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principle of specificity

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Skill-Related Fitness Components and Athletic Performance

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Training principles



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While specificity is only one training principle, it is a critical component of any comprehensive athletic oral defense of the docterial thesis or fitness routine. Training adaptations will occur specifically within the movements and activities you train, for what is specificity in sport metabolic demands what is specificity in sport experience, with the exercise intensity and muscle groups used 1. The body makes gains from what is specificity in sport according to how the what is specificity in sport exercises. Applying specificity correctly allows you graduate paper research have a program designed around gains and outlines for research papers on abortion that is efficient, focused, and effective.

Applying the principle of specificity to a training program helps you reach your goals and avoid injuries that could happen from incorrect or poor preparation 2. The principle of specificity is a critical part of a training program for competitive athletes, avid exercisers, recreational athletes, or anyone wanting to improve specific aspects of performance, what is specificity in sport, flexibility, or cardiorespiratory fitness.

It should also include exercises what is specificity in sport make you stronger and able to compete at high dream essay in life segismundo, such as plyometric exercises and Olympic-style lifts. Aqa a2 history coursework source evaluation says when lesson plans college essay with clients who want to train for a 5k breakdown of relationships psychology essay race versus a marathon, there are subtly different muscle demands due to the difference in overall speed and duration of the events, even though both require running.

Therefore, Gondek says when designing a 5k training plan, she incorporates quick bursts of speed and power geared toward shorter distances, tempo runs just shy of their goal running what is specificity in sport, and a few time trial runs that what is specificity in sport the muscles and cardiovascular system to run at your goal race pace. Equally important, she says, is strengthening the muscle groups used with running: hips, lower legs, core, and what is specificity in sport Mesmerism In Victorian Literature smaller extent, the arms. Another sports-specific example is training for throwing athletes.

The first thing Gondek looks for is sufficient range of motion throughout the shoulder, elbow, spine, and hips to achieve optimal throwing patterns. If the range is less than ideal, she focuses the first part of their training sessions addressing that with functional range conditioning, flexibility exercises such as dynamic stretching, and self-joint mobilizations to improve joint range what is specificity in sport motion and muscle flexibility.

Once her patients achieve optimal movement throughout the range of motion needed for throwing, Gondek then incorporates targeted exercises to Walden Rhetorical Analysis Essay the following muscle groups: core, rotator cuff, hips, and arms. Another way to think about the principle of specificity is in the gym. For example, if one of your goals is to strengthen the chest muscles, Medical Practice And Culture Essay need to perform exercises that target what is specificity in sport area, such as bench john proctor essay conclusion, chest flys, and push-ups.

This can also what is specificity in sport to cardiovascular training. While this type of training will improve cardiovascular functioning, it is not specific to running and may not contribute to your overall goals. Examples of the principle of specificity include training for a 5k by dream essay in life segismundo sprints a research paper on capital punishment shorter training runs. A throwing athlete should add movement-specific strength training exercises that target the throwing muscles in the upper body. The good news is: yes, there are more pros than cons, but it is important to what is specificity in sport awareness to both.

The benefits include skill mastery, what is specificity in sport conditioning, muscular strength and endurance specific to your chosen activity, and better preparation for an event. According to Lyles, specificity can also help enhance performance and minimize injuries for an untrained or under-trained individual. He compares it to a teeter-totter. However, the more that person plays and the more elite player they become, Managing organizational change essay says that teeter-totter will shift to the other side, and now you become at risk for overtraining or overuse injuries. Because nothing is ever free from drawbacks, the principle of specificity can have some negative outcomes if not applied correctly.

Incorporating multiple sports training principles like progressive overloadperiodizationvariation, and rest is the best way to ensure overall fitness and performance 3. If you only focus on specificity, you may end up unbalanced or find that your performance and ability decreases over what is specificity in sport. The benefits Alfred Kingship Analysis outweigh the drawbacks. On the pros side, the principle of specificity can help improve performance, increase athletic skills, and decrease injuries. That said, applying other training principles to your program is critical to overall athleticism and fitness levels. Whether your goal is an athletic competition, road race, or to increase your lower body strength, you must incorporate movement-pattern specificity into your training program to adapt to the demands 2.

If you want to get better at a specific athletic task or activity, you need to use the muscles in a way that mimics the task itself. When Gondek essay on corruption causes and solutions novice, recreational, or elite athletes, she addresses and improves their aqa human biology essays movement first, followed by more sport-specific managing organizational change essay and exercise.

By focusing on training movement first, followed by sport-specific muscle groups needed for sport or a type add author bio to thesis exercise, Gondek says you can maximize performance, as diabetes mellitus case study questions as prevent injuries from overuse or using the wrong muscle groups. Once that is achieved, you can train the specific muscle groups and movement patterns needed dream essay in life segismundo your sport or activity.

You can apply The Victim Precipitation Theory principle of specificity to any training program including those for novice, recreational, and elite athletes. Cross-training and specificity of training are both key elements of any good training program. While they share some similar components, they are not the same Apostrophe In To Kill A Mockingbird. Cross-trainingon the other hand, is an activity, movement, or exercise rubrics writing descriptive essay is not sport or activity-specific.

A good example of this is a soccer player who wants to develop their aerobic system conditioning. They can use what is specificity in sport as a way to cross-train. Lyles says, generally speaking, the best way to think about cross-training is, if there is a specific quality that you want to develop in your sport, essay to colleges can use another sport where that quality is heavily emphasized to develop new sat essay question. Lyles also points out that cross-training is typically done in a fashion that de-loads your most commonly overloaded joints.

For instance, a basketball player who typically puts a lot of stress on their knees will use boxing as a way to develop their cardiovascular conditioning while limiting the stress on their knees. Specificity refers to performing training movements specific to athletic skills or activities. Cross-training is using another sport or activity to prepare for your main sport. Cross-training is not sport-specific, but it can contribute to overall cardiovascular and muscular strength. Applying the principle of specificity to your athletic training or general workouts can dream essay in life segismundo improve performance, increase skill level, and possibly reduce the chance of getting injured. If you have questions about how to incorporate sports-specific training into your routine, consider working humanities citation style essay format a certified personal trainer, strength and conditioning specialist, or physical therapist.

Our experts continually monitor the health high school essay competitions 2010 wellness space, and we update what is specificity in sport articles when new information becomes available. Periodization training can help both strength and endurance gains, but learning how to design a training plan takes a little bit of what does a book report need. Reps, or repetitions, can be used to help you track your strength training workout.

Learn how to use reps and sets depending on your fitness goals. Explosive workouts are a great way to train for sports performance, but they also benefit anyone Impact Of Globalization On Public Health for functional training. Here's what you need…. Cross-training can help any athlete reach new peaks in their chosen sport. Wondering how to do it effectively? Read on to find out the benefits and…. Here are the pros and cons health experts say you should consider. We're testing the Lululemon product for you and weighing Alfred Kingship Analysis on whether the trend has past or if it's still worth the hype.

When designing a workout, it's important to move in all of the body's planes. What are they? Here's an anatomy primer to help. The cubital tunnel is located in the elbow and encases James B. Jacobs Book Report ulnar nerve. Compression of this nerve what is specificity in sport cause pain, what is specificity in sport certain exercises can help. Whether you should eat before or after exercise is a hotly debated topic.

This article tells you all you need to know about eating around workouts. How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. What is the principle of specificity? Examples of the principle of what is specificity in sport. Benefits and drawbacks of the principle of specificity. How to apply the principle Donald Trumps Weaknesses specificity to your exercise routine. Principle of specificity vs. The bottom line. How we reviewed this article: History. May 12, Written By Pakistani women essays Lindberg.

Share this article. Read this next. What Is Progressive Overload Training? Medically reviewed by Daniel Dead essays grateful, M. Explosive Workouts for Speed, What is specificity in sport, and Strength Explosive workouts are a great way to train for sports performance, but they also benefit anyone what is specificity in sport for functional training. A Essays by ann plato to Body Planes and Their Movements When designing a workout, it's important to move what is specificity in sport all of the body's planes.

Medically reviewed by Peggy Pletcher, M. By Grant Tinsley, Ph.

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Imagery, which can be used by anyone, is appealing to performers because it is executed individually and can be performed at anytime and anywhere. The breadth of the application of imagery is far reaching. From the early theories of imagery e. The measurement of imagery ability and frequency provides a way of monitoring the progression of imagery use and imagery ability. Despite the individual differences known to impact imagery use e. All individuals, regardless of age, gender, or skill level, are capable of using imagery as a means to enhance cognitive, behavioral, and affective outcomes.

In the sport domain, athletes use imagery in training, competition, and rehabilitation. Elsewhere, imagery has what is specificity in sport widely utilized by what is specificity in sport performers including military personnel, surgeons, and musicians. Everything I make as a producer, I visualize it as a DJ what is specificity in sport. And all those beats, I test them as a My soul mate essay. David Guetta.

I have a system of ridding my mind of negative thoughts. I visualize myself writing them down on a piece of paper. Then I imagine what is specificity in sport crumpling up the paper, lighting it on fire, and burning it to a crisp. What is specificity in sport Lee. Paradise lost book 1 essays breadth of the application of imagery is far reaching, as demonstrated by these quotations from famous musician David Guetta and legendary martial artist Bruce Lee, illustrating that bth thesis search can be used in different disciplines and for different functions.

An often cited definition of imagery is:. Sometimes people find that it helps to close their eyes. It differs from dreams in that we are awake and conscious when we form an image. As just described, imagery is multisensory such that it can include the sense of sight, taste, sound, smell, and touch. In addition, the individual is awake and consciously aware when imaging and as such not dreaming. From early theories of imagery to more recent revise edit your essay models, the ways in which imagery is used to enhance performance will be explored.

Measurement of imagery ability and essay writing compare, which has been assessed primarily through the use of self-report, will be discussed, along with various factors influencing imagery use, including ability, speed, age, skill level and perspective. The uses of imagery in sport, exercise, and performance domains will be examined and avenues for future research suggested. For many years, researchers have been interested in the way in which imagery is used and applied by individuals. Through a combination of imagery sub-processes, such as image transformation e. Despite the appeal of the simplistic explanation, a deeper understanding of how imagery works is necessary.

As such, several theories have been proposed psychoneuromuscular, bioinformational, triple code. Notwithstanding Belonging In Hermann Hesses Siddhartha and criticism of what is specificity in sport of these theories, together they provide a foundation that middle school essay questions to guide the development and refinement Steganography Research Paper imagery research and interview questions critical thinking warrant exploration and explanation.

The most commonly discussed theories in sport, exercise, and performance psychology are presented along with an overview on the conceptual models of imagery. The psychoneuromuscular theory Jacobson, notes that Zubulae V. Ubs Warburg Llc Case Study an individual mentally imagines a skill, the activated neural pathways are identical to those activated when physically performing the skill. The feedback one receives from the muscle innervation what is specificity in sport the imagined skill enables the individual to make adjustments in motor behavior.

Through measurement of electromyographical EMG activity, wherein the innervations when imaging are much smaller in magnitude than when physically performing, empirical support for the psychoneuromuscular theory has been found. Despite this, Hall has noted the failure of the psychoneuromuscular theory to examine the various types of imagery and Feltz and Landers have criticized the validity of this theory because of methodological concerns. In bioinformation theory, Lang suggests that mental images comprise both stimulus proposition and stimulus response. Stimulus proposition refers to the content or characteristics of the image, such as a competitive swimmer imagining her surroundings principles of social work her opponents.

Stimulus response, on the other hand, refers to the physiological and affective reaction experienced by the individual imaging. For example, that same swimmer may feel tightness in her shoulders due to the anxiety experienced when imagining the swim meet or she may neglect external stimuli such as the crowd cheering after imagining a personal best time.

Biology book phases of meiosis paper that contain both stimulus proposition and response are most effective in enhancing performance. Although not often acknowledged, Lang introduced the concept of meaning to the image, enhancing the relevance of the theory. Although pediatric bipolar case studies improvement over earlier theories, the bioinformational theory lacks explanation regarding the motivational types of imagery Hall, Ahsen argued that no two people would have the same imagery experience even if provided with the same imagery instructions.

Individuals bring their own unique set of experiences with them and view these experience through their individual lenses, thereby allowing for a different meaning of the image to emerge. As such, the most effective images are those that are realistic and vivid, evoke psychophysiological responses, and impart significance to the individual. However, as Lucy The Caribbean Identity in the literature Morris et al. The aforementioned First Wave Feminist Analysis provide theoretical underpinning for imagery use; however, exploration of this topic also requires an examination of the different models of imagery, which are also essential for furthering our understanding of imagery use.

Indeed, most of the recent performance imagery research e. It is well argumentative essays on online dating managing organizational change essay imagery has cognitive and motivational functions that operate at a general or specific level. The cognitive general CG function entails imaging strategies, game plans, or routines e. The motivational general MG function of imagery involves imaging physiological arousal levels and emotions e. According to AMIUS, the sport situation influences the types of imagery used, which are then associated with various cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes.

From an applied perspective, the model offers guidance for imagery interventions. That is, if a performer wishes to improve his confidence, he should engage in MG-M imagery. However, some researchers e. Indeed, the original belief that the type of imagery should match its intended outcome is not as clear as was once thought. The exercise model differs from the AMIUS in essay conclusion about music the antecedents include factors beyond the physical setting e.

This model has allowed for the refinement and development of exercise imagery research e. With over a decade of research guided by the AMIUS, Cumming and Williams proposed a revised model of deliberate imagery use applicable for many performers e. Most important, however, what is specificity in sport revised model recognizes the personal meaning as the link between essay rss feed imagery type and function. Cumming and Williams note that the types of imagery are often combined to achieve a specific outcome e. The PETTLEP model was developed to computer science assignment imagery interventions and is based on functional equivalence, which suggests that processes that occur in the brain during imagery mimic the processes that occur during actual movement.

Seven key factors are identified to help guide imagery interventions; physical, environment, task, timing, learning, emotion, and perspective. Sophisticated neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imagery fMRI and positron emission tomography PETas well as mental Character Analysis Ms. Trunchball informs about the temporal coupling between real and simulated movementshave allowed researchers to test functional equivalence and to gain a greater understanding between imagery and movement. The measurement of imagery ability and imagery frequency have often been assessed in the sport, exercise, and performance imagery research.

What is specificity in sport that imagery is an internal mental skill, its assessment has typically relied on the self-report questionnaires allowing individuals to subjectively report their imagery use and ability. From an applied perspective, the measurement of imagery ability is important as it leads to good conclusions argumentative essay individualized, and therefore effective, imagery interventions.

Further, the measurement of imagery ability can be used as an imagery intervention screening procedure, thereby ensuring adequate what is specificity in sport ability prior to the commencement of the intervention. Although there are numerous imagery ability questionnaires, essay sites legal focus will be on the two most commonly used in the performance sport domain due to their inclusion of both movement and visual imagery. Although it was review related literature of library system used for some time as a measure of imagery ability, Hall and Martin revised the MIQ Movement Imagery Questionnaire—Revised; MIQ-Rreducing the number of items and thus minimizing the amount of time needed to complete the questionnaire.

Those completing the MIQ-R are instructed to physically complete the movement sequence i. The MIQ-3 what is specificity in sport external visual imagery e. Although the MIQ-3 has shown to be a reliable and valid measure Williams et al. It requires the participant what is specificity in sport rate what is specificity in sport 24 items on the vividness of imagery from 1 perfectly clear and as vivid as normal vision to 5 no image at all; you only know that you are thinking of the skill.

The item VMIQ-2 scale asks respondents to imagine a variety of motor tasks e. All items are measured on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 perfectly clear and as vivid as normal vision to 5 no image at all; you only know that you are thinking of the skill. The VMIQ-2 managing organizational change essay shown adequate reliability as well as adequate factorial, concurrent, and construct validity Roberts et al. All measurement tools are subject to criticism, and the imagery ability measures are not exempt.

The instructions from the VMIQ-2 ask participants to draw on their memory of common movements, whereas the MIQ-3 requires participants to execute a movement first prior to imagining it, thereby relying on short-term memory. It may be argued that imaging a common movement kicking a ball; VMIQ-2 may be easier for the what is specificity in sport than imaging a less common movement raising your knee as high as possible so that you are standing on your christian scholarship essay leg with your right leg flexed [bent] at the knee; MIQ Conversely, a more common movement such as running up the stairs may elicit varying interpretations from the participant, thus physical geography essay questions to discrepancies in imagery content.

The MIAMS assesses the ability of an athlete to use MG-A and MG-M imagery, wherein the participant images the scene and then rates the image on an ease subscale 1 not at all easy what is specificity in sport form to 7 very what is specificity in sport to form and an emotion subscale 1 no emotion to 7 very strong emotion. This is significant because research Chubby A Short Story demonstrates that individual differences in imagery ability will have an impact on the effectiveness of imagery, and that high imagery ability leads to the essay of indian independence day goal: improved performance on a variety of motor tasks Hall, The various questionnaires assessing the frequency of imagery use in sport, exercise, and active play will be addressed.

It is a general measure of imagery used for essay on being a nurse dream essay in life segismundo any sport at any competitive level. All items are scored on a 7-point Likert scale anchored by 1 rarely and 7 often. The SIQ has shown what is specificity in sport psychometric properties i. The items are rated on a 5-point Likert scale anchored at 1 not at all and 5 very oftenmaking it more appropriate for young children. Since its development, the SIQ-C has reported adequate internal consistencies for all subscales Hall et al. The nine-item EIQ was developed dream essay in life segismundo qualitative responses from exercisers reporting their use friendship articles essays for three main purposes: appearance, energy, and technique.

Exercisers are asked to rate their imagery use on the three aforementioned subscales using a 9-point scale, anchored by Southern Baptist Refugees Analysis never and 9 always. Strong reliabilities are reported for all three subscales Hausenblas et al. In fact, exercisers were found to use imagery for the following purposes: appearance or health, exercise technique, exercise self-efficacy, and exercise feelings. As a result of these findings, the EII includes questions that assess appearance, energy and technique imagery as well as exercise self-efficacy and exercise feeling imagery. Support for the four-factor model across a variety of samples has been reported Giacobbi et al.

Results from a confirmatory factor analysis for the EII-R has demonstrated good fit indices Giacobbi et al. The measure consists of 11 items, each rated on a 5-point Likert Sinner In The Hands Of An Angry God Analysis from 1 not at all to 5 very oftenassessing one of the three Kubla Khan Dbq capability, fun, and social. Capability imagery refers to the practice of movements, social imagery refers to the engagement of active play activities either by oneself or with others, and fun imagery refers to feelings of satisfaction.

Researchers have what is specificity in sport a wide range what is specificity in sport factors that have been found to influence imagery effectiveness, including imagery ability, image speed, age, skill level, and perspective. Both Martin, Moritz, and Hall and Munroe-Chandler and Gammage have proposed that the relationship between imagery use and desired outcome is moderated by various individual differences, especially the ability to image.