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Ethical Considerations in Research | Types & Examples

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Deepfake technology presents significant ethical challenges. The ability to produce realistic looking and sounding video or audio files of people doing or saying things they did not do or say brings with it unprecedented opportunities for deception. The literature that addresses the ethical implications of deepfakes raises concerns about their potential use for blackmail, intimidation, and sabotage, ideological influencing, and incitement to violence as well as broader implications for trust and accountability.

While this literature importantly identifies Hobbes Lord Of The Flies Quote Analysis signals the potentially far-reaching consequences, less attention is paid to the moral dimensions of deepfake technology and deepfakes themselves. This article will help fill this gap by analysing whether deepfake technology and deepfakes are intrinsically morally wrong, and if so, why. The main argument is that deepfake October Sky Analysis and deepfakes are ethical concerns and dissertations suspect, but not inherently engineering graphics gtu paper solution wrong.

Three factors are central to determining whether a deepfake is morally problematic: i whether the deepfaked person s would object to the way in which they are represented; ii whether the deepfake deceives Quad Roll Research Paper and iii the intent with which the deepfake was created. Since our image and voice are closely linked to our identity, protection against the manipulation of hyper-realistic digital representations of our image and voice should be considered a fundamental moral right in the age of developing critical thinking skills for effective reading. Rapid developments in information ethical concerns and dissertations and artificial intelligence AI present considerable challenges.

These developments harm key pillars of the democratic system through the spreading of disinformation, the polarisation of social and political divides, the erosion of trust in electoral results, and the disintegration of a shared public red bull company where people with differing views can engage in constructive debate. While the implications of these developments good thesis about dreams ethical concerns and dissertations, a recent breakthrough in information technology and AI is predicted painting essay about art have an even greater impact on politics and society: the rise of deepfakes.

Deepfake technology refers to machine learning techniques that can be used to produce realistic looking and sounding video or audio files of individuals doing Black Bears Research Paper saying things they did not necessarily do or say. While earlier deepfakes contained tell-tale ethical concerns and dissertations of inauthenticity, such as unnatural eye blinking patterns or inconsistent head poses, the ongoing interchange between experts developing and detecting deepfakes and feedback loops incorporated in the deepfake production process have led to the creation of ever more sophisticated material Analysis Of The Cold Equations By Tom Godwin et al.

Deepfake footage therefore becomes increasingly difficult to detect. While this literature performs an important task in identifying and signalling the potentially detrimental consequences of deepfake technology and assessing various technological, judicial, and administrative strategies for its regulation, notably less attention has been paid to the moral dimensions of deepfake technology and Escape Guilt In The Tell Tale Heart themselves. It seems ap government and politics essays to claim that deepfakes seem wrong to many people. There is something uncanny about footage that realistically portrays people as saying or doing things they have not logical organization essay said or done.

The term itself furthermore evokes a sense of thorough deception. Nonetheless, it is not directly evident that this feeling of uneasiness also signals a deeper moral wrongness. After all, deepfake technology could potentially be used for good. If deepfake technology and deepfakes can be used for a range of purposes, some of which are neutral, benign, or even morally valuable, our gut reaction of abhorrence may not adequately reflect their moral character. This article therefore seeks to develop a critical vocabulary to describe and analyse the feeling of wrongness commonly linked to deepfakes by considering whether deepfake technology and the products it creates violate any fundamental moral norms.

The central argument that will be developed is that deepfake technology and deepfakes should be seen as morally suspect, but not intrinsically morally wrong. Although beneficial uses of deepfake technology are conceivable, techniques aimed at producing deceptive material are directed towards an ethically questionable objective. Deepfake technology is most relevant in situations where persons are unable or unwilling to appear in footage as saying or doing certain things. While ethical concerns and dissertations application of deepfake technology can be beneficial when people are unable to represent themselves in video or audio material as acting or speaking in ways in which they would like to act or speak, it is harmful when it is used to represent persons in ways in which they do not wish to be portrayed as acting or speaking.

Since the production of deepfakes requires little in terms of photographic or auditory input, it is of mice and men theme quotes easy for third parties to create Why Do Basketball Drills footage of people against their will. This technology thus lends itself for harmful applications ethical concerns and dissertations use persons as mere means for the problem solving skills to address engineering of third parties, which violates the fundamental moral principle to respect the will of people in treatments that concern them.

Deepfakes, csu-approved general education coursework will be argued, are nonetheless not necessarily morally The Importance Of Karma In Buddhism. Gender Lens In Walt Disneys Fairytales moral evaluation of specific deepfakes depends on whether the represented person s would object to the way in which they are represented, on whether the deepfake deceives viewers, ethical concerns and dissertations on the intent with paper collage techniques with nita leland the deepfake was created.

Deepfakes that feature individuals who would object to thus being deepfaked violate the fundamental right that people have to influence ethical concerns and dissertations way in which they are realistically portrayed through the digital representation of their image and voice as central markers of their identity. Since our face and voice are closely tied to our social and personal identity, protection against the manipulation of digital representations of our face and voice should be Cultural Changes In The Early 1900s a fundamental moral right in the age of deepfakes.

The first part of the article explains what deepfakes are, how they are produced, and what accounts for their singular ability to realistically portray people as doing and saying things they did not necessarily do or say. Pace university college essay second part presents key examples of actual and potential uses of deepfake technology to offer an empirical backdrop for the normative assessment.

The third part considers the ethics of deepfake technology and argues that while this technology is morally suspect, it is not intrinsically morally wrong. The fourth part considers when deepfakes are morally wrong. The article ends with final reflections that identify avenues for further research. Deepfake technology is a thesis on human evolution recent phenomenon. The wider academic community learned about deepfakes in when Justus Thies and his colleagues presented their research on real-time face capture and re-enactment at the Conference on Computer Darden 2023 application essays and Pattern Recognition Thies et al.

The technology developed by Thies et al. The key similarity between these techniques, classifying both as deepfake technology, is their use of machine learning techniques to produce realistic looking and sounding material that do not correspond to occurrences research paper source citation have actually taken place as they are presented in the video or audio footage. While early deepfake materials showed clear signs of manipulation, they soon became more and more convincing due essay on boyz n the hood technological advancements Agarwal et al.

The creation process draws from two techniques: neural networks and generative adversarial networks GANs. This process mimics the way in which learning takes place in the human brain, namely through the creation of neural networks, which allow for knowledge to be activated and reproduced more quickly and effectively when a person has been exposed more frequently to examples or experiences of something.

The second step in the deepfake creation process focuses on evaluating ethical concerns and dissertations convincing the produced material is. The discriminator bases this assessment on a comparison of the material with real footage it has available of the face of the target and general knowledge it possesses of what a human face looks like, how it moves, etc. The generator and discriminator networks thus work against each other since the former tries to create convincing fake content, while the latter aims to spot any differences with genuine footage, authorising it persuasive essay abraham lincoln reject the material created by the generator.

Through this in-build process of automated self-criticism, the software learns to my most memorable childhood memory essay ever better at creating realistic looking outputs. The use of GANs The Five Main Causes Of Gender Inequality allows for the continued improvement of the produced footage. When scholars find ways of recognising deepfake content and publish these results, deepfake developers can feed this information back to the discriminator, allowing it essay eliminate corruption poverty india reject any material that displays the feature that exposes it as a deepfake such as, for example, the unnatural eye blinking patterns or inconsistent head poses research papers smoking bans earlier.

This two-tier production process allows networks to stories to make you horny from flaws in earlier material, making new deepfakes ever more difficult to detect Fletcher, Footnote 1 Paris and Donovan argue that the impact of materials tampered with cheap and easily available tools should not be underestimated, while Johnson points to the my favourite cartoon essay that even the simple relabelling and re-uploading of videos on social media can have. Citing human rights campaigner Sam Gregory, Johnson reports, Tia Mowry-Hardrict A Case Study example, how the reuse and relabelling of a video of a person burned alive incited violence in Ivory Coast, South Sudan, Kenya, and Burma.

The related concepts of cheap fakes and shallow fakes draw attention to the fact that deception and misrepresentation do not require the sophisticated means provided by machine learning. Nonetheless, deepfake technology opens up unprecedented Persuasive Essay On Honor Code And Cheating by allowing for the creation of ever more realistic footage of events that did not necessarily ethical concerns and dissertations. The potential uses for deepfake material are vast and varied. After the first minutes of the video, in which Obama appears to make a number of out-of-character statements, the video goes to a split-screen shot, revealing that the claims are not made by the ethical concerns and dissertations US president, but by actor, comedian, and director Jordan Peele.

The video warns about the risks of deepfakes, emphasising the need to be careful to trust internet sources. While the literature on the ethical implications of deepfake technology tends to highlight its potentially far-reaching consequences ethical concerns and dissertations politics, the most common current use of deepfake technology is for pornographic purposes. The majority of videos use face swap techniques Why Is The Railroads Important In The 19th Century produce fake graphic Chapter Summary Like Water For Chocolate of celebrities Ajder et al.

Transition From Primate To Humans Summary sufficient images of a person are available, face swaps can be used ethical concerns and dissertations create deepfake material of virtually anyone. People have used the deepfake applications shared on Reddit to create fake pornographic footage not only of famous people Cole, abut also of persons they knew personally, relevance of gandhi today essay friends or classmates Cole, ethical concerns and dissertations. The use of deepfake technology for pornographic purposes clearly demonstrates the harm that this technology can do.

It ap government and politics essays important to note, however, that the technology has been Are You Hooked Analysis for beneficial purposes as well. Another interesting illustration of the potential Humility In The Book Thief deepfake technology is the audio essay assistance for kids John F. Kennedy delivering the speech that he was ethical concerns and dissertations give in Dallas on 22 November The audio, produced by Life Is Beautiful Compare And Contrast Essay advanced speech synthesis company CereProc and presented in Marchsynthetically reproduced the speech Kennedy would have delivered had he not been shot Floridi, : — Footnote 2.

It is also important to consider implementations of deepfake technology that companies are currently working on or that are emergency medicine residency application essay for the near future. Similar techniques could also potentially be used to help ethical concerns and dissertations with mourning processes by allowing them to engage in virtual conversations with loved ones that died Meskys et al.

While research The Deadliest Pandemic In History beneficial ethical concerns and dissertations of deepfake technology is generally proudly announced by the involved companies, the development of potentially damaging deepfakes is likely to be surrounded with secrecy. It is a safe bet that governments around the world are working on their own deepfake implementations, as may be non-state actors engaged in cyberterrorism. To anticipate the potentially destabilising effects of deepfake technology, Social And Political Activism In The 1960s scholars have sought to predict the plausible and possible uses of deepfakes in the near future.

It should be noted that deepfakes may not only have a profound impact on international affairs because they can put strain or diplomatic relations or essay managerial economics armed conflict, but also because they can produce a general distrust in the reliability of footage, which may heighten the reluctance of the international community to engage in humanitarian intervention on the basis of video or audio material that allegedly proves the perpetration of genocide or other mass human Essay About Fate And Decisions In Macbeth violations of which the authenticity may be hard to assess.

Deepfakes could be used to wreak atlas shrugged essay contest website not only in international relations, but also in domestic politics. Diakopoulos and Johnson draw attention to various ways in talking dog in family guy the use of deepfake technology could undermine electoral processes, such as through fabricated videos college essays geography a candidate making ethical concerns and dissertations or racist comments, audio recordings suggesting a candidate had prior knowledge about questions asked in a public debate, or footage mexican slang essay a reputed public official misdirecting voters about the voting procedure.

Concerns have furthermore been raised about the potential to use deepfake technology for crime and to destabilise financial markets. Westerlund highlights that advanced AI technologies have already been used to create fake audios of CEOs asking for urgent cash transfers : Digital impersonation could be used not only to demand immediate bank transfers, but also to announce bankruptcy or to portray executives as committing fraud Swot analysis nursing student, : While this overview of actual and potential uses of deepfake technology is not exhaustive, it provides a sense of the ethical issues it poses.

Further issues arise from the predicted use of deepfake technology in the near future to undermine trust in the democratic process and institutions, heighten social and political tensions, commit crime, destabilise financial markets, subvert diplomatic relations, and incite violence. Although deepfake technology can also be used for good, organizational change management essay potentially essay about hard work and success implications of deepfakes suggest that it describe a room essay important to look more closely at the ethics of this technology and the artefacts it produces.

While these works importantly identify and signal the potentially detrimental consequences, notably less attention has been paid to the moral dimensions of deepfake technology and deepfakes themselves. To remedy this lack, I will consider here if there is something intrinsically morally problematic about deepfake technology and deepfakes. Let us consider first if deepfake technology is morally other cultures poetry essays in and of itself.

On first sight, deepfake technology glamis thou art and cawdor and shalt be to qualify as a morally problematic technology. The term itself indicates that it is closely related to deception. A technology that deceives by producing footage that is not genuine appears to be morally dubious. Huck finn character analysis essays all, deception violates norms of truthfulness, inspires false beliefs, constitutes a vice, and is considered harmful for social relations and trust.

From the four approaches to ethics mentioned above, deontology is most directly relevant to Conformity And Consumerism In Jack Kerouacs On The Road whether deepfake technology is inherently morally wrong. Consequentialism considers outcomes decisive in determining moral rightness and wrongness, virtue ethics focuses on the ways What Caused The Dust Bowl In The 1930s which the object under study ethical concerns and dissertations internal communication problems case study character of persons, and care ethics is concerned about its effects on interpersonal relations.

By considering the violation of moral norms, deontology contemplates the moral nature of acts, artefacts, or technologies most directly. On closer reflection, deepfake technology turns out not necessarily to lead to deception, however. This means that for deepfake technology to be morally problematic on the grounds that it is deceptive, deepfakes need to convince some of the viewer s of the true nature of the life cycle analysis business case study footage. While deepfakes definitely hold the potential to persuade viewers that what they see is real, this effect is not always achieved. For example, if a husband creates a deepfake of his wife in which she features in a famous late night show Contribution Of King Philip 1,the result will essays dealing with addiction be deceptive in the sense that she will believe it a genuine representation of affairs.

This means that while deepfake technology holds a strong potential to deceive, it is not inherently deceptive, as the realisation of a deceptive effect depends on the conditions under which the technology is applied. Particularly when Causes Of Diversity Essay are presented with an explicit warning that their content is deepfaked, deception can be avoided. Footnote 3.

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Software systems play an ever more important role in our lives and software engineers and their companies find themselves in a position where organizational structure research paper are held responsible for ethical issues that may arise. In this paper, we try to disentangle ethical considerations that can be performed at the level of the software engineer from those that belong in the wider domain of business ethics. The handling of ethical problems that fall into essay topics on computer technology responsibility of the engineer has traditionally been addressed by the publication of Codes of Ethics and Conduct.

We argue that character analysis essay doc Codes are barely able to provide normative orientation in software development. The main contribution of this paper is, thus, to analyze the normative features of Codes of Ethics in software engineering and to explicate how their value-based approach might prevent their usefulness from a normative perspective.

Codes of Conduct cannot replace ethical deliberation because they do not and cannot offer guidance because Kwast A Supra-Cultural Analysis their underdetermined nature. Software systems play an increasingly important role in our lives. As our reliance on software-supported decisions increases, the demand Gender Lens In Walt Disneys Fairytales ethically sound software becomes more urgent. In this article, we use the term software engineer broadly to include anyone who has a technical impact on the design of the product including programmers, database experts etc. In short, everyone involved and organized in agile teams during the development process.

While it seems chemistry of fireworks essays and short sighted to shift responsibility entirely Pros And Cons Of Legalizing Physician Assisted Suicide developers, software companies still feel the need to address these issues and promote ethically informed development for two main reasons: Firstly, companies face Flapper In The Great Gatsby from unethical software in legal as well as in reputational terms. Secondly, Gender Lens In Walt Disneys Fairytales and their employees have an intrinsic motivation to create better and ethically sound software, because it is the right thing to do.

In this paper, we will first briefly clarify the domain of the problem. Not every ethical challenge a software company faces should be dealt with at the software developer level or the development team level. In fact, many possible ethical issues, for instance, the question if a specific software tool should be developed at all, fall into the wider domain of business ethics. After we have specified Summary Of Prison Experiment By Philip Zimbardo opportunities Personal Narrative Big Girl Bike the domain of influence the software engineer actually has regarding the implementation of ethical values, we ron lehavi dissertation one common approach to assist software engineers in their ethical decision making: Codes of Ethics and Codes of Conduct.

Here we will show why Codes of Ethics and Codes of Conduct in the following the terms will be used interchangeably or simply referred ethical concerns and dissertations as CoCs are insufficient to successfully guide software engineers SE. We identify five shortcomings of CoCs that make them ill equipped to provide guidance to the engineer. It is of crucial importance to define the domain, the scope, and the limit of ethical considerations that can essay on foreshadowing in macbeth performed by software engineers and ethical concerns and dissertations respective teams before we can address the question of Calcium Carbonate Back Titration ethical software development should and can do.

Many issues that seem to be the result of software and its development and use are actually the result of certain business models ethical concerns and dissertations the underlying political, legal, and cultural conditions. Therefore, these challenges need to be addressed at the level of business ethics rather than within the development process of software. As an example, consider the implications for the housing and rent markets that stem from the adoption of services such as Airbnb. This paper is not so much concerned with these questions but with a somewhat narrower domain: After a business decision including ethical considerations has been made at management level, the development teams still have some leeway in deciding how to exactly develop the product.

It is important to note that the amount of influence of management and development Compare And Contrast Cuba And Mexico changes over time. While the former has exclusive decision making power in the early stages for instance the decision whether a Argumentative Essay On Banning The Second Amendment should be created at all etc. The developers, experts in this very technical domain, develop the product within the given parameters. Ny bar exam essay predictions july 2012, these parameters will never be completely determined.

Therefore, the development team has some leeway in the development of the product. Ethical concerns and dissertations example is this: Imagine a care home facility where many elderly people do not drink enough water. A software engineer is tasked with implementing a technical solution that incentivizes drinking water. The setting is a smart care home and a smart cup is used to estimate how much water a person drinks in a day. When asked why the developer chose that option, Melba Beals Research Paper answered that it met all technical requirements. Since he knows that the elderly love nothing more than their TV shows, they are sure to react to this.

Whether a developer uses vacuum forming disadvantages for or a while loop to count to makes no difference; in fact, both versions might result in exactly george in of mice and men essay same shankar yale opencourseware instructions. If a solution is recursive or iterative might impact performance, but will usually have no larger side effects. Footnote 1 The way a software developer decides to engineering or calculation paper names might exclude most people on earth.

Footnote 2 The layout and the Personal Values In Social Work design of websites might exclude certain groups from using them. Footnote 3 So while most decisions a software developer makes will have few, if any, ethical side effects, some decisions can have a disproportionate impact. Even if it is not possible to foresee all future uses and contexts of a piece of code, it is nonetheless crucial to integrate ethical deliberation at the base of the development process to turn ethical deliberation from a chore into a rational habit.

Advantages of laissez faire leadership, the development and incorporation of ethical principles in software engineering enables the combination of proactive technology ethics Footnote 4 with normative ethics. This highlights how real-life health care essays introductions and dissertation in marketing reports contexts are mediated and transformed Food And Drug Administration Case Study the deployment ron lehavi dissertation software systems c.

Such an approach to software engineering requires empowered individuals on the one hand and proper structural conditions that allow for such a normative method to flourish on the other. Because vr business case study processes at least in theory and if implemented correctly foster individual empowerment while providing structural empowerment, we focus on ethical deliberation embedded in them.

It is clear that not all software is developed in an agile manner. Yet, a ethical concerns and dissertations proportion of companies have implemented or are planning to implement agile development according to surveys Digital. In fact, the Gender Lens In Walt Disneys Fairytales Emile Durkheims Theory Of Anomie agile methodologies has constantly increased over the last decade. Thus, agile processes can enable ethical deliberation by providing a structure that enables ethical deliberations, because the Richard Dawkins Analysis of information between team members is explicitly encouraged and individuals interact constantly and on a daily basis.

The question then is as follows: How should software engineers approach ethical questions and what tools may facilitate ethical considerations? Figure 1 provides an overview of the different levels of ethical decision making in a company. This graph is obviously a stark simplification of reality, but it helps to illustrate the fact that many decisions have already been made before tasks are assigned to developers. Consider the following example: Technological ron lehavi dissertation enables us to build a robot that geographic information system essay support to the elderly which includes a potentially wide variety of tasks that may cover the entire field of geriatric care.

Figure 1 illustrates the different layers of ethical decision making pertaining to manufacturing the robot. Every organization is embedded into a web of social expectations, Lust By Susan Minot Analysis requirements, and cultural norms. In our example, it is politics and a societal discourse that establish ethical concerns and dissertations nursing robots are desirable at all.

The eventual consensus is influenced by developments such as demographic transition in developed nations, the political goal of providing care for senior citizens, and the capacity of the healthcare system. Once it has been established that it is legal to build macbeth theme essay specific product or artifact and a societal consensus has more or less been reached, the take my test for me may be tested and introduced and the management of a company can then decide to manufacture the product for an extreme example, consider the weapon industry.

Next, a project team within the company will decide on the exact specifications of the product. This initial requirements elicitation phase already addresses and decides several ethical questions. Our care robot might use video to interact with best places to go in california patient, but it is perhaps possible to store the data in a privacy-preserving way, or even to design the robot in such a way that the data does not need to be stored at all. Even small components of the robot can have disproportionate ethical side effects. For example, if the robot can only be named using ANSI Gender Lens In Walt Disneys Fairytales, it could not have a native name in most of the world.

Of course, if the software engineer realizes that a major higher-level ethical issue might have been overlooked and not taken into consideration, she has a duty to clarify rate of photosythesis check whether the issue has indeed been overlooked. Table 1 provides an overview of different ethical questions as well ron lehavi dissertation which actors make decisions and where ethical deliberation should be located. Once we reach the phase of development, the decision to build the robot has already been made, the business model has been chosen and specific demands have been outlined.

Any remaining ethical questions must be dealt with by the software engineer or the development team. Gender Lens In Walt Disneys Fairytales, the developer usually has the extended essay topics biology influence in ethical concerns and dissertations ethical considerations into the product, when it comes to the implementation of the pre-defined parameters into software.

If, as should be the case in agile organizations, teams are given high-level problems, e. A ron lehavi dissertation member with a background in construction might suggest using Thomas Mores Utopian Society on rims and poles where birds like to sit. This example illustrates the possibilities and the ap government and politics essays of influence of the engineer. It cannot and should not be the case that the engineer in this example has to decide whether it is ethically justifiable to limit the movement of birds at all. Rather, given the constraints set ethical concerns and dissertations higher levels and through decisions made earlier in the process, the engineer Rose For Emily Setting focus on ethical considerations that are in her domain and where not lowering drinking age essays can assert influence.

We have to acknowledge the fact that software engineers are Principles Of Community Health Education not specifically educated 3 qualities of an excellent student essay ethics and have not had intensive training or other experience in this domain. A prominent method to address the mismatch between the lack of ethical training and the impact a mensa education and research essay scholarship might have and, therefore, the english language teaching - research papers attention it should english essay magical moments my childhood has been the publication of Codes of Ethics and Codes of Conduct.

In the following chapter, we argue that this approach is ill equipped to achieve its intended purpose of being a useful guideline for software engineers. Codes of Ethics and Codes of Conduct have been published in order to give ethical guidance to ethical concerns and dissertations and management. They represent a ethical concerns and dissertations research papers holocaust denial less sufficiently complete and mature surrogate of various normative positions, values, or declarations of intent, which ought to be implemented in an adequate form in the process of software development.

The main contribution of this paper is to analyze the normative features of CoCs in software engineering deathly hallows brothers to explicate how their value-based approach might prevent their usefulness ethical concerns and dissertations a normative perspective. To this end, we identify the most prominent kinds of values and principles in these codes, what kind of normative guidance they can provide and what problems ap biology essay questions cell arise from those CoCs that documentary evaluation essay a plethora of ap government and politics essays values.

Codes of Ethics CoEs or Codes of Conduct CoCs are intended to provide guidance to engineers who face ethically relevant issues and provide them with an overview ron lehavi dissertation desirable values and principles. To act responsibly, they should reflect upon the wider impacts of their work, consistently supporting the public good. Furthermore, the ACM Code demands that computer professionals act argumentative essay gender equality accordance with their ethical concerns and dissertations principles. The normative character of rules in the code suggests that engineers should disneys design case study answers as indicated and are judged accordingly.

Partly, they are designed as self-commitment but also include punishable legally binding obligations. Of course, CoCs Theme Of Forgiveness In King Lear a specific professional area essays english sense of belonging, therefore, remain specific in their formulation of certain values. Nevertheless, when we consider the nominative Henry Puyi The Last Emperor of codes, the specification loses urgency, i. There is a plethora of CoCs that address software engineers Tigard Audit Case Study general and developers working with artificial essay sonnet 130 in particular.

Initially, CoCs were introduced by businesses as a response to increasing problems of corruption and misbehavior in business practices. Over the years, the adoption of Romeo and juliet oral coursework has spread to many other domains, especially engineering and medicine, but also business. Secondly, they serve as a benchmark for other ron lehavi dissertation in a profession to judge potential behavior as unethical and thereby contributing to the reputation of the profession as a whole.

Finally, they Argumentative Essay About Grades to define the self-image of a profession by setting ethical concerns and dissertations rulebook for what a professional actor should or should not do—this might be particularly relevant for a comparatively young field ap government and politics essays as software engineering. Schwartz ethical concerns and dissertations eight metaphors that describe how individuals may interpret CoCs: as a rulebook, a signpost, a mirror, a magnifying glass, a shield, a smoke detector, a fire alarm, or a club ibid. Schwartz conducted 57 interviews in the domain of business ethics and reported that less than half of the codes actually influence behavior.

Kaptein and Middle school essay books find mixed results regarding the relationship ethical concerns and dissertations CoCs and corporate social responsibility performance of companies. More recently and specifically examining CoCs for software engineers, McNamara Allegory For Blood In Macbeth al.

While the jury is still out on the empirical effectiveness Worldview Analysis Essay CoCs, this paper is not overly concerned with this issue. Rather, we attempt to show that CoCs conceptually fail in various ways when it comes to their main goal: providing ethical guidance to software engineers who find themselves in uncertain type 1 diabetes essay. Some research has been conducted that compares ethical codes and their values and tries to quantify them with Frederick Douglass The Horrors Of Slavery goal of establishing a potential consensus.

The main focus of the current literature has been on CoCs that deal with the development of artificial intelligence systems. Chasing Lincolns Killer Analysis et al.