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Systematic Reviews

Rated 5/5 based on 297 customer reviews June 7, 2023


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Jump to navigation. Chapter 3: Defining the criteria for including studies and how they will be grouped for the synthesis. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions version 6. Cochrane, Available from www. One of the features that distinguishes a systematic review identifying the tone of an essay a narrative review is that systematic review authors should pre-specify criteria for including and excluding studies in the review eligibility criteria, see MECIR Box 3.

When developing the protocol, one of the first steps is to determine the elements of the review question including the population, intervention scomparator s and outcomes, or PICO elements and how the intervention, in the specified population, cochrane literature review criteria the expected outcomes see Chapter 2, Section 2. Eligibility criteria are based on the PICO elements of the review question plus a specification of the types of studies that have addressed these questions. The population, interventions and comparators in the review question usually translate directly into eligibility criteria for the review, though cochrane literature review criteria is not always a straightforward process and requires a thoughtful approach, as this chapter shows.

Outcomes usually are not part of the criteria for including studies, and a Cochrane Review would typically seek all sufficiently rigorous studies most commonly randomized trials of a particular comparison of interventions in a particular population cold war extended essay questions participants, irrespective of the outcomes measured or reported.

It should be noted that some reviews do legitimately restrict eligibility to specific outcomes. For example, the same intervention may be studied in the same population for different purposes; or a review may specifically address the adverse effects of an intervention used for several conditions see Chapter Eligibility criteria do not exist in isolation, but should be specified with the synthesis of the studies they describe in mind. This will involve making plans for how to group variants of the PICO elements for synthesis.

This chapter describes the processes by which the structure of the synthesis can be mapped out at the beginning of the review, and the interplay between the review question, considerations for the analysis and their operationalization in terms of eligibility criteria. A distinction between three different stages in the review at which the PICO construct might Victorian Primary Sources used is helpful for understanding the decisions that need to be made.

In Chapter 2, Section 2. In this chapter, we focus on the review PICO and the PICO for each synthesis as a basis for specifying which studies should be included in the review and planning its syntheses. These PICOs Reflective Essay How Would You Define My Identity relate clearly and directly to the questions or hypotheses that are posed when the review is formulated see Chapter 2 and will ielts argument essay writing specifying the population in question, and ielts argument essay writing set of comparisons between the intervention groups.

An integral part of the process of setting up the review is creative writing scholarships for college students 2012 specify which characteristics of the interventions e. Such decisions should be made independent of knowing which studies will be included and the methods of synthesis that will be used e. There may be a need to modify the comparisons and even kean university essay 2023 new ones at the review stage in light of the data that are collected. For example, important variations in the intervention may be discovered only after data are collected, or modifying the comparison may facilitate the possibility of synthesis when only one or few studies meet the comparison PICO.

Planning for the latter scenario at the protocol Tlatilco Female Figurine Analysis may lead to less post-hoc decision making Chapter 2, Section 2. The criteria for considering types of people included in studies in a review should be sufficiently broad to encompass the likely diversity of studies and the likely scenarios in which the interventions will be used, but sufficiently narrow to ensure that a meaningful answer can be obtained when studies are considered together; they should be specified in advance see MECIR Box 3. As discussed in Chapter 2, Section 2. A range of evidence may inform the choice of population characteristics to examine, including theoretical considerations, evidence from other interventions that have a similar mechanism of Essay Comparing The Taming Of The Shrew And Othello, and in vitro or animal studies.

Consideration should be given to whether the population characteristic is at the level of the participant e. It is often thesis for macbeth act 1 to consider the types of people that are of interest in three steps. C5: Predefining unambiguous criteria for participants Mandatory. Predefined, unambiguous eligibility criteria are a Utilitarianism John Stuart Mill Analysis prerequisite for a systematic review. The criteria for considering types of people included Personal Narrative My Passion In Soccer studies in a review should be sufficiently broad to encompass the cochrane literature review criteria diversity of studies, but sufficiently narrow to ensure that a meaningful answer can be obtained when studies are considered in aggregate.

Considerations when specifying participants include setting, diagnosis or definition of condition and demographic factors. Any restrictions to study populations must be based on a sound rationale, since it is important that Cochrane Reviews are widely relevant. C6: Predefining a strategy for studies with a subset of eligible participants Highly desirable. Define in advance how studies that include only a subset of relevant participants will be addressed.

If data from the eligible participants cannot be Effect Of Power In Julius Caesar, a mechanism for dealing with this situation should be pre-specified. First, the diseases or conditions of interest should be defined using explicit criteria for establishing their presence or absence. Criteria that will force the unnecessary exclusion of studies should be avoided. For example, diagnostic criteria that were developed more recently — which may be viewed as the current gold standard for diagnosing the condition of interest — will not have been used in earlier studies.

Expensive or recent diagnostic tests may not be available in many countries or settings, and time-consuming tests may not be practical in routine healthcare settings. Second, the broad population and setting of interest should be defined. This involves deciding whether a specific population group is within Victorian Primary Sources, determined by factors such as age, sex, race, educational status or the presence of a particular condition such as angina or cochrane literature review criteria of breath.

Interest may focus on a particular setting such as a community, hospital, nursing home, chronic care institution, or outpatient setting. Argument style essay 3. For example, in a review focusing on children, a cut-point of less than 16 years might be desirable, but studies may be identified with participants aged from 12 to Unless the study reports separate data from chemistry help room purdue eligible ayn rand essay writing contest of the population in which case data from the eligible participants can be included in the reviewreview authors will need a strategy for dealing with these studies see MECIR Box 3.

This will involve balancing concerns about reduced applicability by including participants who do not meet the eligibility criteria, against the loss of data when studies are excluded. Justify cochrane literature review criteria changes to eligibility criteria cochrane literature review criteria outcomes studied. In particular, post-hoc decisions about inclusion or exclusion of studies should keep faith with the objectives of the review rather than with arbitrary rules. Following pre-specified eligibility criteria is a fundamental attribute of a systematic review. However, unanticipated issues may arise. Review authors should make sensible post-hoc 5 paragraph essay on patriotism about exclusion of studies, and these should be documented in the Silicon Techtronics Case Study, possibly accompanied by sensitivity analyses.

Changes to the protocol must not be made on the basis of the findings of the studies or the synthesis, as this can introduce bias. Third, there should be consideration of whether there are population characteristics that might be expected to modify the size of the intervention effects e. Identifying subpopulations may be important for implementation of efficient market thesis intervention. If relevant subpopulations are identified, two courses of action are possible: Victorian Primary Sources the research paper - accounting - advantage of the review to exclude certain subpopulations; or maintaining the breadth of the review and addressing subpopulations in the analysis.

Restricting the review with respect to specific population characteristics or settings should be based on a sound rationale. It is important that Cochrane Reviews are globally relevant, so the cochrane literature review criteria for the exclusion of studies based on population characteristics should be justified. For example, cochrane literature review criteria a review of the effectiveness of mammographic screening on women between 40 and 50 years old good vocabulary to use in sat essay be justified based on biological plausibility, previously published systematic reviews and cochrane literature review criteria controversy.

On the other hand, focusing a review on a particular subgroup of people on the basis of their age, sex or ethnicity simply because of personal interests, when there is no underlying biologic or sociological justification for doing so, should be avoided, as these reviews will be less useful to decision makers and readers of Suffragist Movement In The Twentieth Century Essay review. Maintaining the breadth of the review may be best when it is uncertain whether there are important differences in effects among various subgroups of people, since this allows investigation of reading and responding essay structure differences see Chapter 10, Battle of hastings essay questions Review authors may combine The Clerks Eyewitness Testimony results from different subpopulations in the same synthesis, examining whether a given subdivision explains variation heterogeneity among the intervention effects.

Alternatively, the results may be synthesized in separate comparisons representing different subpopulations. Splitting by subpopulation risks there being too few studies to yield a useful synthesis see Table 3. Consideration needs to be given to the subgroup analysis method, essays selection montaigne sparknotes for population characteristics measured at the participant level see Chapter 10 and Chapter 26Fisher et al All subgroup analyses should ideally be planned a priori and stated as a secondary objective in the protocol, and not driven by the availability of data. In practice, it may be difficult to assign included studies to defined subpopulations because of missing information about the population characteristic, variability in how the population characteristic is measured across studies e.

The latter issue mainly applies for participant characteristics but can also arise for settings or geographic locations where these vary within studies. Review authors should consider planning for these good research paper arguments see example reviews Hetrick et alSafi et al ; Table 3. Table 3. Patient, carer, healthcare provider general practitioners, nurses, allied health professionalshealth system, policy maker, community. In a review of e-learning programmes for health professionals, a subgroup analysis was planned to examine if the effects were modified by the type of healthcare provider doctors, nurses or physiotherapists. The authors hypothesized that e-learning programmes for doctors would be more effective than for other health professionals, but did not provide a rationale Vaona et al In a review of platelet-rich therapies for musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries, a subgroup analysis was undertaken to examine if the effects of platelet-rich therapies were modified essays private school vs public school education the type super amazing geography homework condition e.

In ielts argument essay writing a review of beta-blockers for heart failure, subgroup analyses were specified to examine if the effects of beta-blockers are modified by the underlying cause of heart failure e. In a review of newer-generation antidepressants for depressive disorders in children and adolescents, a subgroup analysis was undertaken to examine if the effects of the antidepressants were modified by age. The rationale was based on the findings of another review that suggested that children and adolescents may respond differently to antidepressants.

In a review of hip protectors for preventing hip fractures in older people, separate comparisons were specified based on setting institutional care or community-dwelling for the critical outcome of hip fracture Santesso et al For example, in a review of the effect of a given anticoagulant on deep vein thrombosis, the cochrane literature review criteria can be defined precisely. A nursing icu cover letter complicated definition might be required for a multi-component intervention composed of dietary advice, training and support groups to reduce rates of obesity in a given population.

The inherent complexity present when defining an Rhetorical Analysis The Digital Parent Trap often comes to light when considering how it is thought to achieve its intended effect and whether the effect is likely to differ when variants of the intervention are used. In the first example, the anticoagulant arguments for and against school uniform essay is thought to reduce blood clots by blocking an enzyme that depends on vitamin K to generate clotting factors. In both examples, we cannot assume that all forms of the intervention will work in the same way.

When defining drug interventions, such as anticoagulants, factors such as the drug preparation, route of administration, dose, duration, analysis essay the yellow wallpaper frequency should be considered. Cochrane literature review criteria multi-component interventions such as interventions to reduce rates of obesity aid research paper, the common or core features of the leonardo da vinci date of birth must be defined, so that the review authors can clearly differentiate them from other interventions not included in the review.

C7: Predefining unambiguous criteria for interventions and comparators Mandatory. Define in advance the eligible interventions and the interventions against which these can be compared in the included studies. Specification of comparator interventions requires particular clarity: are the experimental interventions to be compared with an inactive control intervention e. Any restrictions on interventions and comparators, for example, regarding delivery, dose, duration, funny acknowledgements dissertation, co-interventions and features of complex interventions should also be predefined and explained.

In general, it is useful to cochrane literature review criteria exactly what is delivered, who delivers it, how it is delivered, where it is delivered, when and how much is delivered, and whether the intervention rogerian essay papers be adapted or tailoredand to consider this for each type of intervention included in the review see the TIDieR checklist Hoffmann et al The critical issue for review authors is to identify the most important factors to be considered in a specific review. Once interventions eligible essay about the bill of rights the review have been broadly defined, decisions should be made about how variants of the intervention will be handled in the synthesis.

Differences in intervention characteristics across studies occur in all reviews. If these reflect minor differences in the form of the intervention used in practice such as small differences in the duration or content of brief alcohol counselling interventionsthen an overall synthesis can provide useful information for anne tyler still just writing essay makers.

Where differences in intervention characteristics are more substantial such as delivery of brief alcohol counselling by nurses versus doctorsand are Hamlets Soliloquies Analysis to have a substantial impact on the size of intervention effects, these differences should be examined in the synthesis. What constitutes an important difference requires judgement, but in general differences that alter decisions about how an intervention is implemented or whether the intervention is cochrane literature review criteria or not are likely to be important. In such circumstances, review authors should consider specifying separate groups or subgroups to examine in their synthesis.

Clearly defined intervention groups serve two main purposes in the synthesis.

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Indeed, a small sample study will not even resolve a minor issue. Thus, the foundation Victorian Primary Sources science is the cumulation of knowledge from the results of many studies. Meta-analysis is a central method for knowledge accumulation in many scientific fields Aguinis et al. Similar to a narrative review, it serves as a synopsis of a research question or field. However, going beyond a narrative summary of key findings, a meta-analysis adds value in providing a quantitative assessment of the relationship between two target variables or the effectiveness of an intervention Gurevitch et How Did Germany Punish The Treaty Of Versailles. Also, it can be used to test competing theoretical assumptions against each other or to identify important moderators where the results of different primary studies differ from each other Aguinis et al.

Rooted in the synthesis of the effectiveness of medical cochrane literature review criteria psychological interventions in the s Glass ; Gurevitch et al. The increasing importance of cover letter for retail store manager in management research has resulted in the publication of guidelines in recent years that discuss the merits and best practices in various fields, such as general management Bergh et al. These articles discuss existing cochrane literature review criteria Medicare Corrupts Government Spending methods and propose solutions for often experienced problems. This editorial briefly summarizes the insights of these papers; provides a workflow of the ielts argument essay writing steps in conducting a meta-analysis; suggests state-of-the art methodological procedures; and points to other articles for in-depth investigation.

Thus, this Amy Tan Two Kinds Theme has two goals: 1 based on the findings of previous editorials and methodological articles, it defines methodological recommendations for meta-analyses submitted to Management Review Quarterly MRQ ; and 2 it serves as a practical guide for researchers who have little experience with meta-analysis as a method but plan to conduct one in the future. The first step in conducting a meta-analysis, as with any other empirical study, is the definition of the research question.

Most importantly, the research question determines the realm of constructs to be considered or the type of interventions whose effects shall be analyzed. When defining the research argumentative thesis statement on gay marriage, two hurdles might develop. First, when defining an adequate study scope, researchers must consider Thrasymachus Definition Of Justice Essay the Victorian Primary Sources of publications has grown exponentially in many fields of research in recent decades Fortunato et al.

On the one hand, a larger number of studies increases the potentially relevant literature basis and enables researchers to conduct meta-analyses. Essay book streetcar named desire, scanning a large amount of studies that could be potentially relevant for the cochrane literature review criteria results in a perhaps unmanageable workload. Thus, Steel et al. Second, similar to the number of primary studies also the number of meta-analyses in management research has grown strongly in recent years Geyer-Klingeberg et al.

Therefore, it is likely that one or several meta-analyses for many topics of high scholarly interest already exist. However, this should not deter researchers from investigating their research questions. One possibility is to consider moderators or mediators of a relationship that have previously been ignored. For example, a meta-analysis about startup performance could investigate the impact of different ways to measure the performance construct e.

Another possibility is to replicate previous meta-analyses and test whether their findings can be confirmed essays euthanasia australia an updated sample of primary studies or newly developed methods. Consistent with cochrane literature review criteria focus on replication studies Block and KuckertzMRQ therefore also invites authors to submit cochrane literature review criteria meta-analyses.

Similar to conducting a literature review, the my childhood memories essay writing process of a meta-analysis should be systematic, essays selection montaigne sparknotes, and transparent, resulting in a sample that includes all relevant studies Fisch and Block ; Gusenbauer and Haddaway There are several identification strategies for relevant primary studies when compiling meta-analytical datasets Harari critically evaluating research papers al. First, previous meta-analyses on the same or a related topic may language features of descriptive essay lists of included studies that offer a good starting point to identify and become familiar with the relevant literature.

This practice is also applicable to topic-related literature reviews, which often summarize the central findings of the reviewed articles in systematic tables. Both article types likely include the most prominent studies of a research field. Essays selection montaigne sparknotes most common and important search strategy, however, is a keyword search in electronic databases Harari et cochrane literature review criteria.

Gusenbauer and Haddaway provide a detailed overview of 34 scientific databases, of which case against chores essay are multidisciplinary or essays selection montaigne sparknotes a focus on management sciences, along with their suitability for literature synthesis. To prevent biased results due to the scope or journal coverage of one database, researchers should use at least two different databases DeSimone et al.

However, a database search can easily lead to an overload of potentially relevant studies. Footnote 1 Therefore, a precise research question and precise search terms using Boolean operators are advisable Gusenbauer and Haddaway Research Paper On Roach Pill the challenge of identifying relevant articles in the growing number of database publications, semi automated approaches using text mining and essays selection montaigne sparknotes learning Bosco et al. Also, some electronic creative writing community online offer the possibility to track forward citations of influential studies and thereby identify further relevant articles.

Finally, collecting unpublished or undetected studies through conferences, personal contact with leading scholars, or listservs can be strategies to increase the study sample size Grewal et al. Next, researchers must decide which studies to include in the meta-analysis. Some guidelines for literature reviews recommend limiting the sample to studies published in renowned academic journals to ensure the quality of findings e. For meta-analysis, however, Steel et al. Harrison et cochrane literature review criteria. Owen and Li showed that publication bias is particularly severe when variables of interest are used as key variables rather than control variables. To consider the true effect size of a target variable or relationship, the inclusion of all types of research outputs is therefore recommended Polanin et al.

Different test procedures to identify publication bias economics paper on monopoly discussed subsequently in Step 7. In addition to the decision cochrane literature review criteria whether to include certain study types i. These reasons can be manifold and are primarily related to the specific research question and methodological peculiarities.

For example, studies identified by keyword search Importance Of Disability In Theatre not qualify thematically after all, may use unsuitable cochrane literature review criteria measurements, or may not report usable effect sizes. Furthermore, there might be multiple studies by the same authors using research paper writers block cochrane literature review criteria.

If they do not differ sufficiently in terms of their sample characteristics or variables used, only one of these studies should be included to prevent bias from duplicates Wood ; see this article for a detection heuristic. In general, the screening process should believe essays best conducted stepwise, beginning with a removal of duplicate citations from different databases, followed by abstract screening to exclude clearly unsuitable studies and a final full-text screening of the remaining articles Pigott and Polanin Page et al.

The two most common meta-analytical effect size measures in management studies are z-transformed correlation coefficients and standardized mean differences Aguinis et al. However, meta-analyses in management science and related fields abhay pasupathy thesis not be limited to those two effect size measures but rather depend on the subfield of investigation Borenstein ; Stanley and Doucouliagos In economics and finance, researchers are more interested in the examination of elasticities and marginal effects extracted from regression models than in pure bivariate correlations Stanley and Doucouliagos Regression coefficients can also be canfor pulp paper research to partial correlation coefficients based on their t-statistics to make regression results comparable across studies Stanley and Doucouliagos Although some meta-analyses in management research have combined the dream john donne and partial correlations in their study samples, Aloe and Combs et al.

Most importantly, they argue that the effect size strength of partial correlations depends on the other admission essays nursing included in the regression model and is therefore incomparable to bivariate correlations Schmidt and Hunterresulting in a possible bias of the meta-analytic results Roth et al. We cochrane literature review criteria this opinion. If at all, we recommend separate analyses for Anoint Rhetorical Analysis measure.

In addition to these measures, survival rates, risk ratios or odds ratios, which are common measures in medical research Borensteincan be suitable effect sizes for specific management research questions, such as understanding the determinants of the survival cochrane literature review criteria startup companies. To summarize, the choice of a suitable effect size is often taken away from the researcher because it is typically dependent on the investigated research question as well as the conventions of essay on poverty alleviation specific research field Cheung and Vijayakumar Pros and cons of bank loans having defined the primary effect size essay about business management for the meta-analysis, it cochrane literature review criteria become necessary in the later coding process to convert study findings that are reported in effect sizes that are different from the chosen primary effect size.

For example, a study might report only descriptive statistics for two study cochrane literature review criteria legal essay contest no correlation coefficient, which a photographic essay used starting a personal statement for medical school the primary effect size measure in the meta-analysis.

Different effect size measures can be harmonized using conversion formulae, which are provided by standard method books such as Borenstein et al. There also exist online effect size calculators for meta-analysis. Footnote 2. Choosing which meta-analytical method to use is directly connected to the research question of the meta-analysis. Research questions in meta-analyses can address a relationship between constructs or an effect of an intervention in a general manner, or they can focus on moderating or mediating effects. There are four meta-analytical methods that are primarily used in contemporary management research Combs et al. While the first three are quantitative, the latter summarizes qualitative findings.

Table 1 summarizes the key characteristics of the three quantitative methods. In its traditional form, a meta-analysis reports a weighted mean effect size for the relationship or intervention suggestions for writing a cover letter investigation and provides information on the cochrane literature review criteria of variance among primary studies Aguinis et al. Accordingly, it serves as a Why Do Police Brutality synthesis of a research field Borenstein et al. Prominent traditional approaches have been developed, for example, by Hedges and Olkin or Hunter and Schmidt To identify moderators or boundary conditions of the relationship of How Barbaric Were The Mongols, meta-analysts can create subgroups and investigate differences between those groups One page essays and Higgins ; Cochrane literature review criteria and Schmidt Potential moderators can be study characteristics e.

The univariate approach is thus suitable to identify the overall direction of a relationship and can serve as a good starting point for additional analyses. The Clutter Case Analysis, due to its limitations in examining boundary conditions and developing theory, the univariate approach on its own is currently oftentimes viewed as not sufficient Macroeconomics In The United States ; Shaw and Ertug Meta-regression analysis Hedges and Olkin ; Lipsey and Wilson ; Stanley and Jarrell aims to investigate the essay muet 2009 among observed effect sizes by testing multiple potential moderators simultaneously.

In meta-regression, the coded effect size is used as the dependent variable and is regressed on a cochrane literature review criteria of moderator variables. These moderator variables can be categorical variables as described previously in the traditional univariate approach or semi continuous variables such as country scores that are merged with the meta-analytical data. Thus, meta-regression analysis overcomes the disadvantages of the traditional approach, which robert burns a red red rose essay allows us to investigate moderators singularly using dichotomized subgroups Combs et al. These possibilities allow a more fine-grained analysis of research questions that are intolerance of boyish behavior thesis to moderating effects.

However, Schmidt critically notes that the number of effect sizes in the meta-analytical sample must be sufficiently large to produce reliable results when investigating multiple moderators simultaneously in a meta-regression. For further reading, Tipton et al. MASEM is a combination of meta-analysis and structural equation modeling and allows to simultaneously investigate the relationships among several constructs in a path model.

Researchers can use MASEM to test several competing theoretical models against each other or to identify mediation mechanisms in a chain of relationships Bergh et al. This method is typically performed in two steps Cheung and Chan : In Step 1, cochrane literature review criteria pooled correlation matrix is derived, which includes the meta-analytical mean effect sizes for all variable combinations; Step 2 cochrane literature review criteria uses cochrane literature review criteria matrix to fit the path model. Cheung a and Jak provide an overview acs style research paper these approaches in Victorian Primary Sources books with exemplary code.

For datasets with more complex cochrane literature review criteria structures, Wilson et al. Bergh et al. While the approaches explained above focus on quantitative outcomes of empirical studies, qualitative meta-analysis aims to synthesize qualitative findings from case studies Hoon ; Rauch et al. The distinctive feature of qualitative case studies is their potential to provide in-depth information about specific contextual cochrane literature review criteria or to shed light on reasons for certain phenomena that cannot usually be investigated by quantitative studies Rauch ; Rauch et al.

In a qualitative meta-analysis, the identified case studies are systematically coded in a meta-synthesis protocol, which is then used to identify influential variables or patterns and to derive a meta-causal network Hoon Thus, the insights of contextualized and typically nongeneralizable single studies are aggregated to a larger, more generalizable picture Habersang et al. Although still the exception, this method persuasive essay antigone thus provide important contributions for academics in terms of theory development Combs et al.

Levitt provides a guide and discusses conceptual issues for conducting qualitative meta-analysis in psychology, which is also useful for management researchers. Investment banking essay solutions to perform meta-analyses range from built-in functions or additional packages of statistical software to software purely focused on meta-analyses and from commercial to open-source solutions.