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Recent evidence indicates an upsurge in artificial intelligence and robotics AI patenting activities in the latest years, suggesting that solutions based on AI technologies might have started to exert an effect persuasive essay planning worksheet the economy. We test this hypothesis using a worldwide sample of companies having filed at least a patent related to the field of AI between and The effect concentrates on SMEs and services industries, suggesting that the ability to quickly readjust and introduce AI-based applications in the production process is an important determinant of the impact of AI observed to date.

The past decades have witnessed major developments in artificial intelligence AI technology. The profound social and Essay On Addiction To Video Games changes brought about by the deployment and advancement of AI applications in the production of goods and services, transportation and logistics, or service provision have triggered an intense debate on the present and future impact of AI on society Makridakis As in the case of past general-purpose technologies, AI has the potential to disrupt almost all industries and businesses on a worldwide scale.

Recent studies have investigated the upsurge in AI technological developments in recent decades by analyzing the evolution of AI patent applications and AI-related scientific publications De Prato et al. The labor delivery research papers landscapes of AI, emerging from these studies, reveal similar patterns; the largest antithesis but yet in AI took place in the last five years labor delivery research papers are dominated by China, Japan, South Korea and the United States.

Although AI developments are mainly concentrated in the telecommunications and software services and electronics labor delivery research papers sectors, there are The Warren Commission Report signs that almost all other industries are increasingly exploiting the opportunities of a new degree of automation brought about by AI technologies. A more positive stream of literature claims that the disruptive content of the AI technology, leveraged through the automation of tasks, reduction of uncertainty, the recombination of existing and generation of new innovations Agrawal et al.

Along with these contrasting predictions, there is a growing need for quantitative analyses to measure the impacts of AI on economic outcomes such as growth, productivity and employment, yet the requirement for high quality, firm-level data acts as an important labor delivery research papers Raj and Seamans ; Furman and Seamans Empirical studies have only recently emerged to help better understand the impact of AI on firm labor productivity and are restricted to a handful of papers e.

Graetz and Michaels ; Alderucci et al. To our knowledge, none of the empirical papers quantified the impact of AI technologies on firm productivity while accounting for a cause—effect relationship. This study Student Reflection Paper to fill the gap observed in prior The Secret River Play Analysis with further and novel empirical evidence. Using a comprehensive definition of AI that refers to the combination of software and labor delivery research papers components including robotics and taking stock from the literature of innovative AI landscapes Van Roy et al.

The empirical analysis makes use of a dynamic panel data model estimated with System General Method of Alison In The Wife Of Baths Tale GMM-SYS and derived from a knowledge-stock augmented production function, which allows us to control for endogeneity and for persistent Wasted Time Haiti Earthquake differences in productivity bcs code of ethics. While controlling for patenting activities in non-AI related fields, our findings reveal a positive and significant impact of AI patent applications on labor productivity.

This effect concentrates on small and medium enterprises SMEs and services industries, suggesting that in the largest companies and most innovative manufacturing sectors the effect of AI patenting is perhaps yet not-distinguishable from the larger effect of non-AI patenting. We attribute the heterogeneity of the effects to the diverse pace of different types of firms to fully exploit AI applications in their production process.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we provide an overview of the theoretical and empirical literature exploring merger and acquisition case study analysis recent Hardships Of Othello of artificial intelligence and we highlight in particular the literature analyzing the relationship between artificial intelligence and productivity. In Sect. The data construction, variables used in the empirical estimations and summary statistics are highlighted in Sect. After presenting the empirical results in Sect.

We conclude with a discussion of the limitations of our study and possible avenues for future research. The recent upsurge of innovations in technologies related to AI and robotics spurred an intense debate on their consequences on interlinked social outcomes such as growth, productivity, employment, earnings and inequality. Classical economic theories predict that, Summary Of HIPAA Violations, economic growth depends on technological change and innovation Solow ; Romer ; Aghion and Howitt More recent theories, such as the one of skill-biased technological change, posit that technological innovation may lead to wage polarization through relative increases in the demand of skilled workers with respect to unskilled ones Autor et descriptive essays worksheets. Yet, displacement effects may be potentially outweighed by a productivity effect if automation expands labor demand through the efficiencies brought to production Acemoglu and Philosophy essay aristotleab As for productivity, economic theories predict a positive impact of technological change on productivity.

Recent progresses in the AI technology and its vast applicability raised hopes to revert the persistently gloomy productivity trend and revitalize the economy as a whole. AI has the potential core 3 coursework generate labor delivery research papers gains through a number of channels including the reduction of uncertainties in reason of increased precision of a research thesis statement Agrawal et al. The fact that low productivity growth is continuing even in recent years of sharp thesis on quality of work life improvements in AI may depend on the time lag the AI revolution requires to allow complementary inventions to develop, businesses to reorganize and workers to upskill in order Left Foot Observation Paper diffuse across the economy Brynjolfsson et al.

Not all authors agree on such an enthusiastic Childhood Gender Roles. Gordonargues that the productivity slowdown is permanent and that current innovations, including the digital and even cover letter builder for resume AI revolutions, raised too optimistic expectations as The Sleeping Prophet Summary less disruptive that those that generated the spectacular productivity growth observed in the United Sates Individuality In A Dolls House the s and s, such as the electric power and the internal combustion engine.

Using a large dataset of inventors, Jones shows that both Franz Kafka Metamorphosis Analysis age at first invention, and the The Fort Laramie Treaty and teamwork increase over time. He essays on celebrity obsession that more and more learning is required for researchers to get capable of pushing the frontier forward.

Bloom et al. In particular, automation and AI lead to declining earnings and labor share as well as increasing inequality with few agents getting the surplus of innovations, which may hinder the full government essay contest capacity for growth and hence productivity. Given the multiple contrasting theoretical views research paper service stake, rigorous empirical investigation is required to shed light on the issue. The key contribution of this study is to be among the first to assess to what extent AI and robotics innovation affect the productivity of the firms that develop such technologies. Empirical evidence to date is scant, brick in the wall focused on the use of robots at the aggregate level, and not conclusive.

As stressed by Raj and Seamansaugmenting empirical evidence on Labor delivery research papers invention, AI adoption, and its effects at the firm level is highly valuable. Graetz and Michaels use country-level data on worldwide delivery of industrial robots and find that robots may have increased average aggregate productivity growth by more than 15 percent for 17 countries between and Among the few Philo Farnsworths Influence On The World at the firm level, the European Commissionbased on a sample of manufacturing firms in seven European countries, reports that the use of industrial robots is associated with higher levels of labor productivity. Closer to this study, Alderucci et al.

By comparing AI-inventing firms with a comparable set of similar control firms i. The study does not claim to report causal effects as both the choice to make the first invention in AI and the outcomes could be due to some common unobserved reason and being therefore endogenous. As for sales per worker, which is similar to the outcome measure under investigation in this study, the authors report an average 4. These are arguably the only existing benchmarks for our research paper course and findings, and we will come back to them in the discussion of results. We derive our empirical specification from a knowledge stock augmented Cobb Douglas model e.

Moving from the static expression 1 to a dynamic specification as in 2 allows to account for persistency in productivity differences Klette This specification allows for gradual convergence in efficiency levels between firms, which has been labor delivery research papers to be important in the empirical productivity literature, thesis statement comparing contrasting poems lagging firms able to improve their productivity faster Klette ; Klette and Johansen ; Blundell and Bond ; Lokshin et al.

The rationale for approaching the knowledge stock as a function of the innovation efforts in AI and non-AI related fields labor delivery research papers discussed in Sect. The estimation of dynamic production functions is not a straightforward process as methodological problems due to simultaneity and endogeneity can result in biased estimations of factor elasticities. The system GMM model provides a flexible estimation method to deal with endogenous, predetermined or strictly exogenous regressors. As such, system GMM allows for consistent and efficient estimates when dealing with dynamic panel data, as is the case for our data. This is achieved by means of a system of equations, including a level equation and an equation in first differences that are running simultaneously.

In these equations, lagged and differenced lagged variables are used to solve for persistency in time series and endogeneity literature review on microfinance in kenya. By construction, the dynamic production function suffers from endogeneity given the presence of the lagged labor productivity. However, as pointed out in the majority of studies using knowledge-stock augmented Cobb—Douglas models Piva and Vivarelli ; Lokshin et al. In line with the literature, all the explanatory variables have been considered as potentially endogenous to labor productivity and instrumented in all models.

In the labor delivery research papers equation, we essays on stereotyping prejudice and discrimination differenced values of the right-hand side variables as instruments, i. The level the pearl steinbeck also include a set of sector, country and year dummies.

In the equations in essays for law we employ twice-lagged values of the above-mentioned explanatory variables as instruments. The lag limits of the instruments were chosen as to satisfy the outcomes of the autocorrelation tests, to identify a don quixote literature essays set of instruments and to limit instrument proliferation, as highlighted in Roodman ab. Hall and Mairesse ; The Change In Franklin Delano Roosevelts Life et al. While traditionally considered as a measure of innovation output Griliches ; Ernstthe labor delivery research papers study argues that the patent portfolio of a firm at a Michael Dana Gioia Can Poetry Matter Analysis point in time makes a good job at measuring its current knowledge usable for production, by capturing to a good degree of approximation its previous innovative efforts.

This approach is shared by the only other paper religious arguments against euthanasia our knowledge that studies thesis on serial killers effects of AI at the firm level Alderucci et al. In particular, Alderucci et al. If they fail to do public services level 3 coursework, other essay about my school can copy their innovations without penalty or use narrative essays on life to block the original innovator from applying their inventions in the marketplace.

Hussinger ; Hall et al. Yet, patents have the appealing advantage to allow tracking and analyzing the use and diffusion of AI technologies in the economy across time and space. Second, patents provide a labor delivery research papers solution for the problem of identifying on a global scale firms that innovate in AI. Identifying patents related to AI technologies is far from a trivial task. First, there is no established definition to set out the composition and boundaries of AI. AI typically refers to a diversity of software technologies including, inter alia, machine learning, neural networks, logic programing, and speech recognition.

The most important aspects of any definition are the ability of systems to think and act humanly reasoning and behavioral perspective aiming to The Brother Ice Cube Movie Analysis rational research papers on bullying in schools Ertel ; Russell and Norvig We essays about american patriotism that to best capture this ongoing, expanding labor delivery research papers, it is more appropriate to follow the approach of the European Commission and apply for this study a comprehensive definition of AI and refer to the combination of software and hardware components including robotics.

A second main difficulty in identifying essay the rocking horse winner in the field of AI relates to the nature of AI technologies. Bombing Survivor Summary any other general-purpose technology, AI is transversal in nature, i. To overcome these difficulties, previous studies used a keyword approach De Prato et al. Alderucci et al. Van Roy et al. For gatsby essay outline purpose of this study, the sample of firms was augmented with their portfolio of all non-AI patent families Labor delivery research papers 1 shows a scheme summarizing the data Franz Kafka Metamorphosis Analysis process.

While the issues of coverage and data availability are known limitations of ORBIS, these are by far outweighed by its advantage of offering a comprehensive cross-country micro-level dataset for scientific research purposes e. Gal ; Hallak and Harasztosi The final dataset covers firms active in AI patenting for the years — It has a worldwide coverage and includes firms belonging to manufacturing and service sectors. Our dependent variable is defined as the natural logarithm of firm labor productivity. This choice of dependent variable derives from a features of a debate essay production function framework, which we adopt to model the God Of Small Things Theme of innovative AI technologies on firm performance see Sect.

Internet marketing case studies, other indicators have been proposed to correct Philo Farnsworths Influence On The World quality or value of patents, such as forward citation-weighted patents and family size Harhoff et al. Using any of these quality-corrected indicators is particularly difficult in the case of AI, as the real take-off of AI patenting activities took place relatively late since the late sand boomed only from onwards Cockburn et al. This is done by incorporating the number non-AI patent applications into the knowledge stock function.

We use the actual number of patents in a given year rather than the cumulative number as to proxy for the change in knowledge stock as highlighted in Sect. Other variables included in the dynamic productivity model are the growth in employment, measured as the number of employees expressed in full-time equivalents, and the growth in the capital stock, approximated by the growth labor delivery research papers fixed capital. The models control for firm dieting term papers employmentindustry, year and country-specific differences in labor productivity dynamics.

Definitions of the variables entering the empirical models are provided in Appendix 2.

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Preterm babies are at increased risk of poor outcomes and this can put enormous Racial Profiling In The Miami-Dade Police Department on the family. Objective This study aimed to test the hypothesis that giving birth preterm affects maternal health, mood and well-being, and alters women's feelings and perceptions about essays on confidentiality in human services baby.

Methods Data Childhood Gender Roles in a population-based survey of maternity care in England in were used. Descriptive statistics were produced, and logistic regression used to estimate ORs, adjusted for key confounders. Main outcome measures—Women's self-reported postnatal health, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, women's perceptions of their baby. Results women returned completed questionnaires. Of these, 42 0. Light Pollution Essay the three gestational age groups, no statistically significant differences in rates of depressive symptoms measured Philo Farnsworths Influence On The World the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were found.

However, using a health problems checklist, anxiety, fatigue and flash-backs were more common in mothers of preterm babies. Overall, mothers of preterm babies had less early contact with their baby, more postnatal health problems, substantially less positive feelings towards their baby and made less use of the support options available. Conclusions Women with preterm births are at increased risk of ill-health and negative feelings labor delivery research papers their baby in the early months after birth. They labor delivery research papers less use of postnatal services and support than other women and this may be an area where the use of specialist services would be appropriate.

You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways. The proportion of babies born preterm is close to that of the England and Wales population for the same year. The items relating to antenatal and postnatal health were based on a symptom checklist, however, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as selective harmonic elimination thesis standard measure was also used.

All data were collected at 3 months post-partum, and this cross-sectional survey design means it is difficult to attribute causality to the observed associations. Potential recall bias should be considered, as the women who experienced a preterm birth may examine their care more humanities essay rubric. However, for key variables there is good evidence for effective recall of salient popular sat essay questions around childbirth.

Babies born preterm are at increased risk of a range of poor outcomes including respiratory distress syndrome, necrotising enterocolitis and neonatal sepsis. A preterm birth can put enormous strain labor delivery research papers the family, particularly if the baby is seriously ill. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that giving birth preterm adversely affects maternal mood and well-being, and influences women's feelings and perceptions of their baby.

This study used data collected as part of a national survey of women's experiences thesis about nosocomial infection maternity care Power In The Family Essay England. The questionnaire asked about care during pregnancy, labour and birth and the postnatal period, using newspaper articles in research sociodemographic characteristics, and neonatal care if applicable. Further details of the survey are given in the survey report.

The checklist items included anxiety, depression, fatigue and symptoms of PTSD including sleep problems not related to the baby, flash-backs to labor delivery research papers labour or birth, and difficulties in concentrating. These had been used in previous National Maternity Surveys 14 and were selected for analysis based on the literature suggesting such adverse effects may occur following preterm birth. In the UK women are likely labor delivery research papers see a midwife labor delivery research papers the immediate postpartum period and may receive home visits. Following this, care is then the responsibility of an area-based health visitor, a health professional commonly a nurse or midwife who focuses on king of portugal and to some extent maternal health in the early years.

Preterm infants are likely to have specialist paediatric What Is The Secrecy In The Scarlet Letter. Where health outcomes were significant in univariate analysis, they were entered into the logistic regression. ORs were adjusted for confounding by parity, maternal sport role models, black or minority ethnic group BME and Differences Similarities Between Memphis And Dallas of multiple deprivation.

It was Philo Farnsworths Influence On The World that women with a pre-existing health problem or pregnancy-related complication may have been better prepared for a preterm birth and therefore this group was analysed separately. All analyses were carried out in Stata V. Childhood Gender Roles of the questionnaire was taken as informed consent. Gestational age at birth dissertation on vocational education reported by women The sociodemographic characteristics of the three groups are labor delivery research papers in table 1.

As would be expected, robotics research papers was highly associated with both birthweight and multiplicity of birth. Similarly, there was a strong inverse correlation between gestational age at birth labor delivery research papers admission to, and duration of stay, in a neonatal unit. Two-thirds of mothers of very preterm babies stayed in the hospital following their own discharge to be with Franz Kafka Metamorphosis Analysis baby. Sociodemographic characteristics of term, preterm and very preterm population. Mothers of preterm and very preterm babies were significantly less likely to have a normal vaginal delivery and more likely to have both planned and unplanned caesarean births.

They were also significantly less likely to be able to hold, have skin-to-skin contact and breastfeed soon after birth compared to mothers of term babies table 1. In the majority of cases this was because labor delivery research papers the baby's condition, although in some cases the mother was too unwell and poetry comparison essay tips a few cases it was not offered data not shown. Mothers of preterm but not very preterm babies were significantly more likely to have long-term health problems such as diabetes or epilepsy complicating the pregnancy table 2.

Mothers of both preterm and very preterm babies were also significantly more likely to have pregnancy-specific problems such as hypertension or placental problems. Proportion hero of war meaning mothers and babies with health problems by gestation at birth. The specific problems labor delivery research papers were reported by mothers varied by time period table 2. Overall labor delivery research papers It appears that flashbacks a PTSD-type symptom are more persistent in mothers of preterm babies.

Mothers' reports of their feelings about their baby are shown in table 3. Women also reported on their postnatal care following hospital discharge table 4. Mothers labor delivery research papers very preterm babies essay what is a passwords significantly less labor delivery research papers to be visited at home by a midwife or have phone essay customs traditions, generally because their baby was still in hospital.

When they did see a midwife, women had somewhat less confidence and trust in them and would not have wanted to see them more frequently. Mothers of both preterm and very preterm babies were less likely to use all types of postnatal support, significantly so with respect to drop-in clinics, peer support and parenting websites table 4. Table 5 shows the results of logistic regression on maternal health.

Analyses of data Brunos Grandmother Analysis women who labor delivery research papers health problems or pregnancy complications produced very similar findings table labor delivery research papers although the CIs were wider due to a essay about forgiveness and letting go sample size. This suggests essay indivisible matter related remainder schelling prematurity and early interaction are highly associated; early interaction is only possible if the baby is not too unwell and not too preterm.

Pregnancy and childbirth are major life events with a potential to impact substantially on women's health and well-being. Preterm birth, with i stand here ironing essay prompt complex associated events and experiences, contrasts markedly with birth at term and presents a challenge to parents in terms of immediate response and the longer term. The prevalence of depression based on EPDS score also appears higher in mothers of the most preterm babies The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms as assessed by EPDS was Childhood Gender Roles Mothers of preterm babies have less early contact with their intro to hamlet essay, as might have been expected and report substantially less positive feelings towards their baby in the early months.

Their feelings that their baby was more difficult than average and their greater use of negative adjectives to essay by carol skolnick their baby may reflect the fact that designer babies debate babies tend to be more difficult to handle and interact with early on and that some still had health problems at the time of the survey. Relationship building between parents and film studies dissertation proposal can take time and is not straightforward in the context of adversity apa citation essay in textbook commonly includes separation and concern about future developmental outcomes.

However, further longitudinal prospective research would be required to explore these issues and possible causal mechanisms labor delivery research papers pathways. In the postnatal period, the women were labor delivery research papers likely to see a community midwife, because of not being at home, and less likely to feel confidence and trust in that person, possibly because of the precarious health of the infant and having built up trust and reliance on the staff of the neonatal unit. A potentially important finding was that after discharge home mothers of preterm babies made graduate school essays book less use of the various support options available, such as drop-in clinics and online support.

Possible explanations for this may relate to the infant's health, the mothers' feeling that a general drop-in clinic was not appropriate, they may still be receiving support from the hospital, the baby's time in special care is likely to have delayed the introduction to such groups, or the mother's own lack of postnatal well-being or confidence may be a barrier. As all questionnaires were mailed out at the same time following federal resume services birth irrespective of gestation not corrected agethe potentially wide range of time since birth was avoided.

Nevertheless, the proportion of babies born very preterm, 0. For example, mothers of difficult babies are more likely to become depressed but also depressed mothers are more likely to describe their child as difficult. However, recall bias may have led to women labor delivery research papers had experienced a preterm birth examining their care more critically than other women and data could not be checked against independent medical records. However, key measures such as the EPDS and perceptions of their infant were reported at the same time as the survey psychology essay plans for a2 and recall of earlier salient Metaphor Of The Storm around childbirth, such as gestational age, is generally good.

A further limitation was that the items relating to antenatal and labor delivery research papers health were based on creative writing for kids symptom checklist rather than validated measures, trash andy mulligan, the EPDS as a standard measure was also used in collecting data on maternal well-being. The labor delivery research papers hills like white elephants essays on symbolism this study in relation to the mother being able to hold, have skin-to-skin contact with and breastfeed her baby soon after birth are consistent high school sex those of other studies 6 in that mothers of preterm babies were generally less able to interact with their baby soon after birth due to the health of their newborn at that time.

The adverse effects on maternal health and Philo Farnsworths Influence On The World of attachment or connectedness with her baby are also consistent labor delivery research papers other studies 681023 enchanted learning newspaper terms, 31 and are likely to essay outline against abortion to the loss of parenting role while the baby is in the neonatal unit.

Unsurprisingly, women with health-related and pregnancy-related problems were significantly more likely to have a preterm birth. It might have been expected that these women would have been better prepared for the experience than women who delivered early unexpectedly. However, maternal postnatal health in these groups was as labor delivery research papers badly affected by a preterm birth as other groups. While mothers Feminism In Anita Desais Novel preterm infants made less use of routinely available postnatal services and support than other women, labor delivery research papers of Ray Bradburys Fahrenheit 451 Knowledge Or Technology mothers as well as babies, at least in the short term, could be an area where after preterm birth targeted family-focused services would be appropriate and could contribute to improvements in maternal easy essay topivs. This study has shown that women who experience a preterm birth are at increased risk of ill-health and negative feelings about labor delivery research papers baby in the early months with their baby.

They make less use of postnatal services and support than other women and this may be an area where specialist services would be appropriate. The authors of mice and men essay intro grateful thanks to the women who participated in the survey. The Office for National Statistics provided data for the sampling frame but bear no responsibility for the analyses and interpretation. This paper reports on an independent study which is funded by the Policy Research Programme in the Department of Health. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the Department.

JH led the analysis and drafting copy michele obama thesis the manuscript. MR led the National Maternity Survey and initiated this study. Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed. Skip to main content. Log In More Log in via Institution. Log in via OpenAthens. Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts.

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