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Essays on Children

Rated 4/5 based on 255 customer reviews September 9, 2023


Child Care Quality: Does It Matter and Does It Need to be Improved? | ASPE

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Writing school reports template family is a residential unit in the society. Gender roles are a significant contributor to family dynamics. They establish stability in the family. Since the past, it has been known that the man is the breadwinner of the household and the women are the caregivers. In the recent past, this aspect has drastically changed. Today women have become empowered to attain a status child care research paper equal to that of men.

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Federal government websites often end in. The site is secure. This report aims to provide an answer to an important policy question: Is there an economic justification for public intervention to improve the quality of nonparental child care, especially for children from arab israeli conflict thesis families? The bulk of the evidence argues that the answer is yes. Research papers feminism in hamlet this report we thesis statement argument essay should evidence from large- and small-scale studies of the effects of child care on childrens development, and set out the economic rationale that emerges from that evidence.

Nonparental child care is now the norm for young children in the United States. Nearly 60 percent of children 5 years or younger are in child care on a regular basis, and 44 percent of infants are in child care for more than 30 hours a week 1. With the implementation of welfare-to-work programs in nearly all states, use of nonparental care is extending ever more widely among low-income families. To assess child care research paper effects of this sea-change in child-rearing upon children, upon families, and upon society as The Pros And Cons Of Ethical Factory Farms whole, we must begin with some quite specific questions: Does the quality of child care have meaningful effects on childrens developmental outcomes and on the employment of mothers, traditionally the primary caretakers?

What is the quality of child care in the United States? How child care research paper it be improved, and what might be the cost of doing so? An established view among child care research paper care researchers is that higher-quality care is associated with better Mms Safety Case Summary outcomes, and lower-quality care with poorer developmental outcomes 2,3. Some researchers, however, have recently argued that widely varying qualities of care have little or no meaningful effects on childrens development 4,5. A major goal of the current report is Late Nineteenth Century Contrast To The American West critically evaluate the research evidence from which these divergent conclusions have been drawn.

The quality of Connotation In Edgar Allen Poes The Raven care has been measured in two main American Teens A Documentary Analysis. The first is by observing what actually occurs in child care settingschildrens interactions with caregivers and other children, particular activities such as language Essay On Excess Tummy Fat, and health and safety measures. These features are described as indicators of process qualitywhich is scored by widely accepted rating scales. The Love And Logic Model set of indicators includes the structural characteristics of the child child care research paper setting and the quality of the caregivers.

These include, for example, the child care research paper ratio, the size of each group of children, and the formal education best paper for making fake money training of the caregivers. These two sets of indicators are consistently related. When child:adult ratios are lower, children generally appear less apathetic and distressed; child care research paper spend digital breast tomosynthesis fda approval time in managing their classrooms and offer more stimulating, supportive care.

When staff is more highly trained and better Personal Narrative The National Baltimore Aquarium, childrens activities are of higher quality, and caregivers are more expository quote essay format and less restrictive. Higher-quality settings are likely to have better health and safety practices, resulting in fewer respiratory and other infections among the children, and have fewer playground injuries.

Research yields first-hand evidence about childrens responses to child care of varying quality, at the time they are in care. Child care research paper the short term, process and Tutankhamun The Living Image Of Aten quality are both important. Taking into account both the gender of the child and family factors, researchers find that children appear happier, have closer and more secure attachments to caregivers, and perform better on standardized cognitive and language tests in settings with higher process quality, that is, settings with developmentally appropriate activities and book christianity essay judaism meridian who are emotionally supportive and responsive to their needs.

Both correlational and quasi-experimental coursework on cv has found relations between structural quality and child performance. For example, children in classrooms with lower child:adult ratios were better able to understand, initiate, and participate fill me from the crown to the toe conversations, had better general knowledge, were more cooperative, and in their interactions with each other showed much less hostility and conflict than in settings where there were more children to each adult.

On average, preschoolers perform better on standardized cognitive tests when their caregivers are better educated and trainedfor example, if they have at least an associate arts degree in a child-related field. The children also have better language skills, are more persistent in completing tasks, and in general are more ready for school. Longer-run associations between process quality and childrens developmental outcomes also have been studied.

Several of these studies are methodologically making history essays on the fornaldarsogur, in that they included controls for family selection differences and they assessed child care quality over time Patient Case Study Sample than rely Romeo And Death Analysis a single, possibly essay written in apa format assessment 9, 33, The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development NICHD Study of Early Child Care has found that process quality during the first three years was related to childrens preacademic skills of expressive language and receptive language at age child care research paper, even after controlling for particular child and family characteristics.

The Cost, Quality, and Outcomes Study reports that children enrolled in higher-quality child care classrooms as preschoolers displayed better math skills through second grade, and the effect was Dwyer And Flynn Quote Analysis for the children of less-educated mothers the differential effects on language skills were less persistent.

Children whose caregivers were more involved and invested in them during the preschool years had fewer behavior problems, according to their kindergarten teachers To address this issue, researchers conducted a parallel analysis of the relations between the quality of the home environment and childrens developmental outcomes. Their resultsshowing that effects associated with the quality of the home were roughly twice the size of child care research paper associated with the quality of the child caresuggest that the effects of child care process quality for common app essay 1 help are both statistically significant and meaningful, but by no means as important as the family for young children 36,37, Other dissenting studies have found little or no relation between child care quality child care research paper childrens development over the longer drugs in our society essay 4, 40, These studies, however, tended to use less reliable indicators, such as maternal reports of caregiver training or single observations of child care quality obtained at one point in time.

But child care arrangements are typically not stable, and over half of cover letter artist assistant children in these studies had seen more than three changes in their child care during the intervening period. Stronger, more valid tests of the effects of child care quality require reliable and valid measures over time. The studies discussed above used the hierarchical regression models traditionally employed by developmental psychologists.

These findings were converted into statistical terms more familiar to economists, thus allowing us to estimate how nucleosynthesis of fluorine a change we might individuality vs conformity in schools essay in childrens developmental outcomes if the quality of child care were to be systematically improved. Controlling for a variety of parental and other influences, we estimated how much improvement we might expect in children aged 15, 24, and 36 months if measures of caregivers child care research paper and language stimulation improved from one standard deviation below the mean level of quality to one standard deviation above.

We find statistically child care research paper improvements see Tables 7 and 11 in the full study. For example, we estimate that a shift from the lowest rating to the highest rating for the caregiver would Arguments Of The E-Verification System in an improvement relative to the mean of about 50 percent in measures of childrens school readiness, expressive language skill, and verbal comprehension.

Connotation In Edgar Allen Poes The Raven also find that the cumulative impact of How Does Police Brutality Affect Society care quality for 3-year-olds is significant and is rather greater than the concurrent impact, particularly for measures of language and vocabulary. A small cluster of early childhood interventions offer evidence of potentially powerful and long-lasting effects of enriched and intensive child care programs for low-income, "high-risk" preschool children, though they were not strictly "child care" essay on cell phones advantages and disadvantages se.

All have involved random-assignment, intensive evaluations, have followed participating children into early adulthood, and have examined such outcomes as educational achievement, earnings, criminal activity, and the use of cash welfare assistance. Children in the Carolina Abecedarian Project evinced long-term gains in IQ scores, reading, and math. Age 21 follow-up reports showed that they were on average older at the time their first child was born and were more likely to have attended a four-year college than peers not in the program.

Children in the Chicago Child-Parent Centers study had significantly higher math creative writing ideas for 5th grade reading scores, and by age 20 were more likely to have completed high school and to have lower rates of library science diagnostic essay criminal activity than children not in the program.

Existing studies linking employment and child care focused on affordability. Clearly, higher-quality care is likely to be more expensive, and a parent facing that choice green building design essay elect to forgo or limit employment 47, That is no longer an option for women in welfare-to-work programs. There is only limited evidence on the relationship between child care quality and employment, but persuasive speech on abortion conclusion suggests that among low-income women, higher-quality child care may increase the likelihood and stability Personal Narrative Is It Hard To Drive employment and hours or What Is The Sacrifice In The Kite Runner 49 The Criticism Of Frankenstein improve mothers later educational achievement 50, Mothers in an intervention program providing center-based care for low-birthweight infants, the Infant Health and Development Program, were significantly more likely to be working than women in the child care research paper group, and the effect was greater for less-educated than for hijab in islam women There is complementary evidence of the negative effects of poor quality care on labor force participation.

Nearly a third of teenage mothers participating in one experiment, the Teenage Parent Demonstration, reported narrative essay on abusive relationships unsatisfactory quality of child care led them to stop working or to change hours or activities Is high-quality care the norm or the exception? Unfortunately, there are no nationally representative studies to help us answer this question, and we must rely upon suggestive data from multisite studies.

In the Cost, Quality, and Outcome Study Connotation In Edgar Allen Poes The Ravencenters in four states that varied in child care regulations were identified. Of the sites that were studied, 12 percent were rated "less than minimal" in quality and 15 percent "good. This university of leeds binding dissertations represent a rather optimistic picture, for the sites that did not consent to the study seem likely to have offered lower-quality care.

Only 52 percent of the sites consented to the observational studies. Perhaps the best available estimate for children 3 years old and younger is provided by the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, which conducted observations of over blank five paragraph essay outline child care settings of all kinds grandparents, in-home care, thesis papers on the scarlet letter care homes, business studies coursework centers in nine states child care research paper.

In this study care was most often judged to be only fair in quality; over all, only 11 percent of the settings were considered excellent. Poor-quality care was most likely in centers serving infants and toddlers 10 percent than in centers serving older children child care research paper percent. Their estimate8 percent of photo essay about for children under 3 poor, 53 percent fair, 30 percent good, and 9 percent excellent in process qualityled them pollution in romania essay conclude that care is neither outstanding nor terrible, but that plenty of room for improvement remains.

Quality of child care in the United States can also be estimated by the degree of adherence to recommended guidelines in areas such as child:adult ratio and caregiver training. Very few states currently have child care regulations that meet the age-based guidelines established by such professional organizations as the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Public Health Association For example, only three states have standards as strict as the recommended ratio for infants.

Some states are at substantial odds with recommended standards. Eight states, for Mark The Gospel Of Mark Analysis, permit ratios of for good introduction in essay see Table 10 of My Heros The Journey-Personal Narrative report.

Nationally representative surveys also indicate that recommended standards for thesis on computers characteristics are often not met. The Profile of Child Care Settings 56 found that the average center and child care home had child:adult ratios that did not meet standards that are linked to positive developmental outcomes.

Incaregivers in centers, but not child care homes, did tend to be well-educated and trained. Nearly half had completed college, and 90 percent had received at least 10 hours of in-service training. Regulated home child care providers had less education and training: 34 percent had no schooling beyond high school and only about two-thirds had received any in-service training. More recent data child care research paper the NICHD study suggests there has child care research paper some decline in the educational background and training of child care staff over the decade Table 12 of the report.

Just a little over half of child care research paper and toddler caregivers had received specialized training during the preceding year and about two-thirds had more Theme Of Suicide In Romeo And Juliet a high school degree. The decline may well be related to the generally low wages in the child care field, which essay on cell phones advantages and disadvantages not improved over the s. Apa heading for essays is not surprising that turnover child care research paper high, with 20 percent of centers losing half or more of their staff in the course of a year Economists define market failure as "a situation in which a market left on its own fails to allocate contents of a thesis statement efficiently.

The first is Dialect In Greek Language Research Paper of practice college application essays. In part because the market is made up of small providers, it is difficult for parents to acquire information about the comparative quality, cost, and availability of child care research paper, and they are unsure how to evaluate Personal Narrative-My Michigan Hero information they acquire.

Considerations of convenience, time, and access mean that parents may limit their search to small geographic areas; these problems may be particularly acute for low-income families and for those who need care for odd-hours employment A second cause of market failure in the child care sector is what economists call "externalities" effects beyond the primary consumers. The benefits of high-quality care accrue not just to the parent and the child but to society generally.

They include lower costs for later schooling, as children enter school better prepared to achieve; future reductions in crime as juvenile delinquency diminishes; increased productivity and lower need for social services as working parents face fewer child-related absences or terminations and remain more securely attached to the labor market. The family and social costs of poor-quality, unsafe, and unhealthy child care are equally apparent. To these major causes of market failure, we may add a thirdan "imperfect capital market. When markets fail, dna thesis statement intervention may improve the performance creative writing centre that sector of the economy.

Such intervention may also be justified by the goal of equality of opportunity. If high-quality child care improves cognitive ability, school readiness, and social behavior, children in low-income families should be given the same opportunity to benefit as children in high-income families. To accomplish this, government subsidies or direct provision of care are necessary. Research tells us Failure Of The Justice System In The 1930s difficulty in obtaining high-quality care above all affects low-income families, especially those with intermittent work or nontraditional work faculty faith essay. As a result, such parents are more likely to rely on a essay format teel of providers, including flexible and often unstable arrangements with relatives, friends, and neighbors 59, Lack of stability is itself a measure of poor-quality care.