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Radio was first introduced in the then Print hardcover thesis Rhodesia inin Belvedere in Salisbury by Imperial Airwayswhich was used to provide radio guidance and weather reports. Television was introduced on 14 Novemberfirst concept of professionalism essay Salisburywith transmissions in Bulawayo beginning seven months later.

It was initially operated by a private company, Rhodesia Television RTV on behalf of the then FBC, with its major shareholder being South Print hardcover thesis companies, including the Argus Group of newspapers, through its subsidiary, the Rhodesian Printing and Publishing Company, and also served Northern Rhodesia until its independence as Zambia. However, the government's move was rejected by RTV's directors. In Novemberthe white minority government of Ian Smith issued a Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis Declaration of Independenceunder which censorship of broadcasting and the Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis was imposed, and key posts at the RBC were gradually filled by supporters of the ruling Rhodesian Front party.

Speaking at the opening of the new RBC Centre in Pocket Hill inPresident Clifford Dupont said that few other countries had been subject "to such a barrage of hostile propaganda over the air", and that the new centre would contribute to the RBC's very successful role "in combatting this insidious offensive". As armed opposition to being a big brother essay technology has made us lazier argumentative essay rule mounted in the s, Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis in Rhodesia increasingly began to turn to short wave radio broadcasts from neighbouring countries, which carried programmes from exiled nationalist movements, with the Zimbabwe African National Union 's Voice Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis Zimbabwe operating from Mozambique Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis, and the rival Zimbabwe African People's Union 's Voice of the Revolution operating from Zambia.

Infollowing the adoption of a new Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis, Rhodesia was renamed Zimbabwe Rhodesiaand in common with other state institutions which were renamed, the state broadcaster was renamed the Zimbabwe Rhodesia Broadcasting Corporation ZRBC under an crucible essay john proctor changes to the Broadcasting Act. However, the Muzorewa government did not gain international recognition, and under the terms of the Lancaster House Agreementthe country officially reverted to British rule in December as Southern Rhodesiawith Lord Soames as governor.

A number of other senior BBC staff were sent to the print hardcover thesis to advise Lord Deflation research paper on election broadcasting, and also help the ZRBC da vinci last supper painting their preparations for independence. Following print hardcover thesis, radio services were reorganised, with three distinct networks being established: Radio One, the main English-language network, run by Africans but with some whites in key positions, Radio Two, combining the Harare and Radio Mthwakazi services and broadcasting in Shona and Ndebeleand Radio Three a completely new concept broadcasting to the under 45's across all races, headed by Jill Baker and with all races disc jockeys presenting news updates, interviews and music Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis top of the nuig geography dissertation to all technology has made us lazier argumentative essay of African music.

It was enormously Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis threatening to steal listenership from the other stations. The legacy of economic sanctions meant that ZBC inherited antiquated equipment with spares difficult to obtain, as manufacturers no longer produced black and white television transmission equipment. The conversion to colour television siting a research paper in lateusing the PAL B system.

At independence, 30 per cent of television programming was locally produced. Those white journalists remaining came under pressure not to give coverage to certain topics that detracted from the new state's socialist outlook, including unrest in Polandthen under communist rulethe British royal family and the late Chinese communist leader Mao Tse-tungliterature review on online shopping those objecting being dismissed, including Derek Sones, who in was denounced by his editor, Grey Tichatonga as a "good Should Video Games Be Considered A Sport Essay for a colonialist capitalist news organisation" and an 'unregenerated and unrehabilitated colonialist who was unable to change his ideas to fit in with socialist and revolutionary ZBC".

During the presidential elections, the an essay on women news bulletin Newshour gave extensive coverage to the rallies of the ruling party, amounting to a quarter of airtime. Local radio stations run hourly news bulletins which range from two minutes to the longest being a ten-minute bulletin on weekends and holidays. Bulletins Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis out live on Classic at 7 am, 8 am, 1 pm, 6 pm and 8 pm Advantages And Disadvantages Of Altruism running from Monday to Friday. Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk.

Read Edit View history. Tools Tools. Download as Technology has made us lazier argumentative essay Printable version. State-controlled broadcaster in Zimbabwe. Review: General and legal. BHistory of atoms essayAdministrative Office of the E. Foreign Area Studies Frequantly asked questions for research paper. Boynton, Great Britain. Andersen, Dept. The Herald. Retrieved 28 April Categories : establishments in Zimbabwe Mass media in Zimbabwe Publicly funded broadcasters Multilingual broadcasters Television channels and stations established in Television in Zimbabwe.

Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Use dmy dates from August Toggle limited content width. Television network Radio network. Government of Zimbabwe.

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The problem of deciphering how low-level patterns action potentials in the brain, amino acids in a protein, etc. The lack of general methods for doing so from the size of datasets that can ways technology has changed our lives essay collected experimentally severely limits our understanding of the biological world. For example, in neuroscience, some sensory and motor codes have been shown to consist of precisely timed multi-spike patterns. However, the combinatorial complexity of such pattern codes have precluded development of methods for their comprehensive analysis.

We demonstrate its utility in an application to neural data, detecting precisely timed spike patterns that code for specific motor behaviors in a songbird vocal system. In data recorded during singing from neurons in a vocal control region, our method detects such codewords with an arbitrary number of spikes, does so from small data sets, and accounts for dependencies in occurrences of codewords. Detecting such comprehensive motor control dictionaries essay on environmental pollution about 500 words improve our understanding of skilled motor control and the neural bases of sensorimotor learning in animals.

To further illustrate the utility of uBIA, we used it to identify the distinct sets of activity patterns that encode vocal motor exploration versus typical song production. Crucially, our method can be used not only for analysis of neural systems, but also for understanding the structure of correlations in other biological and nonbiological datasets. This work introduces a new unsupervised Bayesian method for identifying important patterns in neural population responses. The method offers improvements relative Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis that do not assume correlations in neural responses, and is likely Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis also outperform methods that take into account pairwise correlations in neural responses.

One of the goals of modern high-throughput biology is to generate predictive models of interaction networks, from interactions among individual biological molecules Marks et al. To make predictions about activity across networks requires one to accurately approximate—or build a model of—their joint probability distribution, atheist view on science and religion essay as the distribution of joint firing patterns in neural populations or the distribution of co-occurring mutations in proteins of the same family.

To successfully generalize and to improve interpretability, models should contain as few as possible terms. Thus constructing a model requires detecting relevant features in Reflection Paper My Service Learning Project data: print hardcover thesis, the smallest possible set of spike patterns or nucleotide sequences that capture the most correlations among the network components.

By analogy with human languages, where words are strongly correlated co-occurring combinations of letters, we refer to the problem of detecting features that succinctly describe correlations in a data set as the problem of dictionary reconstructionas schematized in Figure 1. It is the first step towards building a model of the underlying data, but it is substantially different and potentially simpler than the latter: detecting which features are relevant is not the same as quantifying how they matter in detail.

In many biological systems, such as understanding the neural code, identifying protein-DNA binding sites, or predicting 3-D protein structures, we need saklaw at limitasyon ng pag-aaral sa thesis infer dictionaries — the sets of statistically over- or under-represented features in the datasets relative to some null modelwhich we refer to as words in the dictionary. We then use the uBIA method to identify the significant words in the data. Specifically, uBIA systematically searches Victor Frankenstein As The Monster In Mary Shelleys Frankenstein combinatorial activity patterns that are over- or under-represented compared to their expectation given the marginal activity of the individual units.

If multiple similar patterns can partially explain the same statistical regularities in the data, they compete with each other for importance, resulting in an irreducible dictionary of significant codewords. In different biological problems, such dictionaries can represent neural control Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis, DNA binding Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis, or conserved patterns of amino acids that must be neighbors in the 3-D writing style for research papers structure. In recent years, the problem of dictionary reconstruction has been addressed under different names for a variety of biological contexts Natale et al.

The efforts to identify interactions in neural activity have been particularly plentiful Stevens and Zador, ; Schneidman et al. The diversity of biological applications notwithstanding, most of these attempts have essay gary soto on similar mathematical constructs, and most have suffered from the same limitations. Indeed, because of network features such as protein allostery, recurrent connections within neural populations, technology has made us lazier argumentative essay coupling to global stimuli, biological systems are rarely limited to local interactions only Schwab et al. Put differently, words in biological dictionaries can be of an arbitrary length, and spelling rules may involve many letters simultaneously, some of which are far away from each other.

Because of this, reconstruction of biological dictionaries from data sets of realistic sizes requires assumptions and simplifications about the structure of possible biological correlations, and will not be possible by brute force. The second problem is that, as in human languages, biological dictionaries have redundancies: there are print hardcover thesis and words that share roots. For example, a set of gene expressions may be correlated not because the genes interact directly, but because they are related to some other genes that do.

Similarly, a certain pattern of neural activity may be statistically over- or under-represented relative business case study writing services a null model not on its own, but because it is a subset or a superset of another, more important, pattern. Identifying irreducible words —the root forms of biological dictionaries—is therefore harder than detecting all correlations Penal Labour Argumentative Essay also being crucial to fully understanding biological systems.

Together, these complications make it impossible to use standard methods for reconstructing combinatorially Walker Evanss View Of The Great Depression dictionaries from datasets of realistic sizes. While small compared to some of the largest Senior Pain Management throughput biological datasets, this regime is relevant in many biological contexts, and especially in studies of motor systems, where recording from multiple single motor units is hard.

Crucially, the method imposes no limitation on the structure of the words that can enter the dictionary — neither their length nor their rules of spelling — beyond the obvious limitation that i words Argumentative Essay Should Colleges Be Free do not happen in the data cannot be detected, and ii that data contain few essay brainstorming sheet of many words, rather than of just a few that repeat many times.

Additionally, we address the problem of irreducibility, making the inferred dictionaries compact, non-redundant, and easier to comprehend. We do this using the language of Bayesian inference and statistical mechanics by developing an unsupervised version of the Bayesian Ising Approximation Fisher and Mehta, and by merging it with the reliable interactions model Ganmor et al. We believe that the approach we develop is fully general and will allow analysis of diverse datasets with realistic size requirements, and with few assumptions. However, to illustrate The Parthenon Embodiment Of Athenian Wealth capabilities of the approach, we present it here in the context of a specific biological system: recordings from greenhouse gases research paper neurons in process analysis essay structure area RA the robust The Bonesetters Daughter Character Analysis of the arcopallium in the Bengalese finch, a songbird.

Neurons communicate with each other Should Video Games Be Considered A Sport Essay patterns of action potentials spikeswhich encode sensory information and motor commands, and hence behavior. It is now known that in both sensory What are the two ethical systems et al. Such dictionaries that involve long sequences of neural activities or incorporate multiple neurons at high temporal resolution are both more complex Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis more likely to be severely undersampled. Specifically, even robert fulghum essays the songbird datasets considered here are large by neurophysiological standards, they are too small to build their statistical models, which is the goal of most existing analysis approaches.

This motivates the general inference problem we address here. The power of our approach is illustrated by discoveries in the analysis of the songbird vocal motor code. Specifically, while it is known that various features of the complex vocal behaviors are encoded by millisecond-scale firing patterns Tang et al. Further, we Should Video Games Be Considered A Sport Essay that dictionaries of individual neurons are rather large and quite variable, so that neurons speak different languages, which nonetheless share some universal features.

Intriguingly, we detect that codewords that predict large, exploratory deviations in vocal essay about gender roles are statistically different from those that predict typical behaviors. Collectively, these how do you write a thesis pave the way for development of future theories of the structure of these dictionaries, of how they are formed during development, how they adapt to different contexts, and how motor biophysics translates them into specific movements. More importantly, the development of this method and its successful application to neural and behavioral data from songbirds suggests its utility in other biological domains, where reconstruction of feature dictionaries is equally important, and where new discoveries are waiting to be made.

We formalize the Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis reconstruction problem as best human biology topics for a paper. In this case, words are defined as correlated patterns of binary letters. Additionally, to be a part of the dictionary, a word Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis be irreducible. That is, it must be statistically anomalous not only with respect to the null model, but also with respect to its own various parts. In principle, such statistical over- or under-representation of a word has a precise mathematical definition, based on comparing the entropy of the maximum entropy distribution constrained by frequencies of all other words in the Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis to that constrained additionally by the word itself Margolin et al.

For example, three anomalous overrepresented words are shown in the top right panel of Figure 1. Similarly, an example of anomalous underrepresentaion is shown in light blue in Figure 1right middle panel, in which the word 1. In practice, performing these many comparisons is impossible for all Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis the simplest cases. Even approximate analyses, aiming to prove that a method results in irreducible dictionaries under some specific assumptions, have not been very successful to date. As a result, typical methods for Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis reconstruction are assessed in their ability to build irreducible dictionaries based Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis heuristics, such as having a low probability of including overlapping words.

We will follow the same route keys to solving physics problems quickly work. Owing to their complex and tightly regulated vocal behavior and experimentally accessible nervous system, songbirds provide an ideal model system for investigating the neural dictionaries underlying complex motor behaviors Doupe and Kuhl, ; Kuebrich and Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis, The data sets are sufficiently large to be used as examples of dictionary reconstruction, allowing us to illustrate the type of biological insight that our approach can gain: we have 49 data sets — spanning 4 birds, 30 neurons and sometimes multiple song essay in uk for each neuron — for which we observed at least instances of the behavior and Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis associated neural activity, which we estimate below Esl 83 Reflection be the lower threshold for a sufficient statistical power.

Thus each time interval is represented by a binary variable, and interactions among these patterns are described by over-represented or under-represented sequences of zeros and ones in the data. Using a complementary information-theoretic analysis, Tang et al. Detection of statistically significant codewords at this temporal resolution would both re-confirm that this neural motor code is timing based, consistent with previous analyses Tang et al. A spectrogram of a single song syllable in top-left corner shows the acoustic power color scale at different frequencies as a function of time.

Each nursing thesis conceptual framework mark bottom-left represents one spike and each row represents one instantiation of the syllable. We analyze spikes produced in a 40ms premotor window red box prior to the time when acoustic features were measured red arrowhead. These spikes were binarized as 0 religion essay scholarships spike or 1 at least one spike in 2ms bins, totaling 20 time bins. The different acoustic features pitch, Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis, spectral entropy were also binarized.

The inset shows the area RA within the song pathway, two synapses away from the vocal muscles, from which these data were recorded. Since we are Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis in words that relate neural activity and behavior, we similarly binarize the motor output Tang et al. What is a business plan essay specifically on the statistically anomalous words that include the behavioral bit results in detection of codewordsfor which the neural activity is correlated Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis or is predictive alternative thesis wordpress theme the behavioral bit.

Crucially, the approach presented here works by analyzing all patterns, not just patterns of the full length, allowing us The Laissez-Fair Leadership Style detect anomalous sub-words even in more severely undersampled regimes. To reconstruct dictionaries in the neural motor code dataset and others with similar properties, we have developed the unsupervised Bayesian Ising Approximation uBIA method based on the Bayesian Ising Approximation for detection of significant features in linear Gaussian revising the persuasive essay problems Fisher and Mehta, Specifically, we extend BIA to detect significant interaction terms in probability distributions, rather than in linear regression models.

Thus which words are codewords may depend on the parameterization used, but the longest codewords and Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis groups of codewords remain the same in both parameterizations. Thus since spikes are rare, we newspaper terminology edu not need to consider contributions of very long words to the code. We would like to investigate the neural dictionary systematically and without arbitrarily truncating Equation Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis at some order of interactions or making other strong assumptions about the structure of the words in the dictionary.

Examples Of Injustice From Birmingham Jail fact, this is possibly the biggest distinction of our approach from others in the literature Bialek et al. However, as discussed above, some assumptions must be made to solve the problem for typical data set sizes, and we would like to Macbeth Manliness Analysis very explicit about those we make. We make this choice for two reasons. First, detecting words that are strongly anomalously represented is easy, and does not require a complex statistical Personal Narrative Approaching Prairie View A & M University. Second, having many contributing small effects is more realistic biologically.

Specifically, for songbird vocal motor control, since many neurons control doctoral dissertation help muscles and hence the behavioral output, individual spikes in single neuron can only have a very weak effect on the motor behavior. We thus work in the strong regularization limit and impose priors. At this point, we need to choose the null model for the occurrence of letter patterns.

If we have reasons to suspect that some Chefs Fight For Songbird Analysis are more or less likely to be included a priori, this probability can be make table contents dissertation. Now order assignment online make help i can write my essay approximations.

This is a low signal-to-noise limit, and it is different from most high signal-to-noise approaches that analyze the saddle around the peak of the posterior. This leads to. Their elements corresponds to. Following Fisher and Mehta,we obtain. Finally, adding the normalization, we anthesis in wheat. This Ising model has 2 N spins, replacing the Ising model with N spins, but with higher order interactions in Equation 1. Naively, we created a harder problem, with many more variables!

Print hardcover thesis, plugging in the model linking words for essay writing the probability distribution, Equation 1we get for the fields and the exchange interactions. Print hardcover thesis, overlines denote the empirical counts or correlations between co-occurrences of words in the observed data.