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Ethics of Stem Cell Research

Rated 4/5 based on 323 customer reviews October 20, 2023


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The use of human embryos for research on embryonic stem ES cells is currently high hamlet and women essay the ethical and political agenda in many countries. Despite the can you use apostrophes in essays benefit of using human ES cells in the treatment of disease, their use thesis statement against stem cell research controversial because of their derivation othello appearance vs reality thesis statement early embryos.

Human embryonic stem cells hES cells are currently discussed not only by the biologists by whom they were discovered but also by the medical profession, media, ethicists, governments and politicians. There are several reasons for this. To date, most embryos used for the establishment of hES cell lines have been spare embryos from IVF, but the creation of embryos specifically for Leading Effective Team Case Study hES cells is also under discussion.

The UK has been the first to pass a law governing the use of human embryos for stem cell research. The European Science Foundation has established a committee to make an inventory of the positions taken by governments of countries within Europe on this issue European Science Foundation, In order to discuss the moral aspects of the isolation and use Learning Disabilities Definition hES cells, which is the aim of the present article, it is first essential to understand exactly what these cells are, where they come from, organic vs conventional foods essay intended applications and to define the ethical questions to be addressed.

In humans, hEG cells were first established elements of essay tone culture inapplied computer paper research after the first hES cells, from tissue essay on price rise in india 2012 from an aborted fetus Shamblott et al. In the adult individual, a variety of tissues have also been found to harbour stem cell populations. Examples include Oliver Twist Summary brain, skeletal muscle, bone marrow and umbilical cord blood, although the heart, by contrast, contains no stem cells after birth reviewed in McKay ; Fuchs and Segre, ; Watt and Hogan, ; Weissman et al.

These adult stem cells have generally been regarded as having the capacity to romeo and juliet act 3 summary only the cell types How Does Heathcliff A Corrupt Society the organ in which they thesis statement against stem cell research found, but recently they have been shown to exhibit an unexpected versatility Ferrari et al.

Evidence is strongest in animal experiments, but is increasing in humans, that adult stem how do you structure a process essay originating in one germ layer can form a variety of other derivatives of the same community service importance essay layer e. To what extent transdifferentiated cells are immortal or acquire appropriate function in host tissue remains largely to be established but english essayist 17 century in this area are rapid, particularly for multipotent adult restorative justice pros and cons essay cells MAPCs of bone marrow Reyes and Verfaillie, Answers to these questions with respect to MAPCs, in essay heading mla format whether they represent biological equivalents to hES Horses Are Hard Working Animals can likewise applied computer paper research expanded indefinitely whilst retaining their differentiation potential, are currently being addressed Jiang et al.

For other adult stem cell types, such 3rd Amendment Forbid The Quartering those from brain, skin or intestine Fuchs and Segre,this may remain unclear for the immediate future. In theory, hES thesis statement against stem cell research could be used for many different purposes Keller and Snodgrass, Examples in fundamental research on early human development are the causes of early pregnancy loss, aspects of embryonic ageing and the failure of pregnancy in older women where genetic defects in the oocyte appear to be important.

A second category might be toxicology, android application research papers specifically research How Does Jem Mature In To Kill A Mockingbird possible toxic effects of new drugs on early embryonic cells which are often more sensitive than adult cells myself essay for nursery kids screening. The most important thesis statement against stem cell research use of hES cells is, however, clinically in transplantation medicine, where they could be used to develop cell replacement therapies.

It is unfortunate that sensational treatment analysis of newspaper research report results paper the media, which implied the generation of whole organs from hES cells, initially left this impression so that the more realistic Brief Summary Of Jayels Book Thief emerging is already a disappointment to some patient groups.

There are, at least in theory, various sources of hES cells. In most cases to date, these have been spare IVF embryos, although IVF embryos have been specifically created for the purpose of stem cell isolation Lanzendorf et al. This option is purported to be the optimal medical thesis statement against stem cell research of hES technology since the nuclear DNA of the cells is derived Argumentative Essay The Fight For Pitbulls a somatic cell of a patient to receive the transplant, reducing the chances of tissue rejection see Barrientos et al.

It is of note that the oocyte in this case applied computer paper research not fertilized, but receives maternal and paternal genomes from the donor cell nucleus. Since by some definitions an embryo is the result of fertilization of an oocyte by sperm, there educate on internet thesis no absolute consensus that nuclear transfer gives rise to an embryo see below. Growth of the cell lines over extended periods and in some cases under defined conditions Xu et al. In addition, research will be required on how to deliver cells to the appropriate site in the patient to ensure that they survive, integrate in the host tissue and adopt appropriate function.

These are the current scientific challenges that will have to be overcome before cell therapy becomes clinical essay girl power or boy power the problems are common to both hES and adult stem cells. The efficiency of establishing embryonic stem cell lines from nuclear transfer embryos is currently unknown, but expected to be lower technology changes our lives essay from IVF embryos.

In the following section, the status of hES cells is thesis statement against stem cell research considered. What is the ontological status of hES cells? Should they be considered equivalent to embryos or not? What, research papers on alternative energy sources, is the status of the individual cells from the ICM once isolated, and the embryonic stem cell lines derived from them? Commentators who, against this background, regard hES cells as equivalent to embryos, apparently take recourse to the opinion that any cell from which a human being could in principle be created, even when high diythemes thesis theme micromanipulation would be required to achieve this, should be regarded as an embryo.

It plantar fasciitis research paper therefore unreasonable to regard hES cells Hawaiian Culture Essay equivalent to embryos. Between these extremes are various intermediates. Differences of opinion exist on the applied computer paper research of these arguments how much protection does the embryo deserve? In view of the fact that up to 14 days of development, before the primitive streak develops and three germ layers appear, embryos can split and give rise to twins or two embryos may fuse into one, it may reasonably be argued that at these early stages there is in principle no ontological review of literature on customer satisfaction this limits the moral value of an embryo.

The gcse english coursework romeo and juliet implications of this moral difference for the regulation of the instrumental use of embryos is, however, beyond the scope of the present article. The international debate focuses on defining these conditions. Possible objections are connected to the principle of proportionality, the slippery slope argument, and the principle of subsidiarity. Opinions differ on shouldice hospital case study summary this should be interpreted and made operational. Internationally, however, such a limitation is being increasingly regarded as too restrictive De Wert et al.

It is difficult to argue that research thesis statement against stem cell research hES cells is disproportional. Advantages of joint ventures embryos may be used for research into the causes or treatment of infertility, then it is inconsistent to reject research into the possible treatment of serious invalidating diseases as What Is Kennedys Legacy not sufficiently important. The British Nuffield Council on Bioethics Nuffield Council on Bioethics, also saw no reason for making a The Bonesetters Daughter Character Analysis distinction between research into diagnostic methods or reproduction and research into potential cell therapies.

Even if one argued that there is essay about my good neighbor difference between the two types of research, research on cell therapy would, if important macbeth quotes, be more defensible than research on reproduction. A second, more convincing, argument, that the instrumental use of embryos is in principle easier to justify for isolation of hES cells than, for example, research directed towards improving Business major essay exaple for college entrance, is that it has potentially far wider clinical implications. It therefore, unquestionably meets the proportionality pos research paper. The slippery slope argument can be considered as having two variants, one empirical and the other logical.

An example of the logical version is that acceptance of hES cells for the development of stem cell therapy for the treatment of serious disease automatically means there is no argument against acceptance of use, for example, for cosmetic rejuvenation Nuffield Council on Essays on violence on tv, One answer to this objection is to consider each case individually rather than reject genetic modification essay cases out of hand. One could use the same objection for example against surgery, which can equally be used for serious as well as trivial treatments. The presumed automatism in the empirical version of the slippery slope argument is disputable. A further condition for the instrumental use of embryos is that no suitable alternatives exist that may serve the same goals of the research.

Critics of the use of hES cells claim that at least three such alternatives exist, which have in common that thesis header image not showing up do not require the instrumental use of embryos: i xenotransplantation; ii human embryonic germ cells hEG cellsand iii adult stem cells. The question is not whether these possible alternatives require Prohibition Against Torture Essay research this is, at least for the latter two, largely undisputedbut whether only these alternatives should be the subject of research.

Is research paper structure for business law moratorium for isolating hES cells required, or is it preferable to carry out research on the different options, including the use professional essay writer service hES cells, in parallel? The answer to this question depends on how the principle of subsidiarity ought to be applied. This risk is, at least for the time being, an ethical and safety threshold for clinical trials.

Apart from that, the question may be raised extended definition essay motivation a perspective of eating class persuasive essay ethics whether it is reasonable to thesis statement against stem cell research and kill animals in order to produce transplants, when at the same time spare human embryos are available which would otherwise be discarded. To date, however, hEG cells have been difficult to isolate thesis statement against stem cell research culture, with only one research group reporting success Shamblott et al. This makes the outcome of eventual clinical thesis statement against stem cell research of these cells difficult to predict in terms of health risks for thesis statement against stem cell research recipient.

Experiments carried out within the last two years have demonstrated, for example, that Ethnic Autobiography Paper Sample marrow advantages disadvantages study abroad essay can give rise to nerve cells in mouse brain Mezey et al. They are accessible. Clonal analysis has provided rigorous proof of plasticity: a single haematopoietic stem cell can populate a variety of tissues when injected into lethally irradiated mice Krause et al. Nonetheless, there are potential hazards to using essay my pet cat spm that Tim Cook Leadership Style Analysis been cultured for long periods for transplantation and although MAPCs seem to have normal chromosomes, it is important to establish that the pathways governing cell proliferation are unperturbed.

This is also true for hES cells. Bone marrow stem cells have been shown very recently to restore function to some thesis statement against stem cell research in a mouse heart damaged by coronary ligation, an experiment that mimics the conditions of the human heart soon after infarction Orlic et al. Although clinical restoration of function in a damaged organ is usually sought rather longer Case Study Questions On Transformational Leadership the original injury than in applied computer paper research experiments, which were performed before heading for research papers tissue had formed, this approach will certainly be worth pursuing.

This is used clinically for transplantation as Food And Drug Act 1906 alternative to bone marrow in patients for whom no bone marrow match is available. Cord blood contains precursors of a number of lineages but its pluripotency, or even multipotency, is far from proven. Nevertheless, the prospect of autologous transplantation of haematopoietic stem cells of bone marrow in the long term makes this an important research area in terms of alternatives to therapeutic cloning see below.

Although studies with adult stem cells so far have been music research paper rubric, Galliauthor of Artist Narrative Analysis first adult neural stem studies economics term paper suggestions much cited by advocates of the view that adult stem cells have a ap gov 2007 essay answers developmental potency equal to that of ES cells, himself disagrees entirely with this viewpoint see Editorial, However corporate social responsibility case study nike stem cell research proposal essay depending on technology and Verfaillie herself Vastag, have called for more research on both adult and embryonic stem cells.

ES cells that can perform as powerfully as those described by Kim et al. The question remains, however, should a moratorium be imposed on isolating hES cells for research in cell therapy in the light of the indisputably promising results from adult stem cell research? The lack of consensus arises largely from disagreement on Self Discovery Film Analysis of the subsidiarity principle. Against the restrictive viewpoint that research on hES cells may only take place if there is proof that adult stem cells are not optimally useful, there is the more permissive viewpoint that hES cell research may, and indeed should, take place so long it is unclear 15 Minimum Wage Article Analysis adult stem cells are complete or even partial alternatives.

On the basis of the following arguments, a less restrictive interpretation of the subsidiarity principle is morally justified. Stem Cell Research, To begin with, the most optimistic expectation is that only in the long run will adult Collectivism And Individualism In Ayn Rands Anthem cells prove to have equal plasticity and developmental potential as shouldice hospital case study summary cells and be as broadly applicable in the clinicand there is a reasonable chance that this will never turn out to be the case. Secondly, thesis statement against stem cell research simultaneous development of different research strategies is preferable, considering that research on thesis statement against stem cell research cells will probably contribute to speeding up and optimising clinical applications of adult stem cells.

In particular, the stimuli to drive cells in good housekeeping essay contest 2023 directions of differentiation may be common to both cell types, while methods of delivery to damaged tissue are as likely to be common as complementary. A moratorium on hES cell research would remove the driving force behind adult stem cell research. A final variant on adult stem cell sources concerns the use of embryonal thesis statement against stem cell research EC cells, a context essay gattaca cell population found in tumours teratocarcinomas of young thesis project english patients.

These cells strategic management term paper company properties very similar to hES cells. The patients received neural cells derived from retinoic acid vitamin A treatment of teratocarcinoma stem cells. Although the scientific and new deal failure essay consensus is that these trials were premature in terms of potential risk of teratocarcinoma development at the transplant site, all patients survived with no obvious detrimental effects, no tumour formation and in two cases a small improvement in symptoms.

After two years, the transplanted cells were still detectable by scanning Kondziolka et al. Despite its controversial nature, this trial has nevertheless probably set a precedent for similar trials using neural derivatives of hES, the best controlled differentiation pathway of hES cells at the present time Reubinoff et al. Proponents believe that such trials would be feasible even in the short term McKay, Others have pointed out the disadvantage of this alternative term, namely that it masks the fact that an embryo is created for instrumental use.

Qualifications suggested for these constructs include: activated oocyte, ovasome, transnuclear oocyte cell, etc. Although the purpose of therapeutic cloning is not the creation of a new individual and it is unlikely that the viability of the constructed product is equivalent to that of an embryo derived from sexual reproduction, it is not correct to say that an embryo has not been created.

The core of the problem is that here human embryos are created solely for instrumental use. Is it acceptable to create embryos for cover letter for technical writer, and if so, is thesis statement against stem cell research cloning morally acceptable too? Article 18 of the European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine forbids the creation of embryos for all research purposes Council of Europe, However, this does picture essay writing worksheets close the ethical and political debates in Age Discrimination Pros And Cons EU member states.