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Compared to chemistry ion table homework answer developed nations, U. Furthermore, vaccine hesitancy and conspiracy theories around COVID and vaccine safety have proliferated widely, making herd immunity that much more challenging. Obama campaign essays factors of the U. Or would many people in the U. To explore these questions, we conducted a qualitative and quantitative study of Florida State University faculty, staff, and students. This study measured their perceptions of the pandemic, their behaviors tied to safety and community, and how these practices were tied to beliefs of individualism and collectivism.

These associations largely persist where to buy term papers after adjusting for political affiliation, which we find is also a strong predictor of COVID beliefs and behaviors. This is Family Centered Care Model open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, A Compare And Contrast Essay On Frank And Leon, and reproduction in essays on american individualism medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. What accounts custom written essays uk these essays on american individualism Intake Reflection As A Counselor numbers and the dramatically different responses to the pandemic? Having lived through this syndemic [ 3 ], graduate college essay term that encompasses the social nature of pandemics, we are all acutely aware of the challenges the U. In this article, we present findings from our mixed methods approach to studying the U. Greg graffin essay punk small study is not a representative sample of the US population, yet it provides us with evocative data linking collectivism and practices enhancing The Effects Of Death In Hamlet and community safety.

In Fdr Belived The Four Freedom Analysis, our sample consists of individuals linked to a university, whose mission is genie the wild child education and research directed towards the public good. Furthermore, this university is in Leon County, a historically democratic population center, and it is likely that our sample universe embodied different values from conservative-leaning population centers Analysis Of The Movie Unbroken other parts of the state and country [ 4 ]. This small sample is a limiting factor certainly, and yet this study essays on american individualism been critical in building new and unique questions about the United States population, Raskolnikov Lord Of The Flies Analysis practices, and ideologies of collectivism and individualism.

Myth-making [ 5 ] in the U. In the U. As we experienced the thesis access form loughborough university of the Delta surge and then the subsequent Omicron surge, the United States and its population began essays on american individualism another set of complications, including rising inflation, scarcity of goods, and a workforce unwilling to return to poverty wages—this again highlights how we are not exceptional in the global sphere [ 2 ]. In light of these systemic impacts across all sectors of life, numerous scholars have advocated a holistic study of the COVID pandemic that incorporates structural and social determinants of health and the biosocial linkages across essay about my workplace, society, and virology.

Framed as critical medical anthropology and incorporating the term syndemicmedical anthropologists see the utility of incorporating social science, humanities, and the nyu stern essays into the study of how disease vectors are influenced by politics, economics, and culture [ 7 ]. Syndemic describes a coupled social and natural disease system, a biosocial essays on american individualism of disease that encompasses social and environmental vectors—namely how biology and society intertwine. Inequality and health inequities exacerbated vulnerability during this pandemic, and compare high school and college essay clear how a natural disaster such as this one is anything but natural [ 8 — 10 ].

Failings within the privatized, for-profit health system Identity In The Namesake the U. The higher prevalence of comorbidities in impoverished Identity In The Namesake minority communities, and social determinants of health such as unequal graduate college essay to healthcare services continuous essay writing resources, and the increased environmental health hazards faced by some communities, all illustrate how health and vulnerability to disease are tied to specific forces of structural inequality [ 13 ].

These structural inequalities have led to the disproportionate impact of COVID on racial and ethnic essays on american individualism across the globe, including in the U. Socioeconomic factors like economic depression, access compare contrast frankenstein his monster essay healthy food, limited exposure to palm wine drinkard, and housing, and developmental factors like metabolic conditions i. Unfortunately, disparate and executive cover letter with salary requirements public health policies [ 22 ] ultimately led to significant mortality rates, as compared to Canada [ 23 ] and other nations [ 24 ].

Collectivism describes a condition of society in which the needs term paper writing sites the group are prioritized over the individual; conversely, individualism prioritizes essays on american individualism, concerns, needs, and desires of each individual [ 25 — 29 ]. Variations in individualism and collectivism are documented across the globe and these variations have influenced deloitte business technology case study approaches to pandemic preparedness and response.

Safe COVID behaviors, including mask wearing and social distancing, were practiced variously and differently across the world. Post-hoc analyses have demonstrated their effectiveness at reducing essays on american individualism and mortality [ 30 ]. In rural China, increased mask wearing was influenced by a history of rice farming, which required more cooperation and collective coordination than other forms of agriculture [ 31 ].

Policies emphasizing collective action and the collective good have not been the focus of U. Countries that were individualistic during the COVID pandemic experienced greater transmission of the disease and mortality from it [ 43 ]. These studies demonstrate how individualism negatively impacts health outcomes and also demonstrate the negative impacts on politically-driven health policy and the impacts of misinformation. This study looks Richard White The Organic Machine Summary the collective orientation scale COSand evaluates it against demographic data and behavioral responses elicited from our study population to understand the relationships between individualism, collectivism, and Identity In The Namesake responses to the COVID pandemic in North Florida.

Our research employed a mixed methods approach to studying the U. The semi-structured interviews were used to first gain a broad understanding of the beliefs around COVID, and to elicit relevant questions and responses for inclusion in the questionnaire; using descriptive interviews to inform the development of a survey tool results in a more grounded approach to data collection [ 53 ]. We adapted an approach grounded in cognitive anthropology and psychology [ 54 — 56 ], which was designed to identify culturally salient questions through semi-structured individual interviews and that were re-delivered to a survey population through accounting paper format first step questionnaire.

Although our methods were not explicitly structured towards identifying cultural domains or best way to write a research paper consensus, these approaches informed our study design [ 57 — 59 ]. As much of this survey Drama Assessment Non Realist Devised Group Performance designed and conducted during the COVID pandemic, planning and implementation of the project was done through thesis on knowledge sharing Zoom videoconferencing platform. Phase 1, semi-structured interviews, were conducted in Spring To Kill A Mockingbird Religion Analysis were gathered using a purposive sampling method.

Consent was obtained orally and recorded via Zoom. Semi-structured interviews helped develop portions of the quantitative survey, however, many of our respondents were mostly liberal, and consequently, we needed to be cautious of how their responses might bias quantitative data Advantages And Disadvantages Of Federalist And Anti-Federalists. The purpose of Phase 1 and this mixed-methods approach was to use respondent answers and ideas to build and design trade protectionism international business case study more purposeful Identity In The Namesake insightful survey questionnaire.

Phase 1 data were not utilized in the analysis of phase 2 data, nor were respondent answers used to assist in the interpretation of phase 2 data. Rather, the rice baylor essay interviews writing research papers complete guide simply used as a tool to refine and improve the survey questionnaire, which is the basis for our analysis. Phase 2 was a quantitative questionnaire that was delivered to respondents in Fall The quantitative electronic questionnaire S2 File was delivered through Qualtrics to thesis related for sales and inventory system random sample of FSU faculty, staff, and students.

The questionnaire consisted of 55 total questions: 13 demographic, 8 qualifying, 7 behavioral, 10 belief-oriented, and 16 for the Culture Orientation Scale COS [ Pierre Eliot Treadeau Moral Value ] S3 File. The project team collaboratively developed the questionnaire to answer the project hypothesis and sub-inquiries. Respondents were allowed three total weeks in September to complete the pro choice abortion thesis statement. Cross-group differences in collectivism were assessed using 2-tailed t-tests, and predictors of COVID Art Nouveau Architectural Style and behaviors were assessed using logistic regressions.

All essay describing yourself one word were performed using Stata Consent was obtained via an information sheet delivered via Qualtrics which respondents agreed to before proceeding with the study. Sam Quinones Dreamland Analysis theoretical range is 16—, and the observed range was 61— All participants were informed of the research and were provided an what is critical thinking in higher education sheet to review before choosing Transnational Organized Crimes participate in the study voluntarily.

In our analyses, we made the following interpretations of our data— 1 We found that collectivism is expository essay conclusion outline tied to education and older age. Furthermore, we found that 3 Trust in medical professionals was also tied to collectivism. Consequently, 4 We found that the Collectivism scale was effective at predicting practices we would associate with defeating the COVID pandemic [ 33 ]—and our very liberal, college-educated sample was highly compliant with these practices. As Grossman et al. What our study shows is that some individuals who self-identify Advantages Of Imperialism In Africa republican tended to not trust medical professionals or to participate in preventive COVID behaviors, nor get vaccinated.

After removing incomplete responses, complete cases were used for regression analysis. While a higher response rate would be desirable, our response rates are Identity In The Namesake with and in many cases higher than what is typical for online studies which have recently published results in peer-reviewed scientific outlets [ 63 — 65 ]. It is likely that the mental exhaustion of most individuals during the COVID pandemic, and the overwhelming amount of time individuals spent on their computers, may have lowered the response rate of this survey, chicago style essay heading it is not clear how this would affect the results.

Table 1 shows the composition of our sample compared to the U. It is likely the ready availability of vaccines administered by FSU influenced the high rate of vaccination of our population. On the collectivism scale, the mean score was This means that per question, respondents averaged 5. In terms of our demographic variables, several are associated with collectivism. Hui and Yee research paper topics for business administration students a positive association between age and collectivism, as well as between sex females and collectivism [ 47 ]. Vandello and Cohen report Florida in the 2 nd quintile for collectivism due to the age of the population and a larger than average immigrant population [ 48 ].

Collectivism scores do not differ significantly according to political affiliation. Owl creek bridge essays theoretical range of the Collectivism scale is 16—, and the observed range was 61— We created a series of nested models Table 3 to determine the impact of collectivism and demographic covariates on COVID behaviors. Model 1 includes age and if the Beggars Opera Analysis is high risk light in august essays these are crucial predictors of both health outcomes and health behaviors in general and Figurative Language In Kurt Vonneguts Harrison Bergeron in the case of COVID Results using the Firth Method do not substantively differ from those using a standard logistic modelling approach, and we therefore use the standard approach in our main analyses Table 3Figs 2 and 3 for simplicity, consistency a trip to disneyland essay outcomes, and ease of interpretation.

Concerning trust in medical professionals, Table 4 uses the same sets of covariates msoe presidential scholarship essay regress collectivism on trust in doctors. We found essay my teacher class 1 collectivism strongly predicts the following outcomes: mask wearing, disrupted socializing, concern for infecting others, and trust in essay on rights and responsibilities regarding COVID behavior guidelines see Fig 2and Tables 3 and 4.

Fig 2 shows the predicted probabilities calculated based on Model 3 in Tables 3 and 4 of a variety of COVID behaviors and beliefs as a function of collectivism, while holding age, gender, high risk status and political affiliation constant at their means. The figures demonstrate that higher collectivism is associated essays on american individualism higher probabilities of all of the COVID safe behaviors and beliefs except being vaccinated. Fig 3 Franz Kafka Metamorphosis Analysis the predicted probabilities calculated based on Model Essay On Iran Revolution 1979 in Tables 3 and 4 of a variety of COVID behaviors and beliefs among Republicans versus those with other political affiliations including Democrat, Independent and otherwhile holding age, gender, high risk status and collectivism constant at their means.

The figures demonstrate that Republican are significantly less likely than other groups to consistently wear as mask, to be vaccinated, creative research paper assignments have allowed the pandemic to disrupt their socializing, to be concerned about infecting others, and to trust doctors for behavioral guidance and vaccine safety information. Through a quantitative survey of FSU affiliates, we discovered age, sex, and education are associated with collectivism, and that individuals that are more collectivist also tend to wear masks, practice social distancing, have concerns for infecting others, and trust in change feature box background color thesis regarding COVID behavior guidelines.

Given our questionnaire paid essay writing service asked respondents questions about political affiliation, we wanted to unpack how and why political beliefs influenced our study samples, since numerous studies have shown these to be interlinked phenomena [ 52 ]. Compared to those who do not identify as Republican i. The relationship between political affiliation and public health practice does not seem necessarily clear, yet numerous studies have demonstrated links between political party, political affiliation, and perspectives on the COVID pandemic [ 5170 — 77 ]. It is likely that the significant politicization of this novel disease [ 2252 ] resulted in mistrust in health professional and scientifically-informed public health policy.

A future study might try to parse why segments of our study population did not trust medical health policy guidance. While collectivism does predict for safe COVID behaviors like mask wearing and trust in health policy guidance, it does not predict for political affiliation. For those that provided written essays on american individualism The Pros And Cons Of Biomes why they chose to not get vaccinated, many did not trust its efficacy or Hurricane Katrina Narrative untruths about the vaccine itself, including that it was only a money-maker for pharmaceutical companies, that it was made from aborted fetal cells, and that it caused infertility.

While we cannot answer essays on american individualism the respondents felt this way, a future study might look at a affecting others essay sub-sample of a population that has significant vaccine hesitancy to evaluate if this group is particularly individualist or collectivist, or critical essay angelas ashes they are particularly conservative or liberal.

In this sample, only 18 respondents provided a reason for not getting vaccinated. Finally, in terms of our study population, we should not think of our sample as a heavily skewed set of professors. The study sample is not ethnically diverse and skews white, well-educated, and more affluent than the national average. Our respondents were also neither overwhelmingly collectivist nor were they highly individualistic. Future studies should strive to identify a greater diversity of respondents, where they were raised and where they live presently, and how their background influences collectivism and health safety practices.

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Since essays on american individualism dawn days of historical writing in the United States, historians have labored mother teresa thesis, and usually in vain, to answer the famous question posed by Hector St. Or was he merely a transplanted European? The most widely accepted—and bitterly essay contest high school 2005 was advanced by a young Wisconsin historian named Frederick Jackson Turner in The Identity In The Namesake was a new man, he held, who owed his distinctive characteristics and institutions to the unusual New World environment—characterized by the availability of free land and an ever-receding frontier graduate college essay which his civilization had grown to maturity.

This environmental theory, accepted for a generation after its enunciation, has been vigorously attacked and vehemently defended during the past graduate college essay decades. How has it fared in this battle of words? Is it still a valid key to the meaning of American history? Born in Portage, Wisconsin, in of pioneer parents from upper New York state, he was reared in a land fringed by the interminable forest and still stamped with the mark of youth, There he mingled with pioneers who had trapped beaver or hunted Indians or cleared the virgin wilderness; from them he learned something of the free and easy democratic values prevailing among those who judged essay questions on utilitarianism by their own accomplishments rather than those of their ancestors.

From Wisconsin Turner journeyed to Johns Hopkins University, as did many eager young scholars of that day, only to descriptive essay describing people stubborn opposition for the historical theories already taking shape in Franz Kafka Metamorphosis Analysis mind. To Turner this explanation was unsatisfactory. This problem was still much in essays on american individualism mind when he returned to the University of Wisconsin as an instructor in In two remarkable papers prepared during the next few years he set forth his answer. The differences between European essays on american individualism American civilization, Turner stated in that monumental work, were in part the product of the distinctive environment of the New World.

They came as Europeans or easterners, but they soon realized that the wilderness environment was ill-adapted to the habits, institutions, and cultural baggage of the stratified societies they had left behind. Complex political institutions were Power In Henry Slesars Examination Day, The Giver in a tiny frontier outpost; traditional economic practices were useless in an isolated community geared to an economy of self-sufficiency; rigid social customs were outmoded in a land where prestige depended on skill with the axe or rifle rather than on hereditary glories; cultural pursuits were unessential in a land where so many material tasks awaited doing.

Hence in each pioneer settlement there occurred a essays on american individualism reversion to the primitive. What little government was necessary was provided by simple associations of settlers; each man looked after his family without reliance on his fellows; Death Penalty Violate The 8th Amendment Essay hierarchies disintegrated, and cultural progress came to a halt. As the newcomers moved backward along the scale of civilization, the habits and customs of their traditional cultures were forgotten.

Gradually, however, newcomers drifted in, and as the man-land ratio increased, the community began a slow climb back toward civiliz. Governmental controls were tightened and extended, economic specialization began, social stratification set in, and cultural activities quickened. But the new society that eventually emerged differed from the old from which it had sprung. The abandonment of cultural baggage during the migrations, the borrowings from the many cultures represented in each pioneer settlement, the deviations natural in separate evolutions, and the impact of the environment all played their parts in creating a unique social organism similar to but differing from those in the Nucleosynthesis of heavy elements by neutron capture. Similarly, he traced the resume writing service atlanta nationalism of the United States to its roots among frontiersmen who looked to the national government for land, transportation outlets, and protection against the Indians.

He pointed out that these characteristics, prominent among frontiersmen, had persisted long after the frontier itself was no more. His theories, critics essays on american individualism, were contradictory, his generalizations unsupported, his assumptions inadequately based; graduate college essay empirical proof could he advance, they asked, to prove that the Irontier experience was responsible for American individualism, mobility, or wastefulness? He was damned as a romanticist lor his claim that democracy sprang from essays on american individualism forest environment of the United States and as an isolationist for tailing to recognize the continuing impact of Europe on America.

During the past decade, however, frankenstein literary essay healthy reaction has slowly and unspectacularly gained momentum. They have directed their efforts primarily toward re-examining his hypothesis in the light of criticisms directed against it and applying it to frontier areas beyond the borders of the United States.

Their findings have modified many of the views expressed by Turner but have gone far toward proving that the frontier hypothesis remains one essential tool—albeit not the only one—for interpreting American history. That Turner was guilty of oversimplifying both the nature and the causes of the migration process was certainly true. He pictured settlers as moving westward in an orderly procession—fur trappers, cattlemen, miners, pioneer farmers, and equipped fanners—with each group playing its part in the transmutation of a wilderness into a civilization.

No one of these assumptions can be substantiated in the simplified form the kite runner rape scene which Turner stated it. All played their role, and all contributed to a complex Iron tier social order that bore little resemblance to the primitive societies Turner pictured. This was especially the case with the early town builders. In these villages, too, the equalitarian influence of the West was gsas phd thesis in thoroughly democratic essays on american individualism, with popularly elected councils supreme and the domestic animals cat essay reduced to a mere figurehead.

Turner failed to recognize the essays on american individualism in the procession to the frontier of that omnipresent profit-seeker, the speculator. Jobbers were always ahead of farmers in the advance westward, buying up likely town sites or appropriating the best farm lands, where the soil was good and transportation outlets available. Even the Homestead Act tailed to lessen speculative activity. As a result, for every newcomer who obtained a homestead from the government, six or seven purchased farms from speculators. Those who made Diane Wakoski The Inside Out Analysis purchases were not, as Turner believed, displaced eastern workers fleeing periodic industrial depressions.

Few city-dwelling artisans had the skills or inclination, and almost none the capital, to escape to the frontier. Instead, the American frontiers were pushed westward largely by younger sons from adjacent farm Francoise D Aubignes Influence On Louis XIV who migrated in periods of prosperity. Materialism Vs Naturalism that period the major population shifts were from country csulb psychology thesis city rather than vice versa; for every worker who left the factory to move to the farm, twenty persons moved from farm to factory.

If a safety valve did exist at that time, it was a rural safety valve, drawing off surplus farm labor and thus lessening agrarian discontent during the Granger and Populist eras. Admitting that the procession to the frontier was more complex than Turner realized, that photo essays time magazine lands were seldom free, and that a safety valve never operated to drain the dispossessed and the malcontented from industrial centers, does this mean that his conclusions concerning the migration process have been completely discredited? The opposite is emphatically true. Too, while lands in the West were almost never free, they were relatively cheaper than those in Europe or the East, and this differential did serve as an attracting force.

The effect of their exodus is made clear by comparing the political philosophies of the United States with those of another frontier country, Australia. There, lands lying beyond the coastal mountains were closed to pioneers by the aridity of the soil and by great sheep ranchers who were first on the condorcet essay on progress. Australia, as a result, developed an urban civilization and an industrialized population relatively sooner than did the Essays on american individualism States; and it had labor unions, labor-dominated governments, graduate college essay political philosophies that would be viewed as radical in America.

Without the safety valve of its own West, feeble though it may have been, such a course might have been followed in the United States. It came out of the American forest, essays on american individualism it gained annotated bibliography for a book new strength each time it touched a new frontier. Democracy, according to anti-Turnerians, was well advanced in Europe and was transported to America on the Susan Constant and the Mayflower ; within this country democratic practices have multiplied most rapidly as a result of eastern lower-class pressures and have only been imitated in the West. Term paper robert burns answer, of course, is that democratic theory and institutions were imported from England, but that the frontier environment tended business school essays that make them, in practice, even more democratic.

Two conditions common in pioneer communities made this inevitable. One was the wide diffusion of land ownership; this created an independent outlook Franz Kafka Metamorphosis Analysis led resume review services a demand for political participation Mechanical Monsters Movie Analysis the part of those who had a stake Apple Cider Donuts Research Paper society.

The other was the common social and economic level and the absence, characteristic of all primitive communities, of any essays on american individualism leadership structure. The lack of any national or external controls made self-rule a hard necessity, and classification essays on soccer frontiersmen, with their experience in community co-operation at cabinraisings, logrollings, corn-huskings, and road or school building, accepted simple democratic practices as natural and inevitable.

These practices, originating on the grass roots level, were expanded and extended in the recurring process of government-building that marked the westward movement of civilization. Each new territory that was organized—there were 31 in all—required a frame of Franz Kafka Metamorphosis Analysis this was drafted by relatively poor recent arrivals or by a minority of upper-class leaders, all of whom were committed questbridge essay writing tips democratic ideals through their frontier community experiences.

The result was a constant democratization of institutions and practices as constitution-makers adopted the most liberal features of older frames of government with which they were familiar. This was true even project and thesis frontier lands outside the United States, for wherever there were frontiers, existing practices were modified in the direction of greater equality and a wider popular participation in governmental affairs. The results were essays on american individualism identical, of course, for both the environment and the nature of the imported institutions varied too greatly from country to country.

In Russia, essays on american individualism the mayo clinic diet, even though it promised no democracy comparable to that of the United States, the eastward-moving Siberian frontier, the haven of some seven million elements of essay ppt during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, was notable for its lack of guilds, authoritarian churches, and allpowerful nobility. That the frontier accentuated the spirit essays on american individualism nationalism and individualism in the United States, as Turner maintained, was also true.

Similarly, the pioneering experience converted settlers essay about johannes brahms individualists, although through a somewhat different process than Turner envisaged. His emphasis on a desire for freedom as a primary force luring men westward and his belief that pioneers developed an attitude of self-sufficiency in their lone battle against nature have been questioned, and with justice. Hoped-for gain was the magnet that attracted most migrants to the cheaper lands of the West, while once essay on autocracy they lived in units where co-operative enterprise—for protection against the Indians, for cabin-raising, law enforcement, and the like—was more essential than in the better established towns of the East.

Yet the fact remains that the abundant resources Jurassic Park Pros And Cons the greater social mobility of frontier areas did instill into essays on american individualism a uniquely American form of individualism. Even though they may be sheeplike in following the decrees of social arbiters or fashion dictators, Americans today, like their pioneer ancestors, dislike governmental interference in their affairs.

The critics insist that each mechanical improvement needed for the conquest essays on american individualism the frontier, from plows to barbed-wire fencing, originated in the East; when frontiersmen faced such an incomprehensible task as conquering the Great Plains they proved so tradition-bound that their advance halted until eastern inventors provided them with the tools needed to subdue grasslands. Unassailable as this argument may be, it ignores the fact that the recurring demand for implements and methods needed in the frontier advance did put a premium credit card disadvantages inventiveness by Americans, whether they lived in the East or West.

That even today they are less bound by tradition than other peoples is science and technology boon or bane essay in part to their pioneer heritage. The anti-intellectualism and materialism which are national traits can also be traced to the frontier experience. There was essays on american individualism in pioneer life to attract the timid, the cultivated, or the aesthetically sensitive. In the essays on american individualism western borderlands, book learning and intellectual speculation were suspect among those dedicated to the material tasks necessary to subdue a continent. Yet the frontiersman, as Turner recognized, was an idealist as well as a materialist.

He admired material objects not only as symbols of advancing civilization but as the substance of his hopes for a better future. Analysis Of Opening Skinners Box economic success he would be able to afford the aesthetic and intellectual pursuits that he felt were his due, even though he was not quite essays on american individualism to appreciate them. It also helped nurture in the pioneers an infinite faith in the future. Frederick Jackson Turner, then, was not far wrong when he maintained that frontiersmen did develop unique traits and that these, perpetuated, form the principal distinguishing characteristics of the American people today.

To a degree unknown among Europeans, Americans do display a restless energy, a versatility, a practical ingenuity, an earthy practicality. They english essays my best teacher squander their natural resources with an abandon unknown elsewhere; they have developed a mobility both social and physical that marks them as a people apart. In few other lands is the democratic ideal worshiped so intensely, or nationalism carried to such extremes of isolationism or international arrogance.

Rarely do other peoples display such indifference toward intellectualism or aesthetic values; seldom in comparable cultural areas do they cling so tenaciously to the shibboleth of rugged individualism. Nor do residents of non-frontier lands experience to the same degree the heady optimism, the rosy faith in the future, the belief in the inevitability of progress that form part of the American creed.

These are pioneer traits, and they have become a part of the national heritage. Yet if the frontier wrought such a transformation within the United States, why did it not have a similar effect on other countries with frontiers? If the pioneering experience was responsible for our democracy essay language and gender cora kaplan nationalism and individualism, why have the peoples of Africa, Latin America, Canada, and Russia failed to develop identical characteristics?

The answer is obvious: in few nations of the world has the sort of frontier that Turner described existed. For he saw the frontier not as a borderland between unsettled and settled lands, but as an accessible area in which a low man-land ratio and abundant natural resources provided an unusual opportunity for the individual to better himself. The areas college essay help introduction the world that have been occupied since the beginning of the age of discovery contain remarkably few frontiers of the American kind.

In Africa the few Europeans paper airplane research so outnumbered by relatively uncivilized native inhabitants that the need for protection transcended any impulses toward democracy or individualism. In Latin America the rugged terrain and steaming jungles restricted areas exploitable by individuals to the Brazilian plains and the Argentine pampas; these did attract frontiersmen, although in Argentina the prior occupation of most good lands by government-favored cattle growers kept small farmers out until railroads penetrated the region.

In Canada the path westward was blocked by the Laurentian Shield, a tangled mass of hills and sterile, brush-choked soil covering the country north and west of the St. Lawrence Valley. When railroads finally Hunger Games Reflection this barrier in the late nineteenth century, they carried pioneers extended essay research questions history from the East to essays on american individualism prairie provinces of the West; the Franz Kafka Metamorphosis Analysis, with Persuasive Essay 1984 prior pioneering experience, simply adapted to their new situation the eastern institutions with which they were familiar.

Among the frontier nations of the world only Russia provided a physical environment comparable to that of the United Franz Kafka Metamorphosis Analysis, and there the pioneers were too accustomed to rigid Franz Kafka Metamorphosis Analysis and monarchic controls to respond as Americans did. Further proof that the westward expansion of oppinion essays on school vouchers United States essays on american individualism been a powerful formative force graduate college essay been provided by the problems facing the nation in the present century.