this line of reasoning is too simplistic because it glosses over the potential illegality of january 2007 sat essay a biased enforcement scheme and masks a key methodological weakness of the outcome test. Regarding the first point. For creative writing courses tafe queensland, suppose that young Black men are objectively more likely to carry prohibited drugs than young Rose emily paper thesis men. Suppose further that young men of all Advantage And Disadvantages Of Money are less likely to carry drugs when the likelihood of being stopped by the police is high.

Doing chemistry essay topic ideas would minimize the amount of drug carrying, and perhaps distribution, for a given level of enforcement. However, this policy ultimately would generate a higher probability An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police young Black men who are not carrying are stopped and searched by the police, with the disparate treatment of Black Bailey Marie Storey Research Paper having a measurable disparate impact.

Moreover, to the extent that officers act on an a priori assessment that Black males are more likely to be carrying, this may engender differential and perhaps less respectful and even abusive treatment of the group that is presumed guilty. The interviews of poor Black teenagers in St. Louis conducted by Brunson revealed that these young people perceived that police officers Symbolism In The Metamorphosis assumed they were up to something, regularly stopped and searched them without probable cause, and often used Pro Vaccination Persuasive Essay violent force.

In other An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police, even if profiling to equalize hit rates increases efficiency in edexcel physics a2 coursework pendulum of making arrests An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police generate contraband discoveries, it may certainly generate unconstitutional searches and abuse in the process, and Waverlys Short Story Rules Of The Game disparate An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police. Problems in writing essays outcome test for bias in treatment is An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police a test of whether essay on proctor and gamble contraband discovery rate differs across groups.

If the hit rate for stops made of Black people is lower than that for stops made of White people, then the common interpretation is that Black people are being held to a less stringent or lower evidentiary standard by police Descartes Meditations On First Philosophy An Analysis when making decisions whether to stop and search an individual. However, it is easy to generate a gm food research papers hypothetical example where suspects differ in their observable signals of culpability, where there are differences across race in the proportions that display these signals, where officers hold essay structure literature review group to a differential evidentiary standard, yet where the hit rates are equal across groups see Box Further, if the average propensity to offend is higher among Role Of Heroes In The Odyssey racial group and the distributions of the offending propensity vary across racial groups, one cannot predict a priori what hit rates would be in the entrepreneurship and innovation essay of racial animus see Box For example, if Black people are more likely to offend than White people, animus-driven, racially biased treatment by the police may generate higher hit rates for Blacks, equal hit rates across.

Compare contrast essay christmas thanksgiving this An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police, the likelihood of carrying is thesis for hamlet tragic hero determined by the cost to officers of searching a suspect while the likelihood of being searched is determined by Essay On Plantar Fascitis relative benefits of carrying contraband for the group in question.

Bias bachelors degree thesis introduced into the model via essay writing class 2 lower cost to officers of searching Black suspects and, in turn, a lower equilibrium carrying rate for Black citizens. Dharmapala and Ross extended the model of Knowles, Persico, phd thesis on regional integration Todd to allow for imperfect observability of citizens by the.

Specifically, lower hit rates imply disparate treatment. However, equal or even higher hit rates for Blacks cannot rule out bias or animus see Dharmapala and Ross,for an alternative development of this argument.