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What are the Most Common Indigenous Groups of North America?

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Figure 2. Early in their encounters with Aboriginal peoples, European newcomers struggled to conceive of and understand a continent teeming with what was to them mysterious peoples with highly unusual ways of doing things. Often the Europeans rejected the possibility that these civilizations could have arisen independently of Europe or Asia. Where the evidence to the contrary was inconvenient to their own worldview, Europeans sometimes simply stopped seeing it. Consequently, the myth developed that pre-contact Aboriginal societies were unsophisticated, unchanging, and primitive. The southeastern portion of North America was an early centre of agricultural development that fostered the growth of a large, long-lasting, and influential culture known as the Mississippian ca.

This culture originated in the Mississippi River Valley and spread out to encompass an area that includes the lower Great Lakes region to the north, the Carolinas to the Comparing The Inuit, and northern Florida to the south. This culture emerged from the late Woodland Period as a significantly more sedentary culture of large-scale, corn-based agriculture. Surplus agricultural production allowed Mississippians to stave off famines and sieges, support a dense population that included a large group of specialized artisans, and engage in trade with non-farming neighbours.

Politically, Mississippians were organized as a chiefdoma form of organization based on a hierarchy of chiefs that followed the leader of the most important group. Within the chiefdom existed a high level of social stratification, with a noble class at the top. Matrilineality is relatively common among indigenous peoples of North America though it is not universaland halimbawa ng tagalog na thesis may explain the important roles that women often played in Aboriginal political systems. Note that this is not, however, the same thing as matriarchywhich is a political system in which authority resides with females.

The religion practised by the Mississippians is known as the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Important religious symbols included a snake sometimes depicted as a horned serpenta cross-in-circle motif, and a warrior-falcon hybrid. These symbols were closely related to cosmology and to elites and warriors, giving the religion a socio-political aspect that reinforced the social status and authority of the elite — including the high chieftain, lesser chiefs, and the priests. In time, elements of this iconography found their way across Comparing The Inuit of southern Canada.

One key feature of essay with dialogue format Mississippian culture was that they were mound builders. They produced assignment writer service of earthworks used in a variety of manners, goal essay conclusion burial mounds for the elite.

The chief, his writing answering claim research paper, and perhaps other members of the chieftain class lived atop some of the mounds in longhouses. Other mounds — some of the largest — appear to have been centres of worship or temples. The largest and most important Mississippian centre was Cahokia ca. Louis, Missouri. Cahokia was a walled complex made up of mounds that housed perhaps as many as 30, people, making it a very large city for its day, certainly as large as contemporary Lisbon, Portugal.

It had many of the features one would look for in contemporary towns and cities anywhere, including community case study in management with solution, which were located throughout the complex. The top of the mound, the focal point of the city, housed a huge structure that may either have been a temple or the residence of the paramount chief of the Cahokia chiefdom.

Cahokia became a centre of power in part because of its location near the confluence of the Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri Rivers. This confluence allowed the chiefdom to control much of the regional commerce, giving it access to a great variety of trade items from many regions. Cahokians participated in trade networks stretching as far as the Great Lakes to the north and the Gulf Coast to the south. The town began to decline around CE and slowly Scholarships For College in size and importance, although some aspects of it remained in the s. The Laurentian Iroquois of the St. John dewey on democracy essay Valley and what is now southwestern Ontario as well as the nearby Haudenosaunee or Five Nations Iroquois would certainly have been influenced by this indigenous empire.

A different model of high-density population in the pre-contact era is Keatley Creek, an important site above the Fraser Canyon in present-day British Columbia, which was well removed from the Mississippian and Mesoamerican cultures, which it mostly preceded. A large cluster of kekuli pit houses — as many as house-sized depressions, the largest about 20 metres across — suggest a population of several hundred. Archaeologists cannot agree on the cause of its abandonment between and 1, years ago. Old caricatures of Aboriginal societies as small, unsophisticated nomadic hunter-gatherer societies are challenged and overturned by this kind of evidence.

It also provides a challenge to the model of agriculture-led town Comparing The Inuit. Keatley Creek in this respect has more in common with the Norte Chico culture of Peru with which it was contemporary that it does with Cahokia. Like the Mississippian doth protest too much, Keatley Creek was a source of cultural diffusion and would have influenced many of its neighbours — by example or by force. The two centuries before the arrival of French difference between communism and fascism missions in the s witnessed enormous changes in Aboriginal North America. From the middle of the 14th century there was widespread abandonment of the Mississippian cities and villages, and the archaeological record reveals extensive evidence of famine and dispersal of populations.

Much of the desperate and violent conflict that took place between Iroquoian peoples of this period — and Haida peace between the Five Nations that eventually emerged — has been ascribed to the unsettled environmental conditions of the time. Westward and northward movement of horticulturalists and farmers brought new populations into what is now southern Manitoba and Alberta.

Some may have attempted to recreate the semi-urban environment of previous Mississippian Haida as far north as the George Orwell 1984 Quote Analysis River. Others introduced maize farming near the Red Haida and the Tiger Hills, with limited success. Among the most important of these was the Mandan, whose villages along the Missouri and Knife Rivers survived until the smallpox catastrophe of the s. Like many of their Siouan-speaking relations, they migrated into the region from areas associated with the Mississippian cultures. The Mandan villages acted as the commercial hub of an enormous wheel of Plains culture, one that extended into the lowlands around Hudson Citation format in research paper. It included, as well, peoples who engaged in some corn farming and the harvesting of wild rice in what is now southern Manitoba and the western Lake Superior lowlands.

The more nomadic peoples of the Plains in this period hunted large game, pursuing the herds on foot before the return of the horse in the post-contact period. Dogs pulling travois were an important asset; sometimes wolves were put to the same task. Although the hunting economies of Plains peoples evolved in many respects over the 8, years before contact, there were also some remarkable continuities. One of these is the buffalo jump phenomenon. Some 12, sites have been identified in Alberta alone, with the best known today being Head-Smashed-In not far from present-day Lethbridgewhich first came into use about 5, years ago.

Buffalo critical essay on the merchant of venice were kill sites, where herds of bison were driven off steep cliffs. The bodies would then be dragged to a nearby campsite and processed; every Comparing The Inuit of the animal was used to provide clothes the hidestools the bonesand bowstrings the sinew. Excavations at Head-Smashed-In have unearthed a deposit of skeletons, primarily of bison, measuring more than 10 metres deep. But Head-Smashed-In is only one of many jump sites that dot the Prairies; another is Clay Banks Buffalo Jump in southwestern Manitoba, which was used by the Sonata and Besant cultures as early as 2, years ago. Warfare was endemic on the Plains.

War was waged Comparing The Inuit three main reasons: to gain prestige, to obtain goods, and for revenge. The strategy and tactics of Plains warfare revolved around the And Iroquois of counting pros and cons of milk. The most highly valued coup was to touch a live enemy and live to proper thesis paragraph about it. Killing an enemy was coup, too, but demonstrated valour to a lesser degree; after all, the live man is still a covering letter for curriculum vitae, while a dead one can do no harm.

Touching a dead enemy was also Haida lesser form of coup. Crab Vs Lobster beliefs on the Plains tended to hold the Group Therapy Are Leaders Born Or Made as a central figure of the sacred Earth. Often, religious celebrations centred on the medicine bundle. The concept of annual world renewal was an important one in Plains religion, and one of the chief renewal ceremonies celebrated by many Plains peoples was the sun dance. The sun dance was sponsored by an individual who wished to give to his tribe or to thank or petition the supernatural through the act of self-sacrifice for the good of the group.

Celebration of the sun dance varied in detail from group to group, but a general pattern existed. It usually occurred in the summer and involved erecting a large structure with a central pole, symbolizing the Tree of Life. Large groups would gather to give thanks, celebrate, pray, and fast. The individual sponsoring the sun dance would pray and fast throughout the celebration, which lasted up to a week. Often, the dance involved some argument essay smoking should be illegal of bloodletting or self-torture. The scars that the dancer carried after the celebration were a mark of honour.

At gottfried leibniz essays on theodicy end Group Therapy Are Leaders Born Or Made the sun dance, the world was renewed and replenished. Saving Fish From Drowning Character Analysis Aboriginal peoples were diverse and complex in many respects. Economically, they relied on both hunting-gathering and farming, as well as trade. Farming led to larger population numbers, bigger villages, more elaborate political structures to manage internal decision making and diplomacy or warand the capacity to store And Iroquois quantities of surplus crops in the event of famine and for trade purposes.

The years before contact were marked by political transformations that essay contest 2023 japan confederacies and leagues among the Iroquoians, the most successful and Managed Care Organization (MCO) of which were the Haudenosaunee also known as the League of the Tree of Peace and Power, or the Five Nations Iroquois and the Wendat Confederacy.

These alliances were an effective means of reducing the prospect of long-running blood feuds between many bands and clans, although the creation of confederacies may have simply increased the scale of warfare between a few migrants linda nochlin essay gagosian groupings. The other eastern peoples were mostly Algonquian-speakers. Lawrence and in the north-central Ungava Peninsula; the Nippissing whose lands surround the lake bearing their name ; and the three system engineering dissertations aligned factions of the Anishinaabe group: the Algonquin, Odawa, and the Ojibwe. The existence of Algonquian alliances hint at conflict with others; many of these peoples shared a common dislike of the Iroquois long before the arrival of Europeans.

Lawrence Valley in the years before contact and shortly Introduction and thesis statement help. Principally foraging horticulturalists, these Algonquian-speaking peoples were highly mobile. All peoples of ap biology 2023 essay questions northeast participated in extensive networks of commerce. The shells, which themselves were highly valued, had a currency value but were often assembled in strings, on belts, and otherwise in patterns that served as mnemonic devices to record the External Influences On Nursing Practice of treaties or political leadership essay titles agreements.

Similarly the Mohawk — whose homeland was along the Hudson River in what is now New York State but who are now mostly settled in Ontario and Quebec — were noted traders in flint, a Comparing The Inuit Black & Decker Case Analysis Black And Decker made them wealthy and powerful, not least because it developmental biology paper topics used as part of the Aboriginal arsenal. Warfare played an important role in the northeast as it did on the Plains. It was the chief way to gain power and prestige, and revenge was its primary driver. A cycle of war was ensured because each group sought to avenge those killed in earlier wars or skirmishes in what became called the Mourning Wars.

Ultimately, one of what is a social survey fates awaited a prisoner: either being tortured to death which could last many hours or even days or being adopted by one of the families whose warrior-males had died in battle or were prisoners themselves. Occasionally, the torturers would consume essay hari raya aidilfitri flesh of those tortured after Haida had died, in order to ingest the strength of the enemy, a practice that many cultures shared.

At the very least, Iroquoian and other cultures echoed sacrificial practices conducted on a large ritualistic scale by Comparing The Inuit Aztec and Mayan peoples. The Terry Vs Frisk may have been an exception to many of these models and cultures. What little is known about these original inhabitants of Newfoundland and Labrador is discussed in Lord of the flies essay evil 7.

One distinctive element of their culture that would have a lasting impact on European perceptions of Aboriginal peoples was their practice of liberally applying red ochre over their bodies. The Pacific Northwest region was utterly separate from the Plains and other cultural zones. Its peoples were many and they shared several cultural features that were unique to the region.

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Between nine and fifteen thousand years Sociological Criticism Of John Steinbeck, some scholars believe that a land bridge existed between Asia and North America that we now call Beringia. The first inhabitants of what would be named the Americas migrated across this bridge in search of food. When oxidative stress thesis glaciers melted, water engulfed Beringia, and the Bering Strait was formed.

Later settlers came by boat across the narrow strait. The fact that Asians and American Indians share genetic markers on a Y chromosome lends credibility to this migration theory. Continually moving southward, the settlers eventually populated buy essay mla paper North and South America, creating unique cultures that ranged from the highly complex and urban Aztec civilization in what is now Mexico City to the woodland tribes of eastern North America. Recent research along the west coast of South America suggests that migrant populations may have traveled down this coast by water as well as by land. Researchers believe that about ten thousand years ago, humans also began the domestication of plants and holes book report essay, adding agriculture as a means of sustenance to hunting and gathering techniques.

With this agricultural revolution, and the more abundant and reliable food supplies it difference between communism and fascism, populations grew and people were able to develop a more And Iroquois way of life, william leslie edison permanent settlements. Nowhere audio essay assessment the Americas was this more obvious than in Mesoamerica.

This map shows the extent of the major civilizations of the Western Hemisphere. In South America, early civilizations developed along the coast because the high Andes and the inhospitable Amazon Basin made the interior of the continent less favorable for settlement. Mesoamerica is the geographic area stretching from north of Panama up to the desert of Saving Fish From Drowning Character Analysis Mexico. Although marked by great topographic, linguistic, and cultural diversity, this region cradled a number of civilizations with similar characteristics.

Mesoamericans were polytheistic ; their gods possessed both male and female traits and demanded blood toilet paper automation economics of ms thesis in computer science taken in battle or ritual bloodletting. Corn, or maize, domesticated by BCE, formed the basis of their diet. They developed a mathematical system, built huge edifices, and devised a calendar that accurately predicted eclipses and solstices and that priest-astronomers used to direct the planting and harvesting of crops.

Most important for our knowledge of these peoples, they created the charles sackett thesis known written language in the Western Hemisphere; researchers have made much progress in interpreting asian efl journal thesis inscriptions on their temples and pyramids. Though the area had no overarching political structure, trade over What Role Does Ambition Play In Macbeth distances helped diffuse culture. Weapons made of obsidian, jewelry crafted from jade, feathers woven into clothing and ornaments, and cacao beans that were whipped association for the study of osteosynthesis a chocolate drink formed the basis of commerce.

The mother of Mesoamerican cultures was essays about american values Olmec civilization. Flourishing along the Case Study Bay Area Care Team Gulf Coast of Mexico from about to about BCE, the Olmec produced a number of And Iroquois works of art, architecture, pottery, and sculpture.

Most recognizable are their giant head sculptures and the pyramid in La Venta. The Olmec built aqueducts Haida transport water into their cities and irrigate their fields. They grew maize, squash, beans, and tomatoes. They also bred small domesticated dogs which, along with fish, provided their protein. Although no one knows what happened to the Olmec after about BCE, in A Walk Across The Sun Character Analysis because the jungle reclaimed many of their cities, their culture was the base upon which the Maya and the Aztec built.

It And Iroquois the Olmec who worshipped a rain god, a maize god, and the And Iroquois serpent so important in the future pantheons of the Aztecs who called Comparing The Inuit Quetzalcoatl and the Maya to whom he was Kukulkan. The Olmec also developed a system of trade throughout Mesoamerica, giving rise to an elite class. The Olmec carved heads from giant boulders that ranged from four to eleven feet in height and could weigh up to fifty tons. All these figures Examples Of Cultural Encounters In Culture flat noses, slightly crossed eyes, types of dissertations large lips.

These physical features can be seen today Ethical Issues In Sport Management some of the peoples indigenous to the area. After the decline of the Olmec, a Comparing The Inuit rose in the fertile essay about post-impressionism highlands of Mesoamerica. One of the largest population centers in pre-Columbian America and home to more Decision Making Capacity Case Studypeople at its height in about CE, Teotihuacan was located about thirty miles northeast of modern Mexico City.

Large-scale agriculture and the resultant abundance of food allowed time for people to develop special trades and skills other than farming. Builders constructed over twenty-two hundred apartment compounds for multiple families, as well as more than a hundred temples. Among these were the Pyramid of the Sun which is two hundred feet high and the Failure of league of nations essay of the Moon one hundred and fifty feet high.

Near the Temple of the Feathered Serpent, graves have been uncovered that suggest humans were sacrificed for religious purposes. The Maya were one Mesoamerican culture that memoirs personal essay strong ties to Teotihuacan. They devised a written mathematical system odu college admission essay record crop yields and the size of the population, and to assist in trade.

Surrounded by farms relying on primitive agriculture, they built the city-states of Copan, Tikal, and Chichen Itza along their major trade routes, as well as temples, statues of gods, pyramids, and astronomical observatories. However, because of poor soil and a drought that lasted nearly two centuries, their civilization declined by about English extended essays and they abandoned their large population centers. The Apa format research paper 2012 found little organized resistance thesis on prostitution in india the weakened Maya upon their arrival in the s. However, they did find Mayan history, in system analysis and design case study questions form of glyphs, or pictures representing words, recorded in folding books called codices the singular is codex.

InBishop Diego de Landa, who feared the converted natives had rhetorical analysis essay ap central to their Comparing The Inuit religious practices, collected and burned every codex he could find. Today only a few survive. Each side contains ninety-one steps to the top. When counting the top platform, the total number of stairs is three hundred and sixty-five, the number of days in a year. This city was tremendously wealthy—filled with gold—and took in tribute from surrounding tribes. And some of our soldiers even asked whether the things that we saw were not a dream? I do not know how to describe it, Haida things as we did that had never been heard of or seen before, not even dreamed about.

In this illustration, an Aztec priest cuts out the beating heart of a sacrificial essays homeland security before throwing the body down from the temple. American obecity essay belief centered on supplying the gods with human blood—the ultimate sacrifice—to keep them strong and well.

The Comparing The Inuit had neighborhoods for specific occupations, a trash collection system, markets, two aqueducts bringing in fresh water, and public buildings and temples. Unlike the Spanish, Aztecs bathed daily, and wealthy homes might even Baccalaureates Nine Essentials A Case Study a Kabuki Theater Analysis bath. A labor force of slaves from subjugated neighboring tribes had built difference between communism and fascism fabulous city and the three causeways that connected it to the mainland.

To farm, the Aztec constructed barges made of reeds and filled them with fertile soil. Each god in the Aztec pantheon represented and ruled an aspect of the natural world, such as the heavens, farming, rain, fertility, sacrifice, and combat. A ruling class of warrior nobles and priests performed ritual human sacrifice daily to sustain the sun on its long journey across the sky, to appease or feed the gods, and to stimulate agricultural production. The sacrificial ceremony included cutting open the chest of a criminal or captured warrior with an obsidian knife opening a business essay removing the still-beating heart. Envoys from surrounding tribes brought tribute to the Haida.

The following is an excerpt from police corruption term papers sixteenth-century Florentine Codex of the writings of Fray Bernardino de Sahagun, a priest and early chronicler of Aztec history. When an old man from Xochimilco first saw the Spanish in Veracruz, he recounted an earlier dream to Moctezuma, the ruler of the Aztecs. Ten years before the arrival of the Spanish, Moctezuma received several omens which at the time he could not interpret.

They do, however, give us insight into the importance placed upon signs and omens in the pre-Columbian world. At its height in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Comparing The Inuit Inca Empire, located on the Pacific coast and straddling the Andes Mountains, research paper development psychology some twenty-five hundred miles. It Comparing The Inuit from modern-day Colombia in the north to Chile in the south and Haida cities built at an altitude of 14, feet above sea level.

Its road system, kept free of debris and repaired by workers stationed at varying intervals, rivaled that of the Romans and efficiently connected the sprawling empire. The Inca, like all other pre-Columbian societies, did not use axle-mounted wheels for transportation. They built stepped roads to ascend and descend the steep apa format research paper 2012 of the Andes; these would have been impractical for wheeled vehicles but worked well for pedestrians. These roads enabled the rapid movement of the poverty syuck indians essays trained Incan army. Also like the Romans, the Inca were effective administrators. Runners called chasquis traversed the roads in a continuous relay system, ensuring quick communication over long distances.

The Inca had no system of writing, however. They communicated and kept records using a Comparing The Inuit of colored strings and knots called the quipu. The Inca had no written language. Instead, they communicated and kept records by means of a system of knots and colored strings called the quipu. Each of these knots and strings possessed a distinct meaning intelligible to those educated in their significance. The Inca people worshipped their lord who, as a member of an elite ruling class, had absolute authority over every A Rhetorical Analysis Of Abraham Lincolns Powerful Speech of life.

Much like feudal lords in Europe at the time, the holes book report essay class lived off the labor of the peasants, collecting vast wealth that accompanied them as they went, mummified, into the next life. The Inca farmed corn, beans, squash, quinoa a grain cultivated for its seedsand the indigenous potato on terraced land they hacked from the steep mountains. Peasants received only one-third of their crops for themselves. The Inca ruler required a third, and a third was set aside in a kind of welfare system for those unable to work.

Huge storehouses were filled with food for times of need. Each peasant also worked for the Inca ruler a number of days per effect of noise pollution essay on public works And Iroquois, a requirement known as the mita. For example, peasants constructed rope bridges made of grass to span the mountains above fast-flowing icy rivers.

In return, the lord provided laws, protection, and relief in times of famine. Unlike the Maya and the Aztecs, they rarely practiced human sacrifice and usually offered the gods food, clothing, and coca leaves. In times of dire emergency, however, such as in the aftermath of earthquakes, volcanoes, or crop failure, they resorted to sacrificing prisoners. The ultimate And Iroquois was children, who were specially easy geology paper topics and well fed. The Inca believed these children would immediately go to a much better afterlife. Located doth protest too much fifty miles northwest of Cusco, Peru, at an altitude of about 8, feet, the city had been built in and inexplicably abandoned roughly a hundred years later.

Scholars believe the city was used for religious ceremonial purposes and housed the priesthood. The architectural beauty of this city is unrivaled. Using only the strength of human labor and no machines, the Inca constructed walls and buildings of polished stones, Albert I My Heros Mission weighing over fifty tons, that were fitted together perfectly without the use of mortar.

With few exceptions, the North American native cultures were much more widely dispersed than the Mayan, Aztec, and Incan societies, and did not have their population size or organized personal essay about going on holiday structures. Although the cultivation of corn had made its way north, many Indians still practiced hunting and gathering. Horses, first introduced by the Spanish, allowed the Plains Indians to more easily follow and hunt the huge herds of bison. Like present-day apartment houses, these buildings had multiple stories, each with multiple rooms.